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Full text of "A comparative study of the Bantu and semi-Bantu languages"




CSfotnell Itiiograita SIthrarg 



JItljata, Jfem ^ark 



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Cornell University Library 
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Comparative study of ttie Bantu and semi- 




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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924026932875 



A COMPARATIVE STUDY 

OF THE 

BANTU AND SEMI-BANTU LANGUAGES 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK 

TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY 

HUMPHREY MILFORD 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE 

BANTU AND SEMI-BANTU 

LANGUAGES 



BY 



SIR HARRY H. JOHNSTON 

G.C.M.G., K.C.B., D.Sc. (Canibs.) 



OXFORD 
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1919 



PREFACE 

This work on the Bantu and Semi-Bantu languages, of which the first volume is 
now pubhshed, was commenced about seven years ago, in pursuance of a plan determined 
—as related in the text — very much earlier in my life. It was already beginning to be 
printed in 1914, when the War broke out. The effect of the War on the Clarendon 
Press, as on most other printing establishments, was greatly to delay the setting up in 
type ; at the same time, the indirect results of the War increased the material at my dis- 
posal and constrained me to write a longer and more comprehensive work than that 
which had been originally contemplated : for the campaigns in Africa took place for the 
most part in countries containing Bantu and Semi-Bantu languages, with the result that 
many vocabularies were supplied, and thus some languages were brought to light that 
were previously unknown. 

It has been thought best to publish the first portion of this work on its completion. 
The second part, an analysis and comparison of the phonology and word-roots, and 
a comparative examination of the syntax of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu languages, 
together with the conclusions to be derived from this evidence, is also finished ; but its 
printing and publication must await some relaxation in the present stress. 

The work has grown to such dimensions that I have to economize space and paper 
as much as possible. Therefore I must ask to be excused from tendering in detail my 
thanks and obligations to my numerous helpers, both living and dead. In a way, this 
acknowledgement is achieved by the very full Bibliography at the end of this volume, 
and I trust in that not to have omitted the name of any contributor of information. Of 
the personages in the past whose work has prompted this comparative study of two 
related language families of Western and Central Africa, there are five whom I should 
like specially to mention in a dedicatory sense : the Rev. Sigismund Koelle, the Agent 
of the Church of England Missionary Society, who composed the famous Polyglotta 
Africana and other studies of African languages at Sierra Leone between 1848 and 1854 ; 
Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek, the Librarian of the Grey Library at Capetown, the 
real originator of Bantu studies ; Edward Steere, Bishop of Zanzibar, and author of many 
works on the East African Bantu ; the Rev. W. H. Stapleton, of the Baptist Missionary 
Society on the Congo ; and A. C. Madan, M.A., Student of Christ Church, Oxford, who 
has done so much to increase our knowledge of the East and South-central Bantu 
languages and of the Bantu syntax in general. It was mainly due to Mr. Madan's 



VI PREFACE 

intercession that the present work finally took shape and achieved publication ; and 
I have deeply regretted the fact that he has died (August 1917) before he could see 
it in a completed form. 

I also desire to tender my thanks to the British South Africa Company, Chartered 
and Limited, for the efforts made by its London Direction and its employes in South- 
central Africa to record hitherto quite unknown languages for the purpose of this book ; 
and to the French Government and His Majesty's former Ambassador in Paris, Viscount 
Bertie of Thame, for the facilities accorded to me in 1915 to visit the camps and hospitals of 
the ' Senegalese ' soldiers in France. This assemblage of negroes from all parts of French 
West and West-central Africa was a singularly fortunate circumstance, inasmuch as it 
enabled me not only to get an increased acquaintance with the Semi-Bantu languages, 
but at the same time to check the accuracy of Sigismund Koelle's invaluable vocabularies 
which were transcribed sixty to seventy years ago at Sien-a Leone, from freed slaves 
arriving there from all parts of West and Central Africa. 

I hope circumstances may permit of this study of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu 
languages being published in its entirety while lam still able to correct the proofs, and 
while most of my numerous helpers are alive to appreciate the results of their collaboration. 

H. H. JOHNSTON. 

Poling, 

April 1 91 9. 



LIST OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

PAGE 

A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO THE BANTU LANGUAGES . ' . i 

CHAPTER H 

THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES . 15 

CHAPTER HI 

ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF 366 BANTU AND 87 SEMI-BANTU LAN- 
GUAGES AND DIALECTS 39 

The Bantu Languages: 

Group A. The Nyanza Languages . . ........ 45 

B. The Wunyamwezi Languages . . ..... . . 86 

C. The British East Africa Languages .... 98 

D, E, The Kilimanjarco and Usambara Languages . ... 113 

F. The Zafigian Languages ....... . . . 129 

G. The Usagara-UgMgco Languages ........ . 141 

H, I. The Upper Rufiji and Lower Rufiji-Ruvuma Languages . . . . 154 

I {cont.), J, K. The Lower Rufiji-Ruvuma, North Ruvuma-North-east Nyasaland, and 

Ukinga Languages . • 169 

L. The Tanganyika-Bafigweulu Languages . . . . . . . ■ .184 

M. The North-west Nyasa Languages ■ • • 208 

N, O. The Yaco-Ngindco and Mogambique Languages ... . . . 221 

P. The South Nyasaland Languages ■ • 236 

P {cont.), O. The South Nyasaland and Southern Rhodesia-Pungwe-Sabi Languages . 252 

O (cont.), R. The Southern Rhodesia-Pufigwe-Sabi and ^eiigwe-Ronga Languages . 268 

R {cont.), S. The ^efigwe-Ronga and Becuana-Transvaal Languages . . . 281 

S {cont.), T. The Becuana-Transvaal and Zulu-Kafir Languages . ... 298 

U, V. The West Central Zambezia and Western Zambezia Languages . . . . 318 

V {cont.), W. The Western Zambezia and North-vi'est Zambezia Languages . . 333 

X. The South-west Africa Languages . . 350 

Y. The Angola Languages 366 

Z. The Kong(o or Westernmost Congoland Languages ...... 378 

AA. The South Congoland or Luba-Lunda Languages . . . . 394 

AA (fwz/.), BB. The South Congoland and Upper Kwangco Languages . . .411 

BB {cofit.), CC. The Upper Kwangco and Kwangco-Kasai Languages . . 427 

CC {cont.), DD. The Kwaiigco-Kasai and Central Congoland (Luafige-Lcomami) Languages 439 

HH {cont.), The Central Congoland (Luange-Lcomami) Languages . ... 451 

DD {cont.). Sub-group DD i. The Central Congoland and Manyema Languages . . 462 



viii LIST OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

DD I {cont.), EE, FF. The Manyema, Middle Lcomami, and Elila-Ltovva-Lualaba (Bulega) 

Languages 473 

FF {cont.), GG, HH. The Elila-Lowa-Lualaba, Ruwenzori-Semliki, and Upper Ituri 

• Languages .............. 4^4 

HH (c(7«/.), n. The Upper Ituri and VVele-Aruwimi (Ababua) Languages . . . 496 

JJ. The Aruwimi-Lcomami Languages • • • S°9 

JJ (cont.), KK. The Aruwimi-Ltomami and North Central Congoland Languages (Sub- 
groups KK i, KK 2) 520 

KK{cont.). North Central Congoland Languages (Sub-group KK 3) . . • • 533 

KK (<:£>«/.). North Central Congoland Languages (Sub-group KK 4) . . . ■ 546 

LL. The Kwa-Kasai-Upper OOgtowe (Teke) Languages 553 

LL [cont.), MM. The Kwa-Kasai-Upper OOgcowe (Teke) and Central OOgcowe Languages 565 
MM (<;<7;z^.), NN. The Central OOgcowe and OOgcowe-Gaboon Languages . . . -578 
NN (coni.), 00. The OOgoiwe-Gaboon (Mpong^ve) and Spanish Guinea-West Cameroons 

Languages 5^9 

00 {cont.). The Spanish Guinea-West Cameroons Languages (Sub-groups 00 I, OO 2, 

00 3, 00 4) 604 

00 {cont.). The Spanish Guinea- West Cameroons Languages (Sub-group OO 4 {conL), 

OO5) . . . . 618 

00 {cont.), PP, 00. The Spanish Guinea-West Cameroons (Sub-group OO 6), Manen- 

guba, and Middle Sanaga Lang^iages ' 630 

R R, SS. The Paiiwe or ' Fang ' and Kadei-Sanga-Lcobai Languages .... 642 
SS {cont.), TT. The Kadei-Lcobai (Upper Sanga) Languages and the Fernandian 

Language and Dialects 655 

The Sesii-Bantu Languages : 

A. The Cameroons-Cross River Languages (Sub-group A i) .... 672 

A {cont.). The Cameroons-Cross River Languages (Sub-group A i {cont.), Sub-group A 2) 698 

B-G The Northern Cross River Basin, Benue, Baud Languages 716 

H, I, J. The Central Nigerian, South-west Tcogtoland, and South Sierra Leone Languages 732 

K, L, M, N. The South Guinea, Nalu, North Guinea, and Upper Gambia Languages . 750 

CHAPTER IV 

SUPPLEMENTARY ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO THE FOREGOING 

VOCABULARIES . 773 

CHAPTER V 
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE BANTU AND SEMI-BANTU LANGUAGES . . .785 

MAPS 

SKETCH MAP OF BANTU AND SEMI-BANTU AREAS 818 

KEY-MAP GIVING NAMES 819 



ERRATA ET ADDENDA 

The printing of the first portions of this work began in 1914, and the correction of the proofs was 
somewhat interfered with by the author's absence in America, and later on in France. A few errors, 
therefore, escaped his notice in the eariier chapters till after the printing-off had taken place ; or some- 
times words or phrases became erroneous on the receipt of further information from Africa. 

Also, during the printing of this book, much new material has been received, dealing more especially 
with the Konjco (No. i) and other Nyanza tongues ; withTaita (14), Nika (16), Caga Dialects (17-176), 
^ambala (19), Zig^ula (20), Swahili (21-21 g), Peogorco (28), Kidonde or Kimawanda (33 a), North 
Ifgindco (55n), Makua (56), North Kuanyama or Humbe (91a), Kuvale (92 b), ODlundombe (93), 
Sumbi (94b), Songco (97), Minungco (112a), Hcolco (113), Mpama (167), Batende (l68a), and 
Kiwumbu (177). 

It has been thought more convenient to give the mass of the addenda and corrections at the end of 
the Vocabularies, the greater part of which were in print before this additional information was received ; 
and only to insert in the preliminary pages a correction of the errata in the earlier work. But readers 
specially interested in the languages above cited are advised in studying them not only to take note of 
the correction of errata here given, but of the additional information at the end of the book ; and students 
who wish to have before their eyes, without turning 'to the beginning or end of the volume, as complete 
a conspectus of the Bantu languages as can be produced at the present time, might insert with the pen 
the additions to and corrections of the Vocabularies in the apJ)ropriate places. 



On pages 3, 5, 6, 13, and 14, and wherever else the word occurs, for ' pcosa ' read ' posa '. 

On page 7, and wherever else it occurs, for ' Herero' read ' Herero) '. 

At the bottom of page 14 should be added this sentence : ' and of the Semi-Bantu of Senegambia and 
Nigeria'. 

In the foot-note to page 16 a hyphen is missing in ' Tatoga-und-Irakuleute' . 

On page 17, in line 5, insert the word ' one ' after ' differing '. 

On page 19, line 20, 'preprefix' must be substituted for 'prefix'. In line 34, instead of ' Class 6, 
its plural ', substitute : ' Class 6, apart from being the plural of Class 5 '. In line 37, instead of ' Classes 
9 and 10 were ', read ' Classes 9 and 10 are'. In line 39, instead of 'Classes 12 and 13 were ', read 
' Classes 12 and 13 are ', and instead of ' Class 13 (Ka-) could ', read ' Class 13 (Ka-) can '. In line 40, 
after ' Class 14 (Bu-) ', change 'was' to 'is'; and in line 41, 'Class ij was' should read 'Class 15 
(Ku-) is '. 

On page 20, in line i, the words ' but was ' should read ' but is '. In line 2, ' Class 16 represented ' 
should be ' Class 16 represents ' ; in line 3, change ' had ' and ' meant ' to ' has' and ' means ' ; in line 4, 
change ' existed, were ' into ' exist, are '. In line 5, for the word ' certainly ' read ' first quinary and then '. 
In line 17, after 'No changes', insert the words 'in sense '. In hne 19, after 'prepositions, and ', insert 
the word ' perhaps '. 

On page 22, line 5, instead of the words ' The Fula', read ' The Semi-Bantu, the Fula ', and in line 6, 
after ' Wolof ', strike out the following words, ' the Temne '. In the footnote, line 7, strike out ' Temne ', 
and after ' Bantu ' insert ' Semi-Bantu '. At the end of line 9, instead of ' Sudanese ' read ' Sudanic '. 

On page 25, in line 3, after 'fusion ' insert the words ' some of. 

On page 26, line 4, instead of ' akin ' read ' related '. 



X ERRATA ET ADDENDA 

On page 27, in line 4, for ' dates ' read ' date '. At the end of line 14, instead of ' And here ' read 
' And hence '. In line 25, instead of ' Africa has been a long process in unwritten history and cannot be 
compressed, &c. ', read • Africa has not been a long process in unwritten history and can be compressed, 
&c. '. 

On page 29, at the end of line 5, the letter a should be deleted from ' defecations ', which word should 
read ' defections ' In line 33, instead of ' Bantu languages which ' read ' Bantu languages that '. 

On page 30, in line 8, the first two equivalents of ' hair ' should be rendered -wale, -wili, and not 
•bale, -bill. In line 17, among the word-roots for 'blood ' should be inserted -kila (after -rupa). 

On page 31a table is given of the original 19 prefixes of the Bantu languages. It should be premised 
that this is the full list of prefixes with concord particles or answering pronouns. But in addition there 
are now known to be five or more other prefixes — locatives, or indicative of sex or honorability. These, 
however, are withoict concords. 

On page 32, line 4, ' m- before a nasal' should read ' m- before a labial '. 

On page 36, in line 9, the simple vowel system of Old Bantu should read :" ' — o, a, e, I, u, and 
perhaps Q> — '. 

On page 39, in the Title of Chapter III, the number of Bantu languages and dialects should be 
enlarged from ' 276 ' to ' 366 ' ; and of Semi-Bantu languages and dialects from ' 24 ' to ' 87 '. Similarly, 
on page 42, in the last paragraph but one and in the footnote, the figures 276 (total number of Bantu and 
Semi-Bantu languages and dialects) should be changed to '366, of which about 360 are illustrated '. 

On page 43, n the list of Bantu language Groups, P should stand for ' THE SOUTH NYASA- 
LAND LANGUAGES', Q for 'THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA-PUNGWE-SABI LANGUAGES', 
and R for 'THE ^ENGWE-RONGA LANGUAGES'. 

On page 44, 2nd paragraph, the Groups of the Semi-Bantu Languages should be rendered thus : 
Group A. (S-B.). The Cameroons-Cross River Languages. 

B. (S-B.). The Northern Cross River Basin Languages. 

C. (S-B.). The South-west Benue Languages. 

D. (S-B.). The Southern Benue Languages. 

E. (S-B.). The Central Benue Languages. 

F. (S-B.). The South-west Bauci Languages. 

G. (S-B.). The Central Bauci Languages. 

H. (S-B.). The Kaduna Basin (Central Nigeria) Languages. 
I. (S-B.). The Twgcoland Languages. 
J. (S-B.). The Southern Sierra Leone Languages. 
K. (S-B.). The South Guinea Languages. 
L. (S-B.). The Nalu Language. 
M. (S-B.). The North Guinea Languages. 
N. (S-B.). The Upper Gambia Language. 
Page 85. In the prefixes, &c., of Lu-Masaba and Lu-konde, among the forms of the 5th prefix Ki- 
is erroneously given. It should read Ri-. 

Page 100, col. 16, the root for ' Ear ' should read Sikirco. 

Page 100, cols. 14, 15, 16, opp. ' Fire ', render the words Modco, Mco-tw, M(i>hco as JVI-odco, M-otco, 
and M-ohto. 

Page loi, col. 12, opp. 'Frog ', for C-ua read Cua. 
Page loi, col. 14, opp. ' Foot', for Su-aiyo read Lu-aiyo. 
Page 105, col. 16, opp. ' Thorn ', for D-zala-g-umba read Dzala-gumba. 
Page 106, col. 13, opp. 'Wood', the root should be spelt -kuni, -khuni, not -kumi, -khumi. 
Page no, col. 14, opp. ' Inside ', for -a n-danji read -a n-denyi. 

Page 113. The alternative name of the principal Caga dialect should be Mco^i, not Musi. 
Page 114, col. 20, opp. 'Bull', for N-jaka read N-jeku. 

(Page 140. The concords of the 4th Class of prefixes in Swahili and Swahili dialects should be stated 
as mi-, -ni, -i-), not (m-, mu-, i-). 

Page 153, last paragraph, for ' Lake Manyasa' read 'Lake Manyara'. 

Page 198, col. 17. The word Ily-enza should be opposite ' Egg' and not ' Ear '. 

Page 228, col. 54. opp. ' Stone '. for Li-gofiga read Li-ganga. 



ERRATA ET ADDENDA xi 

Page 231, col. 54, opp. ' This, these ', the demonstrative of the i6th Class should read Apa, not OOpa 
Page 237, col. 61 a, opp. ' Cloth ', for N-garu read N-saru. 
Page 315, col. 76, opp. 'Sit, remain, &c. ', instead of -plaza read -slara. 

Page 350. The beginning of 4th footnote should run : ' This language in different dialects is, &r'c.\ 
Page 353, col. 92, opp. ' Fear ', for (jOn-uma read OL)u-coma. 

Page 355. In the English column, ' Man, vir.' is missing opp. to Oimu-rumendii. 
Page 359. The word for ' Nine ' in col. 94 is perhaps better spelt E-cia, E-cieha ; and for ' Hundred ' 
(O-cita. In col. 92 the roots for ' Hundred ' may be -tyita and Cita, instead of -ta. 

Page 365. The last paragraph should read : ' 94. Umbundu is spoken in the Benguela and Bai- 
lundco districts of southern Angola, north of 14° 30' South latitude, south of the Kuvto river, and of 1 1° 30' 
South latitude; and west of the Upper Kwanza river.' 

Page 377. The definition of the area of the Kisama language (95) should be limited on the south by 
the Kuvco river. 

Page 410. Last paragraph, the close of the definition of the area of 108-108 a should read, ' West ot 
the Upper Lcomami, south of the Lubefu, and east of the Sankuru '. 

Page 553. In list of titles for ' 177. Ki-wurabeo' read ' 177. Ki-wumbu ', and Ki-wumbu likewise 
on page 564. 

Page 606, col. 204, opp. ' Fire ', the figure ^ which refers to the footnote should be removed from 
li-didi and placed after 'a //re', which concludes the sentence in brackets. And in the answering foot- 
note ' Mote-mote ' the two vowels o should be stressed o. 

Page 675, opp. ' Child', cols. 230-231, after Ma-nku insert Mu-pie (231). 

Page 690, col. 230, 231, opp: ' Nine', the whole passage of equivalents for ' Nine' should be rendered 
thus : 

Li-vojeo. 

Bcoco (230 b, 230 g). 
Sipo (230 i). 
Vua. 

pibco (230 c)- 
M-bu, PfciKO (230J). 
Bo, Beeo (230 d). 
I-fi(23of). 
Ve, Be, Bemi. 

Tsianucd (231). • 

Page 696, seventh line from bottom, at the end of line an 'a' should follow ' indicate '. 
Page 698, in the hst of languages, the line beginning ' (238. Olultomto. See Appendix, &c.' should 
read ' (238. Olulcomo). 238 a. Ikom. See Appendix) '. 

Page 705, col. 244, opp. ' Thigh ', U-nau should be corrected to U-nau. 

Page 715, third line from bottom, ' Kwco-Ibto ' river should be spelt ' Kwo-Ibuo '. 



Page 5, thirteenth line from bottom of last paragraph, for ' Lewis Grant's ' read ' Lewis Grout's '. 

Page 6, tenth line from bottom of last paragraph, for ' Ba-yeiyi ' read ' Ba-yeiye '. 

Page 7, fifteenth line from top, for -ti read -li. 

Page 10, fifteenth line from top, for 'Sudanese' read 'Sudanic', and tenth line from bottom, for 
' C. Hermann ' read ' C. Herrmann '. 

Page II, fourteenth line from top, after ' Lutheran ' insert ' pastor and '. 

Page 12, twenty-first line from top, for ' Dr. Eduard Sachau ' read ' P. Hendle ' ; and on p. 791, par. 
28, instead of ' Prof. ' insert ' P. Hendle, edited by '. 

Page 29, one line from bottom, for ' two hundred and seventy-six ' read ' three hundred and sixty-six '. 

Page 33, three lines from top, for ' consonantal ' read ' substantival '. 

Page 37, eight lines from top, after 'twenty-six' insert 'main '. 

Page 378, and again on page 803. In the summary of titles at the commencement of the Vocahiu- 
laries on p 378, and again in the bibliography on p. 803, Ki-yombe or Ci-luangco should be numbered 
102, Ki-vili or Ki-vumbu or Lu-wumbu (N.Luangco) 103, and Ki-Iumboj of Ma.ywnba, 103 a, conform- 
ably with the Vocabularies. 

Page 792, par. 33, delete 'preliminary Corrigenda et' 

Page 798. In the paragraph numbered 76, the name ' Elmsley ' should be spelt ' Elmslie '. 

Page 815, twelfth line from bottom, for ' Sengalese ' read ' Senegalese ' 

Sep/. 1919, face p. x. 



CHAPTER I 

A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO THE BANTU LANGUAGES 

Outside the range of the Semitic and Hamitic families of languages, as represented by Arabic 
and Amharic, the first types of African speech to attract the attention of Europeans and to be 
written down by them were members of the widespread BANTU group ; an association of tongues 
as closely interrelated as clear-cut and unmistakable in their peculiar characteristics as the Aryan, 
the Semitic, or the Malay families of speech. The Bantu languages of the central prolongation of 
Africa were of course totally unknown to the Graeco-Roman civilization of the Mediterranean, the 
cultured minds of which may just have been able to perceive (if they collected and collated the 
evidence of travellers) that beside the recognized types of Hamitic and Semitic languages of north 
and north-east Africa there were the tongues of the Nilotic negroes, of the Nubians, of the Tibu 
(Garamantes), and of the Fula and Wolof negroids on the Atlantic coast of the Sahara and along 
the banks of the Senegal river. And although we may assume on fairly sufficient evidence that 
the Arabian trading-cities of the Yaman and Hadramaut coasts had founded depots for commerce on 
the Equatorial East African littoral as early as the commencement of the Christian Era (if not 
before), and had likewise got into touch with the north end of Madagascar and theKomoroo Islands, 
it is more probable that in those days— eighteen hundred to two thousand years ago — there were no 
Bantu-speaking negroes on the east coast of Africa. Consequently, though the merchants of south- 
west Arabia, who acted as important intermediaries in the Indian trade with the Roman Empire in 
Egypt, may have conveyed slaves from the Zafigian coasts and islands to Egyptian slave-markets, it 
is doubtful whether these brought with them any Bantu syllables into the medley of tongues talked 
in the Mediterranean basin. 

But not long after Arab and Bantu first -met on the east and south-east littoral of Africa there 
seems to have been a greater fusion of interests between them than between Arab and Kushite 
(Gala and Somali). The Arabs took up the stock language of the Zafigian group somewhere on the 
coast between the Pangani or Rufu river and the Ruvuma and turned it into the Swahili tongue of 
commerce that we know so well at the present day— the easiest and most widely spread of the 
Bantu languages. 

When the Portuguese rounded Cape Verde and reached the mouth of the Congo during the 
second half of the fifteenth century, they nowhere found a native language (excepting, of course, 
North African Arabic) sufficiently easy of pronunciation or simple in structure to be used as 
a medium of instruction and intercommunication, until they reached Bantu Africa. Their 
missionaries soon began to learn Kipi-kongaj and a little later the Mbundu speech of Angola. Kipi- 
korigco words are given in Pigafetta's description of the Portuguese Congo explorations published in 
1591. Kipi-koiigci) was committed to writing and to print (in the form of a treatise on Christian 
doctrine) as early as 1624 by a Jesuit (Portuguese) missionary ; and a Grammar (see Bibliography 
in Chapter IV) by an Itahan missionary was published at Rome in 1659. Kimbundu of Arigola was 



2 A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO 

illustrated by Italian missionaries in 1642 and 1661 ; and a Grammar of Kimbundu (by Diaz) was 
printed at Lisbon in 1697. A study of Luango) and KakoiigM was carried out in the eighteenth 
century by French missionaries, such as the Abbe Proyart. 

As early as 1505, but chiefly between the middle of the sixteenth century and 1760, Portuguese 
soldier-explorers and missionaries put into their writings numerous phrases of two East African 
Bantu tongues: Karafia {' Mocaranga ') and Swahili. The amount of the first-named language 
which can be gleaned from these early records of Portuguese expeditions in Zambezia and on the 
Scofala coast is considerable, and has been conveniently collected for me by Mr. R. W. Hall, the 
Warden of Zimbabwe. Though carelessly transcribed by these sixteenth-century Portuguese, with 
little regard for grammar or plural prefixes, it is nevertheless easily recognized as Karafia and as 
easily translated. It shows such comparatively little diiference from the same tongue spoken to-day 
after an interval of between four hundred and one hundred and fifty years that we should be puzzled 
to account for the rapid formation and divergence of the two hundred and twenty-six distinct 
Bantu languages of present times ; did we not remember that the Romance languages were not in 
existence in the fourth century of the Christian Era, yet were evolved with all their characteristic 
features by the twelfth century ; and that the French and Italian of three hundred and fifty years 
ago are not more dissimilar from the speech of to-day than is the tongue of the Rhodesian Mafuna 
from the 'Mocaranga' of Monomotapa recorded by the Portuguese sixteenth-century pioneers. 

A short list of words of the Komorco Islands Swahili — the dialect of Mcohila — was written down 
as early as 1626 by Thomas Herbert, an English traveller who voyaged in that year round the Cape 
of Good Hope to Aden and thence to India, whence he returned overland through Persia, Caucasia, 
and Russia.^ In the eighteenth century the Portuguese traders and officials on the Lower Zambezi 
took up the language of Sena and made it a kind of lingua franca in eastern Zambezia under the 
name of Chicunda ' [This Cikunda speech was the first Bantu language learnt by the English and 
Scottish missionaries who followed Livingstone, and a short manual of it was printed by the 
Rev. Dr. Robert Laws in 1879 or 1880.] As early as the seventeenth century, the Portuguese, with 
Kimbundu and Kipi-kofigco on their Atlantic coast possessions, Cikunda on the Lower Zambezi, the 
speech of Tete (Cinyungwe) on the Zambezi of the Cataracts, and the Citofiga learnt by the Jesuit 
missionaries on the Middle Zambezi, had realized the truth about the wide range of the Bantu 
languages. In the eighteenth century they repeatedly referred in their writings to the similarity of 
speech between Angola and Mozambique. 

The Dutch explorers, following in the footsteps of the Portuguese along the West African coast, 
also began to interest themselves in these harmonious, easily pronounced Bantu languages. Barbot, 
who wrote his Description of Guinea about 1682 (English translation first published in 1732), gave 
short vocabularies of Kipi-kofigco and of a dialect of north-west Cameroons, probably Barundo).^ 
Barbot was a Frenchman in the service of the French Royal Company of Africa, but he seems to 
have derived much of his information east of Senegal from the Dutch. In the latter half of the 
eighteenth century— the period of Cook, of La Perouse, of James Bruce — greater curiosity than ever 
before was evinced as to the languages of non-European peoples. The Dutch occupation of Cape 
Colony had attracted to South Africa a number of explorers— French, German, and Scottish. The 
strange Hottentot speech had already been transcribed to some extent by Wilson in 1691, and 
between 1705 and 1713 by Pieter Kolben, the industrious and intelhgent Prussian explorer of South 

1 These words of the ' Mohella ' language recorded by Thomas Herbert do not seem to be met with in 
the first (1634) edition of his travels. They were presumably collected in 1626, but were not inserted 
into his book until the 1677 edition was produced. He does not give a ' vocabulary ', as stated by 
R. N. Cast {Modern Langicages of Africa), but a few words, such as Coquo (fowl), Giimbey (ox), Mage 
(water), Sinzano (needle), and Buze (goat). 

^ As regards the words of Barundco said to have been collected by Barbot, I quote from Astley's 
Voyages and Travels, published in 1746. They are the first five numerals : Mo ; Ba ; Malela; Melei; 
Matau ; and are attributed to the ' land of Ambozes ' (Ambas Bay). 



THE BANTU LANGUAGES 3 

Africa. But the Dutch had been slow in coming into contact with the Bantu peoples of South Africa. 
To the tribes of stalwart, naked Bantu negroes dwelling on the south and south-east coasts they had 
given the name of 'Caifer', copying in this the Portuguese who had picked up ' Cafre ' from the 
Arabic Kafir (a heathen). Beyond Hottentot- and Bushman-land, in the centre of southernmost 
Africa, the Dutch began (about 1779) to be aware that there existed a ' nation ' of tall black negroes 
whom they called 'Beetjuaan ' by some corruption of an unidentified native word which has since been 
perpetuated as ' Bechuana '. It was made evident by about 1806 that neither ' Beetjuaan ' nor ' Caffer ' 
spoke anything like Hottentot or Bushman ; and equally clear that many of the Dutch slaves from 
Mozambique, Scofala, or Angola could make themselves understood by these tall negroes beyond 
the Great Fish river or north of the Orange. In 1772 an unnamed French missionary compiled 
a KakongM-French dictionary, and in 1776 the first vocabulary of pcosa (Kafir) was printed, in the 
work of Andrew Sparrman, a Swede. In 1804 the Portuguese Cannecattim published his Angola 
Dictionary. In 1809 Henry Salt, a pioneer diplornatist of the British Government in East Africa, 
wrote down vocabularies of Makua, of some Yaco dialect, and of Swahili.' 

In 1808 the notable German traveller, Heinrich Lichtenstein, had grasped and expressed the 
idea (in a Berlin scientific periodical) that all the southern prolongation of Africa, from the Congo coast 
on the north-west, to the Equator on the north-east, was probably the domain of but one language 
family— excepting of course the narrow band of Hottentot-Bushman speech from Cape St. Francis 
to Cape Frio. [Lichtenstein's Travels in Southern Africa in 1803-6, were published in their English 
translation in 1812-15.] The pioneer missionaries of South Africa soon confirmed this theory by 
their practical studies, and there were always at hand in those days slaves from the Portuguese 
East and West African possessions and from Zanzibar to confirm the idea by contributing 
specimens of their more northern forms of Bantu. A vocabulary of the Makua language of Mofara- 
bique was, for purposes of comparison, written down from the dictation of a negro slave in Sumatra 
by William Marsden, the Orientalist, somewhere about 1778. He himself was an authority on the 
Malay language, but he became interested in African philology, and handed his Makua vocabulary 
to the scientific members of Captain Tuckey's staff who accompanied that officer in 1816 in the 
attempt to explore the Congo from its mouth up stream. These men went there with the 
Bantu theory in their minds, though the comprehensive word ' Bantu ' was not then suggested. 
They refer to the existence of this one great family across the southern third of the continent in 
their contributions to the Narrative of an Expedition to explore the River Zaire (Report on the Tuckey 
Expedition) published in 1818. 

Adrien Balbi, in his Atlas ethnographique du Globe, printed at Paris in 1826, precognized the 
existence of one great language family over all Africa south of the Equator (exception being taken 
for Hottentots and Bushmen). He based this theory on the observations of Moritz Rugendas, 
a Bavarian artist who had travelled through eastern Brazil in the early nineteenth century and 
had taken down descriptions of West Africa and scraps of speech from negro slaves.^ Douville, 

' Henry Salt was sent to convey presents to the Kings of Shoa and Abyssinia in 1809, to detach 
Ethiopia as much as possible from French intrigues against Egypt. On his way toSomaliland round the 
Cape of Good Hope, he stopped at Mozambique and there wrote down short vocabularies of ' Makooa ' 
(easily recognizable as Imakua) and ' Monjow ' (a jargon seeming like a mixture of Yaco, Gindto, and 
Northern Makua (Medco)). His words of 'Monjow' (re-spelt phonetically) are as follows : Moolungod 
(God) ; Dyuva, (sun) ; Mtiezi (moon) ; Tooimduwa (stars) ; Miize (earth) ; Matumbi (mountain) ; Mere 
(tree) ; Aumba, . . . ? Numba (house) ; EtaU (road) ; Meze (water) ; Stnnba (fish) ; Niyati (ox, evidently 
buffalo) ; Ligubiwe (pig) ; Umpooa (dog) ; Iteptc (elephant or ivory) ; Ny&ma. (flesh) ; Nune (bird) ; 
Eyunda (pigeon) ; Mulodpwana (man) ; Ateate (father) ; Alumbcd (brother) ; Bu) (sister) ; Manace 
(boy) ; Mutwe (head) ; Hiimpu> (hair) ; MaktUwe (ears) ; Univa (mouth) ; Ahgonda (war) ; Okuazi 
(a bow) ; Impamba (arrows) ; IJpongCt) (spear) ; Uti (gun) ; fete (salt) ; Jifanje (white) ; Ya-kuswera 
(red) ; -angu (my). For a description of Salt's Swahili (' Sowauli', 'Sowaiel '), see the Bibliography of 
Chapter IV. 

''■ The results of his observations are said to have been published in or concurrently with his Voyage 
pittoresqiie ei descriptif^ au Bj'hil, ? 1824, but I cannot trace them. Rugendas dealt with the languages 
of Afigola and Mozambique. 



4 A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO 

a French traveller in Angola (probably in the interests of the slave trade) who much later became 
a secretary of the Paris Geographical Society, pubhshed a book on the Congo and Aiigola in 1832; 
and although his records of Bantu languages are very jumbled and full of inaccuracies, still they are 
not as apocryphal as they were afterwards esteemed. Douville not only mentions some of the 
principal language groups in Angola and the western Congo, but realizes through Portuguese 
information the importance of the Luba family beyond. 

In the 'forties of the nineteenth century great progress was made in Bantu studies. The 
(English) Baptist Mission had been established in Fernando P6, and John Clarke, one of its 
missionaries, had already put down on paper information regarding the Fernandian or Bube 
language. He also published specimens of 209 African dialects, taken down from the slaves who 
were landed at the Admiralty depot at Fernando Po. Although there were very few words of 
each language (some are more illustrated than others), yet his hearing was fairly accurate and his 
writing phonetically correct. His work has a certain usefulness even at the present day. At this 
time also the great Sigismund Koelle, like Krapf and Rebraann, a native of the kingdom of 
Wurttemberg, in southern Germany, and a clergyman of the Church of England, was employed by 
the Church Missionary Society to watch the interests of the freed slaves landed at Sierra Leone. 
He took advantage of this opportunity to collect the materials for his remarkable Polyglotta Africana, 
published by the Church Missionary Society in 1854. This work deserves the highest praise, even 
in comparison with philological work at the present day. It is the more remarkable, since it was 
compiled over sixty years ago. So far as the Bantu languages are concerned, Koelle proves 
to be more interesting perhaps than he ever anticipated. He placed on record not only many facts 
of Inner African geography which were to remain unrealized for several decades longer, but he 
wrote down in 1851-2 the speech of Bantu peoples who were not to be actually visited by the white 
man till— in some cases — the beginning of the twentieth century. Excepting here and there a few 
lapsus calami and errors due to mishearing or misunderstanding, his work is remarkably correct 
and also shows that many of the languages transcribed by him have changed but little in the 
course of sixty years. Nearly all his Bantu vocabularies are included in the scope of the present 
work. Koelle appreciated to the full the fact of the existence of this great family of closely-related 
African languages, but preferred to call it the ' South African ' family. He was not sufficiently 
acquainted with the structure of Bantu speech to include all his Bantu vocabularies under the same 
heading; several of them appear as 'unclassified' languages. A few are incorrectly named, but 
are easily identified by their affinities and the geographical information he gives as to their position. 
Considering the absolute blank of the map of Africa in those days, behind the coastline, his 
geographical delimitations of the spheres occupied by the enormous number of languages he tran- 
scribed (due to the collation of the information he took down from the freed slaves) is remarkably 
accurate, and has been a great help to myself and other recent writers on the Bantu and Semi-Bantu 
languages in identifying and locating the forms of speech which he recorded. 

Whilst Koelle was working at Sierra Leone and the Baptist missionaries at Fernando Po and 
the Cameroons,' the American Board of Foreign Missions was despatching evangeUsts to settle on 

' In referring to the work of the Baptist missionaries in early days in the Cameroons, I must 
specially signalize for notice and gratitude on our part the remarkable work achieved by Joseph Merrick, 
who under circumstances of great difficulty printed a dictionary of the Isubu tongue in 1842 and 
a Grammatical Note in 1854; and of Alfred Saker, who issued a grammar and vocabulary from his 
printing press on the Cameroons estuary, in 1855 and 1862. Merrick's work was the more remarkable 
in that he was a negro or mulatto who had received his education chiefly, if not entirely, in the island of 
Jamaica. He was one of the early recruits of the Baptist Missionary Society in its desire to establish 
civilized settlements for the relief of freed slaves on the coast of Equatorial West Africa. It is difficult, 
as one reads Merrick's dictionary of Isubu, to realize that this work was compiled so anciently as the 
'forties of the last century and by one who had such slight advantages in the way of education, though he 
had evidently made the utmost use of the instruction given him. 



THE BANTU LANGUAGES S 

the coast of the Gaboon. Mere they not only made the discovery of the Gorilla, but through the 
linguistic zeal of the Rev. J. L. Wilson, of Messrs. Preston and Best, and in later days of the Revs. 
R. H. Nassau, H. M. Adams, J. Bushnell, and of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Marling, they recorded the 
Kele or Kalai, the Mpongwe, the Benga, and the Paiiwe (Fang) languages of French Congo and 
Spanish Guinea. 

At the same period also— the 'forties and early 'fifties— the German naturalist. Dr. Wilhelm 
Peters, of Berlin,^ was exploring Portuguese East Africa and writing down words of the Bantu 
languages spoken there. And those noteworthy pioneers of East Africa, the missionaries Johann 
Ludwig Krapf and Johann Rebmann (both of them natives of Wurttemberg, and, hke Koelle, in the 
service of the English Church Missionary Society), were revealing the Bantu languages of Equa- 
torial East Africa from the Tana river to south-west Nyasaland, either through their travels or by 
the interrogation of slaves. Krapf realized the existence of the Bantu family, but called it the 
' Nilotic ', and later the ' Orphno-Cushitic ' ; very inappropriate names, considering that the Nile 
basin and the Kushite (Gala-Bisharin) race barely come within the Bantu sphere, and that there 
exist the well-defined and quite independent families of Nilotic negro and Kushite languages.^ 

Missionaries of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland simultaneously were settled at Old 
Calabar on the eastern confines of Southern Nigeria, and were exploring the hinterland up the 
Cross river. Though they collected little or nothing in the way of Bantu languages, they were 
enabling philologists to define the limits of the Bantu family on the north-west. 

In South Africa a great impetus was given in the first half of the nineteenth century to the study 
of languages by missionary work and by the explorations of Robert Moffat and David Livingstone. 
The first adequate grammar of pcosa (Kafir) ' had been published by W. B. Boyce in 1834, and 
was succeeded in 1846 by a vocabulary or a short dictionary written by John AylifFe, and Apple- 
yard's Grammar in 1850. Then came Lewis Grant's Zulu Grammar in 1859, and a Zulu Grammar 
and Dictionary by the eminent Bishop Colenso. But the great event in the history of Bantu studies 
was the appointment in i860 of Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek to be Librarian of the collection 
of books presented by Sir George Grey as a public library to Capetown. Bleek was born in 1827 
at Berlin, and was a student at Bonn University, where his attention was directed to the arrange- 
ment of South African languages and the affinities of Hottentot speech. He published a disserta- 
tion in Latin on this subject in 1851, and this attracting the attention of those who were advising 
the British Government in regard to the Niger expeditions, he was offered a post on the Niger 
in 1854 (in conjunction with Dr. W. A. Baikie) ; but his health prevented his taking up this appoint- 
ment. Instead he accompanied Bishop Colenso to Natal, where he began to study the Zulu 
language. Moving to Capetown in 1856 his value was at once appreciated by one of the few great 
Governors who ever went out to South Africa — Sir George Grey (a man whose services to the 
British Empire and the world at large have never yet been sufficiently appreciated). Sir George 

' Dr. Peters's travels took place between 1842 and 1848. 

^ The Rev. Dr. J. L. Krapf issued from the Tiibingen University Press (Wurttemberg) Vocabularies 
of Six East African Languages in 1850,3 Vocabulary of' Wakuafi' (Masai) in l854,and compiled in the 
course of many years his Swahili- English Dictionary, which was published in London in 1882. Although 
this work is of great interest to students of the origin and affinities of the Swahili dialects, its value is 
marred by the author's eccentric orthography and his preference for the Mombasa dialect over that of 
Zanzibar. He is also too ready to include as ' Swahili', words really belonging to quite different Bantu 
languages spoken in his time by the slaves of the Arab settlers. Krapf also collected materials for a Nika 
Dictionary which was afterwards completed under the editorship of the Rev. T. H. Sparshott (1887). 

Johann Rebman or Rebmann — both spellings are used by him — one of Krapf's colleagues, had 
compiled an interesting study of ' Ki-niassa ' in 1853-5, which was not published till 1877. This was 
more or less the Ci-maravi dialect of the widespread Nyanja tongue. Rebmann also contributed to the 
above-mentioned Nika Dictionary . 

' As already mentioned, the Kafir language was first transcribed in print by Andrew Sparrman in 
1776. Sparrman was the naturalist to Captain James Cook's second expedition to the Pacific. 



° A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO 

Grey gave him a post as Government Interpreter at Capetown, which he enlarged into that of 
Librarian in i860. As early as 1856, however, Bleek, through studying the vocabularies written 
down by Dr. Wilhelm Peters, had not only grasped the unity of the great language family of 
Central and South Africa, but had proposed as an appropriate name for it the term BANTU, a term 
which he derived from the wellnigh universal word for ' men '.' Bleek considered that, despite 
variations in pronunciation, this term was so universal and so characteristic of the languages to 
which it belonged in exhibiting the detachable prefix and unchangeable root, that it should preferably 
be selected for their universal designation, for the additional reason also of its shortness and easy 
pronunciation. 

Bleek really laid the foundations of Bantu philology. In 1862 he published at Capetown the 
first volume of his Comparative Grammar of the South African Languages, and in 1869 the second 
volume (in London). He had previously brought out a handbook of Australian, African, and Poly- 
nesian philology between 1858 and 1863, and although his conclusions are too far-fetched, especially 
in detail, and are not borne out by a more scientific study of these African and Oceanic forms of 
speech, still he detected many an obscure truth or half-truth. In his scheme for the Comparative 
Grammar of the South African Languages he hampered himself by attempting to deal with Hottentot 
(and no doubt later on, Bushman) as well as with Bantu. As there is no affinity between the two 
groups other than that they are both forms of speech uttered by Africans, this was a mistake. His 
first volume deals only with phonology, and the second gets no farther than the nouns and their 
prefixes. But both volumes opened up as no other work has done, the fascinating interest of the 
Bantu languages to philologists, and even to the outside world. It is as easy to trace the affinities 
between one Bantu language and another as it is between those of the Aryan groups — perhaps 
easier. As a rule they are melodious languages with the phonology of Italian, and as easily pro- 
nounced. They are expressive, and compared to most other African speech families, comparatively 
simple and logical in their syntax. Bleek adopted an excellent system of orthography, one towards 
which we have somewhat reverted of late. 

He made the best of the scanty material at his disposal, which was indeed small as compared 
with what we have before us at the present day. It consisted of Krapf 's, Rebmann's, and Steere's 
East African vocabularies of Pcokoomco (which he used very little), Kamba, Nika, Swahili, and 
pambala; Yaco (collected by Peters and Steere), Makua (Peters), Sena and Tete (Ci-nyufigwi) ; 
of Tekeza (under which term he meant the Thonga or Rofiga language of Delagoa Bay and 
Amatongaland), Sesutco, Sexlapi or Secuana ; Zulu and Kafir (pcosa) ; of Yeye (Ba-yeiyi), with 
references to Rotse or Lui, Tcoka or Tonga, Nyeiigco, Subia, Lujazi and Ma-ponda, all derived from 
Livingstone's MS. vocabularies ; '' of Herero, Ndonga (Ovambco), Nanco or Benguela, Aiigola or 
Bunda (properly, Ki-mbundu) ; of Kongo) (Kipi-kongco) ; Mpofigwe, Kele (Dikele), Benga, Duala, 
Isubu, and Fernandian. Bleek's work, as already stated, did not get bej'ond the noun, its prefixes, 
and their concords. But it was of such an illuminating nature that its interest has prompted as 
many philologists to work for its completion as writers of fiction have been impelled to ^nish Edwin 
Drood. At any rate, the reading of his two slim volumes in 1883 inspired me with the determination 
to write this work now published, and to lose no opportunities for its preparation when my 
African travels or researches should enable me to collect material. 

' In its fullest form with the preprefix it is Abaniti or Babantti. The singular is Umuntu (archai- 
cally, Gumuntu). The root is -ntu, apparently meaning no more than 'object' in its essence, and 
deriving its precise and differing interpretations from its prefixes : thus (discounting preprefixes) Mu-ntu 
— ' a human being ' ; Ba-ntu = ' men, people ' ; Ki-ntu or Ka-ntu is ' a thing ', and Bi-ntii or Ttc-ntu 
' things ' ; Pa-ntu = ' a place ' ; Lu-ntu = ' a quality ' (of some kind) ; and Bu-ntii is ' humanity '. 

^ Which, scarcely used since, now contribute to the information of the present volume, through the 
kindness of Bleek's ultimate successor. Dr. L. Pdringuey. 



THE BANTU LANGUAGES 7 

Bleek divined or actually exposed many of the facts connected with the origin and structure of 
the Bantu languages. But from the very insufficient material at his disposal he was led into several 
wrong deductions. One of these— evidently a pet theory of his — was in regard to the origin of 
a Zulu term for God — Oimu-kulunkulu, which may (or may not) have been at one time the Zulu 
term for this concept. He realized that this word must mean either ' the great, great one ', or ' the 
old, old one ' (for -kulu can bear both meanings, even in the same language) ; and seeing the tendencies 
of Zulus to ancestor worship and the deification of dead-and-gone notabilities, he thought he found 
in this the etjrmology of the much more widely spread Bantu term for God— Mtilungu, — which 
he considered to be a contraction oi Cdmn-kuluiikulu. As a matter of fact, the two words have no 
connexion. Cdmti-kulunkulu had the interpretation and origin given to it by Bleek, but Mulungu 
is really the rain or the sky god, and is derived from a root, -lungu, which is sometimes applied to 
the firmament and sometimes (though rarely) to rain (see numerous instances in the East and 
Central African vocabularies). Bleek's other error was in regard to the preprefixes or articles and the 
concord particles. He noticed that the vowels preposed to the Zulu-Kafir prefixes («mu-, aba-, zli-, 
&c.) were detachable from the second syllable, the prefix proper {mu-, ba-, or ii-, &c.) : that the 
preprefixes had vanished from a good many of the Bantu tongues, but seemed to recur in the con- 
cord particles ; yet that these particles, though in general offering considerable resemblance to the 
prefix, in some cases exhibited a strange dissimilarity. Thus, for example, the concord particle of 
the Ma- prefix might be sometimes ma- and j'et at others ga-, ya-, or a.-. The concord particle of 
Mu- might be gu-, yu-, or u-. Inasmuch, therefore, as we cannot postulate for the conjoint pre- 
fix and preprefix, a mere duplication of similar syllables (we can do so in regard to the majority 
in such forms as baba-, bubu-,kiki-, lulu-, Sec), and cannot assume a hypothetical ntumu- for the first 
and third, and mama- for the sixth, how are we to explain the dissimilarity between the concord 
particle and preprefix, and the prefix itself (often that between mu- and gu-, mi- and gi-, ma- and 
ga-) ? Bleek's attempts to do so in paragraphs 407-10, 461-5, and '536 of his second volume do not 
hit upon the right explanation. A step nearer in this direction was made by the Rev. F. W. Kolbe 
in his Language Study based on Bantu (London : 1888), and perhaps in earlier works dealing with 
the Herero language ; but it was reserved for the present writer to find the most reasonable solu- 
tion of this enigma, when he studied in 1901 the archaic Bantu languages of the West Elgon district 
(see his Uganda Protectorate, vol. ii, pp. 891-2).^ 

Bishop Edward Steere, who went out to East Africa as a member of the Universities' Mission 
in 1865, was a noteworthy pioneer in Bantu philology. He was the first to deal in a practical and 
intelligent manner with the Swahili language. His Handbook and Exercises were for twenty or more 
years after their first publication in 1875 the generally accepted means of acquiring that tongue, 
both for practical use and philological inquiry.^ Steere also was the first to set forth clearly the 
features of the Yaco language, of Ngindco, Dzalamco, the Nyanyembe dialect of Nyamwezi, of pambala, 
and Makonde. In dealing with Ngindco and Dzalamco in 1869 he, at the same time, added a few words 
to our very slender knowledge of Ki-aiigazija, the language of Great Komorco. This far-outlj'ing 
ancient Zangian ('Swahili') speech, together with the closely allied dialect of Anjuan, had, as 
already related, not only been one of the first written of the Bantu languages (by Thomas Herbert 
in 1626, in its Mcohila dialect), but had been studied by a Madagascar missionary named Elliott, 
and by Dr. Wilhelm Peters in the 'forties,' and by Hildebrandt in the early 'seventies of the 
nineteenth century. 

Livingstone's interest in African languages waned somewhat through the pressure of other 

' See also p. 361 of the article on the Bantu Languages in vol. iii of the eleventh edition of the Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica. 

' Later editions have been issued by Mr. A. C. Madan, M.A. 
' His work is included in Bleek's Languages of Mozambique. 



« . A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO 

cares after his first great journey across the continent. His Zambezi expedition of 1858-63 resulted 
— strange to say— in absolutely no additions to our knowledge of the south-east African Bantu 
languages ; though it was eventually, through the planting of missionaries in Nyasaland, the cause 
of a great advance of Bantu study. Livingstone's last journeys (in which he discovered the great 
Lualaba-Congo, crossed and recrossed Tanganyika, reached Lakes Mweru and Bangweulu, and 
penetrated the Manyuema country into the heart of the Equatorial forest) might have helped philology 
but for the fact that the vocabularies and language notes which he made in the course of five years 
never saw the light. In common with all the rest of his scientific material they were put on one side 
by his literary executors and apparently have now been lost. Dr. W. A. Baikie, of Niger fame 
(another pioneer of British Empire whose scientific work met with insufficient appreciation from 
pietistic minds), collected much Unguistic information dealing with the Semi-Bantu languages to the 
south of the River Benue, but very little of this material has been saved for our information. 

In the middle of the 'seventies the Trans-African journey of Commander V. L. Cameron gave 
us (in all probability) the first definite illustration of the Lua (Luba) tongue, and enabled us better 
to understand old Portuguese records which suggested the continuity of Bantu speech across the 
continent. In 1877 the publication of H. M. Stanley's Through the Dark Continent conferred really 
great benefits on students of the Bantu languages ; though I doubt if these were appreciated (except 
by Robert Needham Cust), for many years afterwards. Stanley indicated the Bantu character of 
the Victoria Nyanza and Taiiganyika languages, and of those along the course of the Upper and 
Western Congo. 

Meantime French and French Swiss Protestant missionaries and those of the London Missionary 
Society '- had been adding to our knowledge of the Becuana and Ronga groups of tongues in South 
Africa, and the great German explorations of south-central Congoland had begun, together with the 
missionarj' settlements in Nyasaland. These last were to produce the brilliant language studies of 
Dr. Robert Laws, of David Rufi'ele-Scott, and Alexander Hetherwick, besides the work of 
Alexander Riddel, Dr. W. Elmslie, and J. A. Bain, and, farther to the east, the studies of the 
northern Makua dialects by Bishop (as he afterwards became) Chauncy Maples. 

Stanley's levin-stroke through the pitchy darkness of unknown Africa had started the opening 
up of the Congo from its estuary eastwards. George Grenfell had commenced his career as 
missionary-explorer in the Cameroons, and with his noteworthy colleagues, Thomas Comber and 
William Holman Bentley, was exploring western Congoland and commencing to note its languages. 
Kofigco studies had been resumed, indeed, after a blank of nearly seventy years ' by Dr. Adolf 
Bastian, who in 1875 published his work on the Luaiigco coast, which contains a good deal of 
interesting information regarding the western Congo and Gaboon languages. 

In 1880 the Egyptologist C. R. Lepsius — the inventor likewise of the Standard Alphabet— pre- 
ceded his Nubische Grammatik by a famous Preface on the Languages of Africa, in which occurs his 
definition of Bantu characteristics. But this preface, though remarkable at the period at which it 
was written for its extended knowledge, is based on some erroneous conceptions due to the lack of 
material for comparison ; and Lepsius's definition of Bantu peculiarities no longer holds good, since 
some of these are found to be shared by other African language families. 

When the last quarter of the nineteenth century opened, and with it began the tremendous move- 
ment of Europe on Africa, the time had arrived, evidently, in which some definite acknowledgement 
should be made of the interest offered by Negro languages to the world at large as a field of study. 

' The Rev. John Brown's Secwana Dictionary (now in its enlarged 1895 edition) was first published 
about 1877. 

'^ The last work on the speech of the estuarine Congo, published under the old Portuguese Roman 
Catholic missionary regime, was that of Father Cannecattim in 1809. 



THE BANTU LANGUAGES 9 

The task of tabulating all the extant information on this subject was undertaken by Robert Needham 
Cust, a retired Indian Civil Servant, who in 1883 published his Modern Languages of Africa. It does 
not pretend to be more than a history of linguistic research in Africa and a geographical enumer- 
ation and allocation of all the then known forms of speech in Africa from north to south, and east 
to west. But it is combined with the most extensive bibliography. Little attempt is made to describe 
the structure of these different types of speech, but evidence as to their relationships is sometimes 
adduced. Yet the work has been of the greatest help to students in many fields of African research, 
since its publication, and is still of value for the extent and correctness of its bibliography. It shows, 
in fact, a surprising amount of research, and personally I have seldom found any of its references 
wrong or misleading. 

In 1882 an Italian professor of Palermo, Giacomo de Gregorio, issued a work at Turin entitled 
Cenni di Glottologia Bantu, which, however, was little more than an extended review of Bleek's 
published writings. In 1884 the present writer had in his book on the River Congo given a little 
new information regarding the Bantu languages of western Congoland. In 1885, however, in an 
appendix to his account of the Kilimanjaro) Expedition, he advanced slightly the development of 
Bantu philology by the information there given, and by one or two novel deductions drawn from 
the work of earlier writers. During the 'eighties and 'nineties some progress was made in the 
enumeration and study of the tongues of south-west Congoland and of eastern and southern Angola, 
through the work of German explorers— A. E. Lux, Otto H. Schutt, Dr. Max Buchner— and 
of Portuguese expeditions under Serpa Pinto (1878-80) and Capello and Ivens (1878-85). 

Between 1885 and 1888 the present writer investigated and wrote down ten or more of the 
Cameroons languages and several of the Semi-Bantu forms of speech on the border-line between the 
Cameroons and the Cross river region ; but little of this work has been published before its appear- 
ance in this book. During the same period Mr. J. T. Last, once of the Church Missionary Society, 
and later, and for long, a Government servant in Zanzibar, earned our gratitude by the printing of 
his Polyglotta Africana Orientalis, and by studies of the Kamba and Sagara languages. Mr. Last 
collected his information either direct from the natives of the different countries or by interrogating 
far-fetched slaves and porters in Arab caravans. The bulk of his work is surprisingly accurate, 
considering the difficulties of its transcription. He gave much new information for fixing the East 
African boundaries of the Bantu sphere. 

Amongst the first Bantu scholars of German South-west Africa were the missionaries or the 
sons of missionaries, the Rev. Dr. C. H. Hahn, Theophilus Hahn, the Rev. J. Rath, G Viehe, Rev. 
F. W. Kolbe, and the Rev. H. Brincker; whose studies were published between 1857 and 1891. 
The extremely interesting Herero language had been written down as early as 1857 by Dr. C. H. 
Hahn. Its characteristics were fully revealed by Rath, Kolbe, Brincker, and others before the 
German pohtical occupation of that region. 

In the 'seventies and 'eighties Primitive Methodist missionaries (coloured as well as white), 
such as William Luddington and Theophilus Parr, and Spanish Dominicans such as Juanola, did 
a great deal for the elucidation of the Bantu dialects of Fernando Po. Much of the work of the 
Primitive Methodists, however, has not yet been printed, but has been lent to the present writer for 
his assistance. 

The 'nineties of the last century witnessed a great advance in Bantu studies. The languages 
of the Western and Upper Congo were taken in hand scientifically by the British Baptist missionaries 
—notably Dr. W. Holman Bentley, Dr. A. B. Sims,' the Revs. W. H. Stapleton" and George 

' Dr. Sims did not belong to the British Baptist Mission, though in close relations of comradeship 
with its members. 

^ Stapleton's research work in regard to the tongues of the whole Congo basin might justly be described 



lo A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO 

Grenfell (though the work of this last was not revealed till after his death in 1906). Missionaries of 
the Congo-Balolo Mission — chiefly Messrs. Eddy, I. and F. T. McKittrick, did good work in con- 
nexion with the Lunkundu and Mofigco dialects of the Lultti language. To these workers in a field 
of exceptional interest must be added in the first decade of the twentieth century the Revs. John 
Whitehead, William Forfeitt, Lawson Forfeitt (at a later date), Robert Glennie, and John Weeks. 
Simultaneously, or earlier, the American missionaries were at work in southern Angola, where the 
great Heh Chatelain (of Swiss origin) dealt in a masterly way with the Mbundu language and 
kindred dialects, and where the Rev. Wesley M. Stover illustrated the Nanm or Umbundu of Bihe. 
In central Congoland, the Rev. W. M. Morrison, of the American Presbyterian Mission, gave us 
the first satisfactory exposition of the Luba or Lua language. George Grenfell had led the way 
(with Stapleton) in defining the northern limit of the Bantu family in the region of the Mubangi 
basin. Franz Thonner, a Viennese explorer, followed this up, and in 1899, as well as at later dates, 
revealed the existence of parcels of non-Bantu speech as far south as the northern banks of the 
Upper Congo. Stapleton, H. M. Stanley, William Forfeitt (especially), and Vice-Consul G. Babing- 
ton Michell, carried on this delimitation eastwards and showed us the existence of Sudanese tongues, 
like the so-called Bamanga, imbedded in areas of Bantu languages (Archdeacon Farler, of the 
Universities' Mission, and A. Downes Shaw, C.M.S., had earlier helped in the laying down of the 
northern Bantu limit in East Africa by recording the curious Mbugu of Usambara). 

The agents of the London Missionary Society (notably the Revs. J. Griffiths (Ki-lega), David 
Picton Jones (Guha and Mambwe), and W. G. Robertson (Bemba)) had opened up to our knowledge 
the western and southern Tafiganyika tongues, in which direction some additional or parallel 
information was obtained by the present writer in 1889. French, Belgian, Dutch, and German 
Roman Catholic missionaries, preceded by the explorers A. Marche and the Marquis de Compiegne 
in the OOgcowe basin (early 'seventies), Monseigneur Le Berre, Fathers Delorme, Dahin, and Reeb, 
Lejeune, Alex.Visseq, Butaye, lim. Cambier, and, above all, De Clercq; ' Gustave de Beerst, P. H. 
Trilles, Eugene Hurel, P. Schumacher, I. M. M. van der Burgt, and A. Capus and J. Calloc'h — were 
putting down on paper at the same time and thenceforward into the twentieth century the languages 
of the Gaboon, of north-west and south-central Congoland, and the region between Tafiganyika and 
the Victoria Nyanza. Paul KoUmann, a German official in East Africa, in 1899 published useful 
vocabularies of some of the south Victoria Nyanza languages, which were treated more scientifi- 
cally at an earlier or a later date by Peres Eugene Hurel, Loupias, Dufays, Schumacher, Alex. 
Arnoux, Menard, and A. Capus, and by Hermann Rehse and Hauptmann C. Hermann. I should 
also mention with due acknowledgements the services of Messrs. J. F. Cunningham, J. A. Meldon, 
S. Ormsby, and G. A. S. Northcote, of the Uganda Administration, who, between 1899 and 1909, 
worked at the recording of Victoria Nyanza and Albert Nyanza dialects as specified in the Bibliography 
following my vocabularies. Research of value amongst the (still little-known) tongues of south-east 
Africa was being done in the 'nineties and in the early twentieth century by the Swiss or French 
Protestant missionaries, Paul Berthoud (who dealt with the pi-gwamba of the north-east Transvaal), 
E. Jacottet (who also gave us our first scientific account of Subia and Luyi, two languages of the 
Upper Zambezi), Henri Junod (pi-ronga and its dialects and folk-lore) ; and by Bishop Smyth 
and John Matthews (^ilenge or Ccopi), the Revs. Theodor and Paul Schwellnuss (Venda), A. H. 

as enormous ; only about a quarter has seen publication. A good deal of his work is incorporated in the 
present book. The remainder, unfortunately, is scarcely utilizable owing to accidents which attended it 
after his death, as we lack the English elucidation of the vocabularies, portions of which also are still 
missing. 

' Bantu philology owes much to the labours of Pfere Auguste De Clercq in south-central Congoland 
(the Luba and Kanyojka languages especially), and to Pere J. Calloc'h for his work on the Ifumu or 
eastern Teke language and the Sudanese tongues of the western and north-western basin of the 
Mubangi. 



THE BANTU LANGUAGES ii 

Hartmann (Mapuna, Karana), and W. A. Elliott, L.M.S. (Mapuna and pindebele). In northern and 
eastern Zambezia^ good work was being done ere the close of the nineteenth century by Father J. 
Torrend, S.J., in regard to the Ci-tofiga of the Central Zambezi and Cuabco of the Zambezi delta. In 
the opening years of the twentieth century Edwin Smith gave a distinct uplift to Bantu studies by the 
publication oi his Handbook ofthella {^ukulumbwe) Speech. The linguistic work of the Universities' 
Mission between 1890 and 1906 must not pass unacknowledged. In addition to the remarkable 
contributions to Bantu literature made by Mr. A. C. Madan, at one time a lay member of the Mission 
(contributions elsewhere enumerated), Archdeacon H. W. Woodward, and the Rev. W. H. Kisbey 
added to our knowledge ofZigula (Zanzibar coast), and the Rev. Herbert Barnes illustrated the 
Nyanja language of Lake Nyasa in its northern form. 

As regards the actual work of Bleek — the general survey of the Bantu tongues — the first forward 
step since Bleek's time was taken by Father J. Torrend, S.J., in his Comparative Grammar of the 
South African Bantu Languages, originally published in 1891. But the most noteworthy advance on 
Bleek was made by a fellow German, Carl Meinhof, a Lutheran missionary, who had probably studied 
the Bantu languages for some time before his first noteworthy publication, Grundriss einer Lautlehre 
der Bantusprachen, published at Leipzig in 1899, and added to subsequently by his Grundziige einer 
vergleichenden Grammatik der Bantusprachen ('Materials for a Comparative Grammar of the Bantu 
Languages '), besides many articles in German linguistic periodicals, which are referred to by me 
elsewhere in this work. One to whom all Bantu students must remain deeply indebted is A. Seidel, 
a great German philologist, whose studies of African languages have gone far outside the Bantu field 
(as have those of Meinhof), but who, from the early 'nineties onwards, has given to the world 
a series of admirable grammars or grammatical sketches, of dictionaries and vocabularies of east, 
south-west, and north-west Bantu languages. 

Nor in any record of Bantu discovery should the modern Portuguese be left out of account. 
Serpa Pinto, Capello, and Ivens, in their works of the 'seventies and 'eighties of the last century 
had, as already related, given vocabularies of Angola and north-west Zambezia Bantu languages 
which have been of assistance to investigators; but in the 'nineties, Henrique de Carvalho pub- 
lished that really important study of the Lunda language which is referred to in the Bibliography ; 
and various Portuguese missionaries (especially Ernesto Lecomte and Affonso Maria-Lang) sub- 
sequently wrote excellent accounts of the northern members of the Herero group in southern Angola 
(Umbundu and Nyaneka). 

Bishop Steere had a noteworthy linguistic successor as philologist in a lay member of the 
Universities' Mission, Mr. A. C. Madan, who, beginning in the 'nineties with the illustration of 
Swahili, has brought out during the last few years works of considerable value, not only of specific 
languages such as tho.se of Northern Rhodesia (Senga, Bisa, Lala-Lamba, Lenje), but on the structure 
and phonology of the Bantu languages in general. 

C. W. Hobley, almost the oldest now in seniority of service amongst the British East African 
officials, had in 1899 discovered the northernmost colony of the Bantu in eastern Africa — the Konde 
orHasa people of North-west Elgon, and had published a short vocabulary of their language in the 
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. In later years he contributed much information 
regarding the speech of the Kavirondco Bantu and of the Basuba (Ktoscova), as well as the Akamba 
of British East Africa. 

The Luganda language ^ received its first efficient treatment by a member of the Church 

■' Into northernmost Zambezia (N. Rhodesia) the widespread Luba language enters, and the Bantu 
student was at one time mainly indebted to the missionary C. A. Swan for his knowledge of the southern 
Luba speech. Mr. Swan published in 1892 Notes on the Construction of Chiluba. But since then (1909) 
we have had the Kiluba (Sanga) Dictionary of £mile Jenniges. 

" This Sanskrit of the Bantu was, I believe, first put on paper by Stanley in the vocabularies of his 



^2 A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO 

Missionary Society, P. J. Pilkington, who was killed in 1898 in the mutiny of the Sudanese soldiers. 
Other members of the Church Missionary Society, the Revs. Blackledge, O'Flaherty, Walker, 
Hattersley, Purvis, H. E. Madox, and Crabtree,^ and Dr. A. R. Cook, from this time onwards pub- 
lished works on Luganda, Ru-nyorco, and on the interesting Masaba speech of West Elgon 
(originally discovered by Hobley). Mrs. Hildegarde Hinde wrote on the Kikuyu and Kamba 
languages. A. C. Mollis, Secretary to the British East African Administration during the early 
years of the twentieth century, materially helped our comprehension of the different dialects 
of Swahili by illustrating them in the Journal of the African Society. Swahili in the later years 
of the nineteenth and the commencement of the twentieth century had received additional treat- 
ment (additional to the still useful works of Steere and Madan) at the hands of Pere Sacleux 
and other French missionaries. Dr. G. C. Buttner, Carl Meinhof, A. Seidel (German philologists), 
and the Rev. W. E. Taylor, of the Church Missionary Society, the last-named being a leading 
authority on Swahili. [An excellent description of the Giryama dialect of the Nika language had at 
an earlier date been published by the same writer (W. E. Taylor).] An adjoining language, the 
^ambala, received in 191 1 the amplest treatment from the point of view of scientific philology by the 
German missionary, Karl Roehl. In fact, with the uprise of the German power in East Africa went 
hand in hand an investigation of the East African languages, chiefly, but not always, by missionaries 
Catholic and Protestant : C. Velten (Nyamwezi, Kami, Hehe, Swahili), Ferdinand Wurtz (Pcokcomco 
and Tikuu), Ernst Brutzer (Kamba), A. Worms and M. Klamroth (Dzalamco), Bernhard Krumm 
(Matumbi), Fathers Cassian Spiss and Johannes Hafliger (Sutu and Mateiigco), R. Wolff (Kiiiga), 
C. Schumann (Nkonde), Dr. Otto Dempwolff and Dr. Eduard Sachau (Pcogcorco). 

About the middle of the 'nineties, Miss Alice Werner commenced those studies of the Bantu 
languages which have made her subsequently so noteworthy, the more so as she writes with equal 
facility in German and French, as well as English, and has therefore contributed some of her most 
remarkable essays to French and German periodicals. Miss Werner's work in its critical insight 
into the structure of a language recalls that of Carl Meinhof, and of an equally great Bantu scholar, 
Bernhard Struck, whose illuminating articles have appeared at intervals in German and English 
publications during the last ten years. The Rev. W. A. Crabtree has also attracted attention as one 
able to deal with the Bantu languages from the general point of view of scientific philology by his 
essays in the Journal of the African Society ; while from Paris have recently been issued several 
notable studies on the Bantu languages by Mile L. Homburger. The most important of these is 
her Etude sur la Phone'tique historique du Bantou. Another interesting French contribution to Bantu 
literature is from the pen of Captain Avelot. It deals with the little-known OOgaiwe and Gaboon 
languages, and is entitled Recherches sur I'histoire des migrations dans le bassin de VOgoue (see 
Bibliography). 

In the South African field there are curious gaps in our knowledge, and much remains to be 
done here. Unhappily, whilst we are waiting for it to be done languages and dialects are fading 
out of existence in the whirlpool of race movements which is going on. The most interesting of all 
the South African languages — Venda of the Northern Transvaal — had still a most imperfect 
vocabulary until the Rev. T. Schwellnuss amplified it in a private communication for my information. 
The Kafir-Zulu dialects are insufficiently known, though thanks to the kindness of the Hon. R. 
Coryndon of Swaziland, of Lady (Florence) Phillips and their friends, the Swazi dialect has been set 

Through the Dark Continent, published in 1878. Probably Burton andSpeke had first shown that it was 
a Bantu language by their works published in 1859 and 1864. Its general character and affinities were 
not however made clear till the publication in 1882 of the Outline Grammar of the Luganda Language of 
the Rev. C. T. Wilson, C.M.S. 

' For details, see Bibliography. The Rev. W. A. Crabtree has worked on the Masaba dialects, in 
addition to Luganda, but his material, if it has been printed, has not come under my notice. 



THE BANTU LANGUAGES 13 

forth in writing for the purposes of this book. The Zulu language has at last been fully exemplified 
in the Zulu-English Dictionary of A. T. Bryant ; a Kafir [3cidsd)-English Dictionary was published at 
Lovedale Mission in 1899 by the Rev. Albert Kropf; an excellent Kafir (pusa) Grammar by 
I. McLaren in 1906; and an exceptionally remarkable Wdrterbuch der Sotho-Sprache (SUd-Afrika), 
by K. Endemann (Hamburg, 1911), gives us a full illustration of the Sutcj or Sothco speech. 

Emin Pasha, when Governor of Equatoria, compiled a number of vocabularies, which, however, 
did not do more than assist to limit on the north the extent of the Bantu field ; but when he 
returned to take service in German East Africa he inscribed some interesting vocabularies of 
the Nyanza and Ituri forest languages, which after long concealment were brought to light and 
published recently through the energy of Bernhard Struck. In this connexion, though of much 
earlier date, may be mentioned the vocabularies published by Stanley in his Darkest Africa, the 
importance of which — scanty as they are — was not appreciated till within the last few years. 
Honourable mention should also be made of the work of Father Auguste van Acker in his 
Dictionnaire Kitabwa-Frangais et Frangais-Kitabwa, published by the Congo Museum, Tervueren ; 
and the sumptuously produced Notes ethnographiques . . . sur lea Bushongo, &c., by Emil 
Torday and T. Athol Joyce, which includes much linguistic information. Mr. Emil Torday, 
within the last fifteen years, has worked hard to place before the world the remarkable culture of 
south-central Congoland, and incidentally has collected almost the only information we possess 
regarding the curious Bantu languages north-east and north-west of the Luba field, besides 
illustrating several dialects of Luba. His researches have even extended as far north as the 
Ababua language group on the northern Bantu frontier. His work, published and unpublished, 
appears in the vocabularies of the present book. 

German work of recent years in the Kamerun Protectorate has scarcely resulted in those great 
gains to philological knowledge we had hoped for, seeing what has been accomplished in East and 
South-west Africa. The most splendid monument to Teutonic activity in this quarter lies almost 
outside the Kamerun region — the Monograph of Gunter Tessmann on the Fang people and their 
languages. Die Pangwe is deserving of international recognition (in common with a work by 
Dr. Leonhard Schulze, of earlier publication, on Namakwaland). Carl Meinhof, twenty years ago, 
collected and published much interesting information on the Bantu languages spoken in the basin 
of the Cameroons (Wuri) river (the West Kamerun or Duala group, as it might be called). Father 
Haarpaintner gave the first accurate account of the Yaunde speech (northern Pafiwe) ; Fathers G. A. 
Adams, P. H. Skolaster, H. Nekes, E. Schuler, H. Dorsch, and Captain Lessner have contributed 
valuable information about the tongues of the West Kamerun group between 1898 and 1910. In 
addition to their published articles, I am personally indebted to the English naturalist, Mr. Geo. L. 
Bates, for six valuable vocabularies of the leading Pafiwe or Fang dialects, and for the only 
vocabulary extant of the Njiem tongue, which in some way connects the Pafiwe group with the 
corrupt Bantu languages of the Kadei-Lobai region. As regards these outlying jargons of the Upper 
Safiga, the Kadei, and the western bend of the great Mubafigi river, our sole information comes at 
present from Mr. Geo. L. Bates, from the German explorer, Strilmpell, and from Dr. Outilleau, 
a French medical officer who explored in 1910-11 the ethnology of the Safiga and Mubafigi basins. 

Dr. Freiherr von Danckelmann and Dr. E. Zintgraff, in common with Captain Lessner, already 
mentioned, contributed much exact geography in map-making to enable us to locate Bantu tribes 
and languages in the western Kamerun, especially the invaluable vocabularies of Koelle. It is 
largely thanks to them and to Lieutenant Hutter (who with Dr. Hoesemann travelled over the 
northern versant of the Cameroons river basin in 1900-4) that we have been able to fix with some 
precision the boundary in West Central Africa between Bantu and Semi-Bantu. Several French 
officials, notably the administrator Clozel, the explorer-botanist Auguste Chevalier, and the far- 
travelled and industrious Pere Calloc'h have thrown some light on the structure of these Semi-Bantu 



14 A HISTORY OF RESEARCH INTO THE BANTU LANGUAGES 

languages, south-west of the Central Sudan, between the Mubangi basin and the water-parting 
of the Kamerun coast-lands ; and Pere Calloc'h and Captain M. R. Avelot have added to our know- 
ledge of the languages spoken in French Congo and the Gaboon. German explorers have dealt 
(slightly) with the interesting Semi-Bantu Bali group, between the Cameroons river and the Upper 
Cross river basin ; the English administrator and ethnologist, P. Amaury Talbot, has furnished us 
with full information regarding the ' almost-Bantu ' tribes (chiefly the Ekoi) between the Old Calabar 
region and the Rumbi mountains, information which has been supplemented recently by Mr. North- 
cote Thomas's S/'ecwj^ws of Languages from Southern Nigeria. [In this region also the author of 
this book travelled extensively some twenty-six years ago, to collect vocabularies for this Comparative 
Study of the Bantu Languages.] 

In concluding this history of the rise and progress of research into the Bantu speech family, 
I may perhaps be permitted to summarize my own credentials as a humble follower of the great 
philologists to whose memory my book is dedicated. It was the writings of Richard Burton, more 
especially, which first rivetted my attention on this subject. I knew something in general about 
the Bantu languages before I set foot in Bantu Africa in the year 1882. In the spring of that year 
I accompanied an exploring expedition under the Earl of Mayo, which was to investigate Portuguese 
South-west Africa. From Afigola I proceeded to the River Congo, and with the help of H. M. Stanley 
penetrated into the then almost unknown region of the Upper Congo, transcribing languages in 
preparation for a continuance of Bleek's unfinished Grammar. In 1884 I learnt more or less 
thoroughly the Swahili language at Zanzibar, and shortly afterwards studied the dialects of East 
Africa and Kilimanjaro). Between 1885 and 1888 I was Vice-Consul in the Kamerun and Acting 
Consul in the adjoining regions of Southern Nigeria, and for three years gave myself up with ever- 
growing interest to linguistic studies in those directions, much of the results being privately printed 
by the Foreign Office. Between 1889 and 1896 I wrote down vocabularies and grammatical notes 
of the leading languages and dialects of eastern Zambezia, Nyasaland, and south Tanganyika ; and 
in two visits to South Africa made some acquaintance with pcosa and Zulu. From 1899 to 1901 
I worked in situ at the Bantu languages of the Uganda Protectorate and the adjoining Congo forest. 
In 1904-6 and 1907 I took advantage of visits to West Africa to obtain (through correspondents or 
from travelling natives) additional information regarding Kamerun or Luafigco languages. I had 
been asked to contribute the first article on the Bantu languages to the Encyclopaedia Briiannica 
(tenth edition, 1903), and rewrote and enlarged that article for the eleventh edition. To further 
my Bantu studies, I paid several visits to Germany (the goal of all students of Africa before this 
unhappy war broke out). But in the pursuit of my investigation of the Bantu languages I have 
derived nearly as much information from Paris, Brussels, and Lisbon, as from Berlin, Hamburg, 
and Stuttgart. I should mention also that a good deal of my work has been checked in course of 
preparation by reference to natives of various parts of Bantu Africa, who, when coming to England, 
have been good enough to visit me and supply me with information and criticism. Many of the 
vocabularies here printed, though compiled (in some cases before I was born) by other travellers, 
have thus been tested by me in England, as well as locally in Africa, and have received in conse- 
quence certain corrections, additions, and explanations. 

In addition to the Bantu family, I have made some research into the North African dialects of 
Arabic and the Berber spoken in Southern Tunis, into Gala and Somali, the Nilotic and Masai tongues 
of Equatorial East Africa, the languages of the Central Sudan, of Southern Nigeria, of the Kru coast, 
and of the Mandingco peoples. 



CHAPTER II 

THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 

What are the Bantu languages ? And why should they have been preferred as a special 
subject of interest in philological research to a degree far exceeding that of other language families 
of purely African location ? They constitute a very distinct type of speech which, as contrasted 
with others amongst the groups of negro tongues, is remarkable as a rule for the Italian melo- 
diousness, simplicity, and frequency of its vowel sounds, and the comparative ease with which 
its exemplars can be acquired and spoken by Europeans. The Bantu languages are attractive to 
the explorer not only from the harmonious adjustment of vowels and consonants, but from the logic 
of their grammatical structure, which, in the majority of these tongues, provides for a wide range 
and a nice discrimination in the expression of ideas. 

This one negro language family now covers the whole of the southern third of Africa, with the 
exception of very small areas in the south-west (still inhabited sparsely by Hottentot and Bushman 
tribes) and a few patches of the inner Congo basin. The Hottentot-Bushman region at the present 
day is limited to Great Namakwaland and the adjoining districts of Cape Colony and the western 
part of the Kalahari Desert, Kacokcoland, south of the River Kunene, and undefined portions of the 
plains between the Upper Kunene and the Okavangco. With this exception, and the now 
Europeanized portion of Cape Colony, Bantu Africa extends from Port Elizabeth and Kaffraria 
on the south to Fernando Po and the vicinity of Old Calabar on the north-west, and to Lamu and 
the Tana river on the north-east. There are a few small enclaves of non-Bantu-speaking negroes on 
the north banks of the northern Congo, and patches of Hamitic, Nilotic, or unclassified tongues 
between the south-east corner of the Victoria Nyanza and Usambara in East Africa. But for these 
relics of pre-existing or invasive tongues, it might be said that the whole of this southern third 
of Africa contained but one indigenous speech family, the BANTU, and that it was only necessary 
to define the northern boundary of its range.^ 

The northern boundary of the Bantu field is still a little uncertain and not easy to delineate 
geographically. It may be said to start on the west coast of Africa in the Bight of Biafra (due 
north of the island of Fernando Po), at the mouth of the Rio del Rey in the southern portion of the 
Bakasi peninsula, which flanks the estuary of the Old Calabar river. From the eastern bank of the 
Rio del Rey the boundary is carried to the Ndian river, and thence with zigzags to the western 
flanks of the Maneiiguba mountains of western Kamerun ; then to the junction of the Sanaga and 
Mbam rivers and eastwards to the Lower Kadei, and down stream to its junction with the Sanga ; 
from this point again eastwards to the Lobai river and down that stream to near its junction with the 
Mubaiigi. Then the border-line retreats west and south again, but once more makes for the Mubarigi 

^ We may suspect that in the Abongco or Akwa of the Gaboon and the other Pygmy forest negroes 
of the Congo basin we have vestiges of peoples only recently converted to a corrupt form of Bantu speech ; 
but their jargon is nevertheless of Bantu type. 



J 6 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

river in its lower course, crossing it above Ibeiiga and extending eastwards to the Lower Mongala, 
which it reaches at Likimi. Allowing for the enclave of the Sudanic Bondunga or Ndonga people 
who reach to the banks of the northern Congo at Lisala (near Bajpcotcj), the Bantu border-line 
may be said to follow the water-parting between the Mongala-Dua basin and that of the Ebmla, and 
then to cut across— east-north-eastward— to the Wele-Mubafigi, near the falls of Bangco and the post 
of Jabir. Then another loop southward across the Likati and back to the Wele, after which the 
border-line declines south-eastwards to the Upper Aruwimi, below the confluence of the Nepcokco. 
Thence in little zigzags to the Lindi river, and abruptly west through the dense Congo forest back 
to the Congo main stream below the Lindi confluence (some distance west of Stanleyville). Next, 
the Congo is followed up stream past Stanleyville ; and then with a western loop for the Sudanic 
Bamafiga the Bantu frontier crosses the Lualaba-Congo once more and serpentines eastward to the 
extreme Upper Ituri and the south-west coast of the Albert Nyanza. The east coast of the Albert 
Nyanza is all Bantu as far north as Magungco ; and thence, in a south-easterly direction, the frontier 
keeps close to the west bank of the Victoria Nile till it enters the Buscoga country near the northern 
shores of Lake Victoria. Crossing the Sico river, the Bantu boundary is carried (with an eastern loop) 
to the north-west slopes of Mount Elgon. From this point the boundary goes south-east and then 
abruptly south-west to the entrance of the Nzoia river into the Victoria Nyanza. The north-eastern 
coast-lands of the Victoria Nyanza are excluded from the Bantu sphere, and are populated by large 
colonies of the Gej'a or Ja-luco Nilotic negroes ; but from the southern entrance to Kavirondoo Bay the 
frontier between Bantu and non-Bantu is carried south-east and south and is determined mainly by 
the rise of the lofty Equatorial plateaus. A great wedge of non-Bantu peoples comes from east and 
north, and touches the Victoria Nyanza at the head of Speke Gulf. From this point the Bantu border- 
line passes southwards in zigzags to the Luwambere river which flows into Lake Eyasi (throwing off 
eastward the Urangi peninsula of Bantu speech) and skirting Ugcogco attains to the Usagara and Nguru 
hills, thence curling east and north to the Rufu river. Crossing the Rufu the northern boundary of 
Bantu Africa encloses a north-eastern projection to the western, southern, and eastern flanks of 
Kilimanjaro). From eastern KiUmanjarco the boundary-line returns coastwards, then once more 
describes a huge north-western loop up the valley of the Athi river to the Kikuyu country, and north 
again to beyond Mount Kenya and the sources of the Tana river. Along the Equatorial coast of 
the Indian Ocean there is a narrow strip of Bantu territory northward which includes the Swahili 
settlements of Witu, Lamu, and Patta,' and passes up the valley of the Tana river for a considerable 
distance. There are runaway, Swahili-speaking slaves on the Juba river, but they do not represent 
any ancient extension of Bantu speech in that direction. Yet it is evident that Equatorial Africa was 
at one time almost continuously Bantu in speech (save for the enclaves of Hamitic or Sudanic tongues 
such as MbuluBge and Mbugu or the click-using Useria and Sandawi) from the east coast of the 
Victoria Nyanza to the Indian Ocean ; and that into this Bantu sphere there came, several centuries 
ago, hordes of invading Nilotic Masai, Dorcobo), Nandi, and Ja-lu(o. These invasions reduced the 
area of the Bantu languages in Equatorial East Africa to islands and peninsulas. 

The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba are, of course, Bantu ; Zanzibar being the metropolis of 

' South of this eastern boundary-line between the Victoria Nyanza and the Indian Ocean — a line 
which terminates on the sea coast at Kiufiga in about i° 45' South latitude — there are several islands of 
Bantu speech — notably the Sodnyu on Lake Natron, the Mbugwe on Lake Manyara, the Wa-meru 
(Gaga) on Mount Meru. Within the eastern Bantu area there are small enclaves of non-Bantu speech 
— TatUiga (Nandi-Nilotic) on Speke Gulf and in eastern Unyamwezi ; Nege, Mbuluhge, and Wa.si 
(Kushitic-Hamite) ; Sandawi (resembling Bushman) and Useria ( Wangomwia), between Unyamwezi 
and Ugtogoi ; and the perhaps ' Sudanic" Mbugu in a small enclave in northern Usambara. Besides, 
of course, the roving Masai and Dorcobo). A good deal of light is thrown on this complex ethnographical 
question in Ueber die Sprachen der Tatoga-und IrakuleHte,hy Bernhard Struck, Berlin, 191 1. [In 
Sonderabdruck aus ' Das Hochland der Riesenkrater ', by Dr. Fritz Jaeger.] 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 17 

the great Swahili language. The Komorco islands — at any rate the Grand Komoro), Mmhila, and 
Johanna— come within the Bantu sphere, as their people speak ancient dialects of Swahili. 

The importance of this language family to Africa at the present day and in the near future is 
unquestionable. Throughout Africa, north of the Bantu border-line, you meet with a bewildering 
number of languages widely differing from the other and mutually quite incomprehensible ; and 
although there may exist linguae francae of Arabic (in its different dialects) , of Pigeon-English, Creole- 
French, Hausa, or Portuguese, linguistic difficulties are relatively enormous, and have long delayed 
missionaries, traders, and representatives of Government from getting into close touch with the 
indigenous tribes. Moreover, most of these African languages, north of the Bantu field, are exceed- 
ingly difficult to pronounce and to acquire, whereas the leading features of the Bantu tongues are an 
Italian-like phonology and a relative simplicity of structure. Further, when once one Bantu 
language is acquired it is not very difficult to understand the structure and even the vocabulary of 
others. Assuming that a European knows nothing but Kipi-koiigco on the west or Swahili on the 
east, he can go far and wide over Bantu Africa with either of these tongues to help him, so universal 
in form are many of the word-roots indicating the simple concepts of everyday life. One could 
probably select twenty-five words of everyday intercourse which were common (or almost identical 
in form) to all the leading Bantu languages of the Cameroons, Congo, Aiigola, British South Africa, 
Portuguese East Africa, German East Africa, and Uganda. If, say, one started (as many an early 
pioneer like Livingstone did) with a band of porters or canoemen from the Zambezi, one might go 
far and wide to the north, west, and east, and with the slow rates of travel in pre-railway days, find 
one's porters accustoming themselves by degrees to the changes of dialect and language, till at 
length the caravan arrived at Tafiganyika, the Victoria Nyanza, or the Upper Congo, with its men 
still able to ask their way, or to understand the drift of what was said to them. Who that in 
earlier days explored Equatorial East Africa or Equatorial West Africa, or the very heart of the 
continent, has not realized the shock and interruption in easy relations when his expedition at last 
left Bantu Africa and arrived in a district where the languages belonged to another family — Nilotic, 
Sudanic, or Nigerian.' How completely at a loss he and his men felt, just as one who had more or 
less grasped the principles of the Romance languages of the present day, with no previous know- 
ledge of German, would feel on entering Alsace-Lorraine or southern Germany from France or 
Switzerland. Though, of course, the differences would be far greater, since German, after all, is one 
of the many Aryan tongues arid has an easily recognized community of origin and interrelationship 
with the Romance languages. 

There is no mistaking a Bantu language for a member of any other African speech family. 
A momentary glance at the numerals, at a dozen word-roots with their prefixes or suffixes, deter- 
mines the fact whether it is or is not a member of the Bantu family. The phonology also is as 
a rule distinctive, though appearances may be deceptive in the case of a few languages of the north- 
western part of the Bantu field. The semi-Bantu languages on this north-west borderland have 
a vocabulary which contains a greater or smaller amount of Bantu roots, and farther north and west 
there are other language families which display obvious resemblances and affinities with what may 
have been the Bantu mother tongue ; but outside the Bantu family there is no known speech group 
in Africa which displays all the characteristic features of Bantu word-construction and syntax and 
at the same time shows unmistakable affinity in word-roots. Curiously enough, there are languages 
in southern Kordofan, in Nigeria, at the back of the Gold Coast, or in the Sierra Leone region, the 
syntax or construction of which frequently recalls the Bantu idiosyncrasy ; but the word-roots of 
the vocabulary would be found wholly dissimilar. Or there are others, again, in West Central 



1 8 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

Africa that exhibit a decided likeness to Bantu in their word-roots, yet in syntax and word- 
construction are quite unlike the Bantu. 

The following propositions may be laid down to define the special or peculiar features oi the 
Bantu languages : 

(i) The vowels of the Bantu languages are always of the Italian type, and no pure Bantu lan- 
guage includes obscure sounds like o, a, ce, and ii. Each syllable must end in a vowel, though in 
some modern dialects in eastern and western Equatorial Africa, in Congoland, and South Africa, 
the terminal vowel may be elided in rapid pronunciation or may be dropped, or absorbed in the 
terminal consonant, generally in such cases a guttural or a nasal. No two consonants can come 
together without an intervening vowel, except one of them be an aspirate or a nasal {nt, n, n), and 
no consonant is doubled in pronunciation. Apparent exceptions occur to this last rule where two 
nasals, two r's, two d's, or two fs, come together through the elision of a vowel or a labial, or 
where the ordinary aspirate, nasal, or dental is reinforced so that it sounds like a double h, n, or t. 

(2) They are agglutinative ^ in their construction, the meaning of the root-word being defined 
or enlarged and the syntax formed by the addition principally of prefixes, and secondarily of 
suffixes added to the root ; but no infixes (that is to say, no mutable syllable) is incorporated into 
the middle of the root-word. 

(3) The root, excepting very rarely its initial vowel or consonant or its terminal vowel, is 
practically unchanging ; though its first or penultimate vowel or consonant may be modified in 
pronunciation by the preceding prefix, or the last vowel of the root similarly, by the succeeding 
suffix. In the great majority of cases, however, the root-word remains absolutely unchanged 
through all syntaxial combinations. It is frequently monosyllabic and very seldom of more than 
two syllables in its original and underivative form. But it is impossible to trace back Bantu con- 
struction to a monosyllabic basis, as some writers have attempted to do. 

(4) Substantives are divided into classes or genders indicated by the pronominal particle 
(' prefix ') which precedes the root of the fully-expressed noun.' These prefixes in an ordinary way 
have attributed to them, definitely, either a singular or a plural sense. With the exception of the 
abstract prefix Bu- (No. 14), no singular prefix can be used as a plural ; and although the 2nd [Ba-], 
the 6th {Ma,-), the 8th (Bi-), and the 12th (Tn-) are in some languages used in an honorific or 
collective sense, which causes them even to be applied like prefixes of the singular number, this 
use is easily traced down from a plural origin. There is a certain degree of correspondence between 
the singular and plural prefixes. Thus, No. i prefix {Mit-) takes invariably as a plural the 2nd Ba- 
{Wa-, Va-, A-), though Ba- may also in the less orthodox languages serve as plural to the singular 
of No. 9, or to nouns which have not been endowed with or have dropped their prefix. No. 4 [Mi-] 
nearly always serves No. 3 [Mu-] as a plural, though it may also be used with No. 14. No. 8 {Bi-) 
is practically the only plural of No. 7 {Ki-). The number of prefixes common to the whole family 
is perhaps seventeen, though there may be two other classes, Nos. 18 and 19 [Gn-, sing., Ga-, plural) 
which, if they cannot be shown to be ancient variants of Nos. 3 and 6, would raise the total number 
to nineteen. These seventeen or nineteen pronominal particles, three of which (15, 16, and 17) 

1 ' Agglutinative ' is a classifying term which has lost its value ; for all languages are agglutinative in 
the sense that as a rule when a concept increases in complexity the word used for it enlarges in volume, the 
language being equally agglutinative whether the added syllables are tacked on to either end of the word 
or inserted in the middle. Even inflexions were originally due to additional syllables which affected and 
modified the root vowels by their proximity. To some extent, indeed, the Bantu languages are not 
strangers to inflexion. For instance, verbal roots may become ' inflected' to express changes of tense, 
mood, and meaning. 

2 In numerous Bantu languages certain classes of prefix may fall into desuetude and the root-word 
appear without a class-indicator. But in such case the noun's class is always present to the native's mind, 
and is indicated by its pronoun and its concord or adjectival particle. Class prefixes in Bantu, after all, 
are analogous to our ' class prefixes ' ' he ' and ' she ' in ' he-goat ', ' she-bear '- 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 19 

often decay into mere prepositions, are attached as prefixes to thie roots of thie nouns and verbs. 
Other monosyllables may be used as qualifying prefixes before noun-roots— chiefly in a masculine 
or feminine or diminutive (' father ' or ' mother ' or ' child ') sense ; but they have no ' concord ', no 
distinctive pronominal particle. 

(5) Bantu languages are especially characterized by the principle of the concord. In close con- 
nexion with the prefixes are similar monosyllables associated with each class of noun, which are 
prefixed to the adjective or numeral in correspondence with the noun, or serve the noun in the 
sentence as pronoun or as pronominal particle in the verb. They combine with a vowel (most 
commonly -a) to form a genitive copula ; and as an identifying suffix or prefix fuse with any interro- 
gative, relative, collective, or demonstrative pronoun, with adverbs or prepositions which refer to 
the noun they represent. The forms of these concord-particles or pronouns are usually like the 
prefix with which they are associated ; yet there is occasionally a dissimilarity showing diversity of 
origin.^ From these concord-particles seem to have arisen, early in the development of the Bantu 
languages, ' preprefixes ', or additionally demonstrative articles (answering somewhat to the English 
'the'). These, when definiteness of utterance was desired, preceded the actual prefix.^ In the 
most archaic forms of Bantu speech these preprefixes are syllables of consonant and vowel identical 
with the pronominal concord : thus the full form of the conjoined preprefix and prefix in Class i of 
the north-west Elgon dialects is Gu-mti, Gn- being the preprefix of Mti- in both Classes i and 3. 
Ba,-ba is the full form of the 2nd Class, and Ga-ma of the 6th Class. But in all but the most archaic 
types of Bantu language, the prefix, if retained at all, is a mere vowel— L''-mu-, ^-ba-, ^-ma-, /-mi. 

(6) With the aid of these pronominal and adjectival particles a complete ' concord ' is main- 
tained between the noun and its dependent adjectives, numerals, demonstratives, pronouns, verbs, 
prepositions, and (sometimes) also adverbs. 

(7) Suffixes of an adjectival, locative, or prepositional sense may also be applied to nouns, and, 
of an adverbial and postpositional quality, to verb-roots. 

(8) No sexual gender is directly recognized in the classes or categories represented by the 
nineteen prefixes with concord particles, or by the personal pronouns. These last make no 
distinction between ' he ' and ' she ', ' they ' (feminine), and ' they ' (masculine). But a distinction of 
sex may be conveyed to nouns and adjectives by sex-prefixes and suffixes (usually Na-, Nya-j Se-, 
Si-, Sa-j- -kazi and -nime). Of the seventeen or nineteen categories of nouns, the prefixes and con- 
cords of Classes i and 2 are chiefly reserved for human beings. Classes 3 and 4 have a great 
deal to do with trees, vegetables, and implements (especially of wood), and members of the body. 
Class 5 comprises many round things like fruits, eggs, stones, the sun, the eye, a tooth, a horn ; 
and is also associated with gigantic objects and augmentatives. Class 6, its plural, has a collective 
sense and refers to liquids, assemblages of people, animals, and inanimate objects; Class 7 (plur. 
No. 8) indicates tools, furniture, methods, ' kinds of, ' manner of doing things or of speaking ' ; 
Classes 9 and 10 were often associated with beasts, birds, reptiles, and fish ; Class 11 (Lu- or 
Du-) with ' long things ', rivers, tongues and languages, long stretches of country or ranges of 
mountains. Classes 12 and 13 were usually diminutives, but Class 13 {Ka-) could also be given 
a specially feminine, tender, and finally honorific sense. Class 14 {Bu-) was generally the prefix of 
abstract quahties, answering to our English suffix ' -«ess' ; Class 15 was applied specially to certain 

^ Thus, in many Bantu languages the concord-particle of the ist, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 9th, and loth 
prefixes, when it is used in a pronominal rather than adjectival sense, differs totally from the prefix. The 
1st prefix is Mu- ; its concord-particle when adjectival is inn-, so also may be its pronoun in the objective 
case ; but its pronominal particles in other connexions may be a-, gic-, yu-, ye-, u-, ka-, -kwe, &c. The 
6th prefix. Ma-, has an adjectival concord ma-, but a pronominal ga- (ya-, a-). 

' Similar ' preprefixes ' are present in the Temne language group of Sierra Leone, that West 
African speech family which offers such a strong analogous resemblance in its syntax to Bantu. 



2° THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

members of the body like ears, arms, and legs, but was mainly associated with ' doing', things, with 
verbs as an infinitive, with direction as a locative—' to ' or ' from '. Class i6 represented only ' place ', 
' here ', ' on ' ; or had to do with time. Class 17 meant ' in-ness ', ' inside '. Classes 18 and 19, where 
they existed, were given the signification of ' great size ', ' unusualness ', ' awfulness '■ 

(9) Numeration in the original Bantu was certainly decimal. The root for ten — kumi— is 
virtually common to more than nine-tenths of the Bantu languages, and so in a lesser proportion 
are words for ' hundred ' {-kana or -kama). 

(10) Demonstrative prefixes and pronouns are often preceded by a directive 'n-' {m- before 
labials) which emphasizes attention. Pronouns in the nominative case always precede the verb- 
root and the objective or accusative pronoun ; which last likewise ordinarily takes its place before 
the governing verb-root.' 

(11) The root-word of the verb, free from prefixed or suffixed particles, is always the 2nd person 
smgular of the imperative. The sense, application, and complexity of verbal roots as concepts can 
be modified, enlarged, affected adverbially in many ways by changing the terminal vowel and 
adding suffixes, some of which almost lead to a process of inflexion by the carrying back of their 
dominant vowel. In normal Bantu languages verb-roots end in -a almost invariably. The verb can 
be given a passive instead of an active signification by means usually of a suffix. No changes of 
the verb-root are attempted at the initial ; but preceding the verb-root come the particles which 
indicate tense and mood, the pronouns, prepositions, and the syllables of negation. On the other 
hand, adverbial particles and occasionally particles with a relative or ' refer-back ' sense are tacked 
on to the termination of the verb-root. Negation is most commonly conveyed by prefixial particles 
— J^a-, Sa-, Ta-, Ki-, Si-, or Ti- (or variants of these), but also by negative suffixes or adverbs, and 
sometimes (additionally) by changing the terminal -a of the verb-root to -i. With very rare excep- 
tions, the prefix which turns the simple verb-root into an infinitive is Kn- (No. 15 prefix). 

(12) Prepositions are used, not postpositions ; the only exception to this rule being the locative 
-ni {-nyi,-n, -n) meaning 'in', which often accompanies the 17th prefix and concord, Mu-. Adverbs, 
on the other hand, when not treated as independent qualifying nouns or adjectives are suffixes, 
following the verb-roots or pronouns they govern. The most characteristic and widespread of the 
Bantu prepositions — in some cases not to be distinguished from Class prefixes— are na-, ni- (with, 
by, and), -3 (of), ku- (to), pa- (at, on), and mu- (in). 

These twelve groupings^ of Bantu characteristics must be regarded as defining the features of 

' Sometimes in a fuller form (like the French 7noi) the objective pronoun is placed after the verb in 
the corrupt north-west Bantu languages. There is also a doubtful exception in orthodox Bantu to the 
rule that the nominative pronoun particle shall precede the verb. This is the instance of the 2nd person 
plural of the imperative mood, wherein, in most Bantu languages, the pronoun particle (a very archaic 
one in form) -ni, follows the verb-root as a suffix (Penda ! = love thou ! ; Penda-ni ! = love ye !). 

' C. R. Lepsius, in his introduction to his Nubische Grammatik (Berlin, 1880), also gave at some 
length twelve propositions to define the peculiar character of the Bantu language family. These for 
a long time were regarded as the standard by which the Bantu features were to be appraised in setting 
them apart from other language types. But his definitions are not in all cases accurate, adequate, or 
intelligible, when a complete survey of the forty-six Bantu groups is effected- — an impossibility in 
Lepsius's day. Summarized, Lepsius's propositions were as follows : 

(i) The prefixes of the nouns are the most outstanding features in the Bantu languages, and may be 
contrasted with the similarly characteristic suffixes of the Hamitic tongues. There are about eight 
different prefixes in the singular. {^Lepsius was wrong here ; in his own day eleven had been computed; 
and even if he had argued that the three Mu- prefixes are to be counted as one — though their concords 
show them to be inherently different— we should still be left with nine, twelve being the probable total.'\ 
They may be most easily compared with the genders or sex class-divisions of the Hamitic ; but the Bantu 
prefixes have nothing to do with sex. On the other hand, they fall into classes which distinguish 
humanity from what is not human — animals, trees and plants, implements, constructions, and other 
things, especially everything that is extraordinary, outstanding. Some stress should be laid on the 
tendency in the prefixes to distinguish between conscient beings and inconscient things. [This feature 
in Bantu is somewhat exaggerated by L.] The meaning of these prefixes, which must once have been 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 21 

nearly all the Bantu languages. But to scarcely one of them cannot some exception be quoted — 
solitary or unusual, it may be — if careful research is made. In the same way, though all these 

independent root-words, is now no longer to be traced, and this fact alone would imply that the origin of 
the Bantu languages goes far back into Time. [T/ie origin, yes; but not necessarily the migration- 
dispersal over Central and South Africa!] 

(2) Sex differences appear unimportant to a primitive people, and perhaps from this arises the fact 
that in the whole array of negro languages there is no sex discrimination. [An incorrect and over-stated 
remark, in view of the indication of sex classification in the pronouns, articles, and concord particles of 
the Boiigto, Bari, Masai, Musgu, and other obvious negro languages.] Lepsius then illustrates the extent 
to which sex discrimination penetrates the Hamitic, especially the Kushite group of those tongues. 

(3) Outside the limits of the Bantu languages, there exist no class prefixes. [How about Temne ? 
There are class prefixes also in other Semi-Bantu tongues not known to Lepsius, like Avatime of 
SW. TciOgooland.] But nominal prefixes, which have lost their original use, are found frequently in the 
second zone [i.e. the Sudan and West Africa], and are also thus characteristic for their origin. [' Her- 
kunft ' — all this and much else in Lepsius' s twelve Propositions is very vague and of no clear application 
to the definition of Bantu salient features.] These nominal prefixes may be compared with the nominal 
suffixes in the Hamitic. 

(4) Personal pronouns are prefixed to the verb-root. There are no personal suffixes in Bantu 
[Lepsius has overlooked exceptions to this general ride]. This last condition is the opposite of what 
occurs in the Hamitic languages wherein personal suffixes permeate the speech. 

(5) In his fifth proposition Lepsius defines the principle of the concord. [Not altogether correctly, 
for he lays too micch stress on the ' euphonic ' and ' alliteration ' theory. Etiphony in vowel sympathy and 
in initial consonants undoubtedly influences the phonetics of the concord-particles , but does not prevent 
them sometimes from being dissimilar to the prefixes with which they are associated^] Traces of this 
concord or vowel harmony may be met with in certain Sudanese languages (' languages of the second 
zone '), sometimes in the noun, occasionally in the conjugation. In the last mentioned it is to be seen in 
the south Bantu. Traces of a vowel harmony, which is certainly more euphonic than anything else, since 
it arises from the vowel of the word-root, may nevertheless have some ancient connexion with consonantal 
alliteration. 

(6) In the Bantu languages, owing to the predilection for prefixes, there are no postpositions, only 
prepositions. [Incorrect : how about the locatives -ni, -nco, -la .'] The Hamitic languages are divided in this 
respect : Libyan and Old Egyptian favour prepositions ; Kushite languages employ only postpositions. 

(7) The noun in the genitive case in the Bantu languages is placed after its governing noun, and is 
linked with the governing noun by a particle which is compounded from the latter's governing noun's 
prefix. Here again the practice is dissimilar in the two groups of Hamitic languages : Old Egyptian and 
Libyan follow the Bantu method ; the Kushitic tongues place the genitive before the governing noun. 

(8) The south Bantu languages arrange the pronouns and the verb so that the nominative comes 
first, then the verb, and then the object ; so that the verb comes between subject and object. In the 
Hamitic languages it is the rule that the verb either begins the sentence or closes it, so that subject and 
object come into immediate contact. 

(9) This word-placing in the Bantu is however modified when the object is represented by an 
abbreviated pronoun. This is inserted before the verb-root, but after the pronoun of the subject in the 
nominative case. The abbreviated pronoun representing the object in the sentence resembles [Lepsius 
thinks] an infix. In any case there is no parallel to this arrangement in Hamitic speech. 

(10) It is characteristic of the Bantu languages that every syllable should end in a vowel or a nasal 
consonant ; a difference without importance. This syllabic character tends through the isolation of the 
syllables to give a clearness of expression which does not exist in Hamitic speech. 

(11) Associated with this feature is the fact that, in contrast to the terminal enunciation, the initial 
utterance of words or syllables in Bantu may be frequently strengthened, particularly by the apposition of 
a nasal. Such, as an initial consonant has quite a different meaning and effect to what it would have at 
the termination of the word or syllable. While the nasals are of no more importance than other conso- 
nants in the final syllable, they are much more potent as an initial sound if followed by another consonant ; 
because in such case their tone element is almost equal to a syllable, probably because they are the 
remains of an earlier full syllable. [Lepsiics's meaning in this eleventh clause is far from clear, and the 
whole proposition is valueless. Perhaps he is alluding to the ' directive n ', frequently referred to in the 
present ii/ork.] 

(12) In his last proposition Lepsius descants on the influence of tones, of intonation in ancient 
African forms of speech, employed as in Chinese, Burmese, Siamese, and one or more groups of West 
and West Central African languages. He classes intonation as among the characteristics of the Bantu 
tongues. [True, it plays an important role in Secuana and SesutCd, and perhaps to a less degree in Zttlu- 
Kafir. It is also an essential element in the pronunciation of Mpongwe and of the Fang or Pahwe lan- 
guages of the north-west J but — as a means of discrimination between monosyllabic words — roots worn 
down by attrition to a common semblance it is far from being one of the distinctive features of the Bantu 
languages 



22 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

points taken together constitute — with an array of numerals, pronouns, prepositions, noun-roots, 
verb-roots, and sj'ntaxial features held in common— the outstanding marks that distinguish a Bantu 
from a non-Bantu language, it must not be supposed that anyone of these qualities or distinctions is 
peculiar to the Bantu family. Bantu phonology may be matched in some of the Sudanic tongues, 
and even (to a remarkable degree) among the Papuan and Melanesian languages. The Fula, the 
Wolof, the Temne, some of the Nilotic tongues and the Hottentot possess the principle of the con- 
cord ; 1 in the Fula, in the languages of south Kordofan, of north Togoland, of Sierra Leone, nouns 
are ranked in a great variety of classes independent of sexual gender, each class being marked by 
a special initial sound, a prefix, or a suffix. Change suffixes into prefixes — a revolution which may 
take place somewhat quickly in a language (as witness the difference between Tudor English and 
Victorian English)^ in the placing of prepositions— and you would have in Fula a form of speech 
very reminiscent of the Bantu family. The Bantu languages, therefore, do not strike one as foreign 
in their origin to Negro Africa, less so, in fact, than the Fula. Probably the parent speech was 
a prefix-using tongue of ' West African ' features spoken originally in the very heart of Africa, some- 
where between the basins of the Upper Nile, the Bahr-al-ghazal, the Mubangi, and the Upper Benue, 
one of a chain of similar prefix and concord languages stretching from westernmost Africa to 
Kordofan. The first invasive move of the archaic Bantu seems to have been eastward, toward the 
Mountain Nile and the Great Lakes. The proto-Bantu folk were certainly once — many centuries 
ago — settled in the Nile valley north of the Albert Nyanza. One can trace their place-names still, 
in countries long since colonized by Nilotics or Sudanese. In this direction (the south-western 
part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan) they must have remained till at least as late as three or four 
hundred years before Christ — late enough to have been in full possession of goats and oxen and to 
have received the domestic fowl ' from Egypt or Abyssinia. Then they embarked on their great 
career of conquering and colonizing the southern third of Africa. 

' This principle of the concord between the class prefix or termination of substantives and the 
adjectives, pronouns, and verbal pronominal particles dependent on them is by no means confined to the 
languages of the African negro and negroid. It may, indeed, like so many other ideas, have originated 
in Europe or Eurasia, and have spread to Africa. The concord is present in the Aryan tongues (Ills, 
bona itrama, &c.), in the Semitic and Hamitic languages. In these last the concord of the genders 
extends even to the personal pronoun ' thou ', which is rendered by feminine as well as masculine forms. 
In the Bantu, Fula, Temne, and other African ' class ' languages, the classes are many and do not refer 
to sexual gender ; in the Dravidian and certain of the Caucasus languages the categories are few, but 
likewise have no sexual reference. In the Aryan, Semitic, and Hamitic (and Nilotic and some Sudanese) 
speech famiUes, the classes may be three — masculine, feminine, and neuter — or merely two : masculine 
and feminine. 

^ Teutonic English, like modern German and Dutch, was largely prefixial in its qualifying preposi- 
tions. Our ancestors said 'uprise', 'uptake', 'understand', 'offset', 'enfold', where we, especially 
during the nineteenth century, would prefer the more analytical locution of ' rise-up ', ' take-up ', ' set-off', 
' fold-in ', &c. 

^ I have employed this argument several times before, and so far it has not been successfully com- 
bated : namely, that the great dispersal of the Bantu from their first common area of development in the 
very heart of Africa cannot have taken place before they had received the domestic fowl and given it 
a well-marked generic name — kukii — which, by the by, is very like the early Persian names for 'fowl'. 
Now the fowl was first domesticated from the wild Gallics ferriigineus in India (or from the allied 
G. bankiva in Burma), about four thousand years ago. [It reached China as a domestic bird about 
1400 B.C.] But it was totally unknown to the ancient Egyptians, or to the Greeks before the seventh 
century B.C. It did not reach Mesopotamia till about seven hundred years before the Christian Era, nor 
Egypt till after the Persian invasion of 525 B.C. Even supposing it spread rapidly up the Nile valley as 
a domestic bird, it could hardly have reached Central Africa for another hundred years — if so soon. Con- 
sequently for the fowl to have become so well-established amongst the Bantu as to have received a lasting 
and almost universal name amongst them, much time is required between the Persian invasion and the 
period of the great Bantu migrations : say 300 years. Amongst those negro races which do not speak 
Bantu languages, though they may be living in closest pro.ximity to the Bantu, the word for ' fowl' is quite 
different from the Bantu term (though this last may extend to the Semi-Bantu languages). Nor is it likely 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 23 

The most archaic Bantu languages at the present day are those of Bunyorco, Bukonjco, Ruanda, 
Buganda, the islands of the Victoria Nyanza, and the region of the north-west slopes of Mount 
Elgon (Masaba). It is reasonable to suppose that after the Bantu language-type came into existence 
— perhaps between the Shari basin and the Bahr-al-ghazal (its nearest relations are found in the 
Niger and Cross river basins) — its first great concentration lay in the region of the Great Lakes, in 
Equatorial Africa. Here it was shut off for a while from westward extension by the dense wall of 
Congoland forest. Southward, down the shores of Tafiganyika and thence south-west and west 
across the mountains and plateaus of southern Congoland to the Atlantic ; eastward and south- 
eastward to the Indian Ocean and the Zangian coasts ; southward across the Zambezi and 
Mashonaland to temperate South Africa swept the Bantu invaders, armed, it may be, with novel 
iron weapons and led by a Hamiticized aristocracy. They progressed, no doubt, as rapidly as the 
Zulu or Basutco hordes overran Central Africa under the white man's observation in the nineteenth 
century. Here our forefathers or contemporaries have been able to testify to the spread of the 
Zulu clans and the Zulu tongue from the 35th to the 3rd degree of South latitude in about fifty 
years. 

The original Bantu invaders found no empty Africa before them. We may be certain from 
abundant evidence that Central and South Africa have been inhabited by man for many thousands 
of years, and probably by some black-skinned negro— forest negro, Sudanese negro, or Congo 
Pygmy — for an indeterminately long period, as far south as the Zambezi river. But South Africa 
proper, between the high plateaus of northern Becuanaland and the sea-coast of Cape Colony and 
Natal may possibly have been the domain exclusively of the Bushman and of the Hottentot hybrid 
down to the first Bantu invasions from across the Zambezi in (at a guess) about 700 a.c. South 
Africa then or earlier may have been partially depopulated from some cause — some epidemic of 
germ disease. Anciently— thirty, fifty thousand years ago, farther back still, perhaps — there existed 
in southernmost Africa a remarkable cave-dwelling type, the ' Strandlooper', whose skull bore less 
of a resemblance to the Bushman or the negro than to some round-headed, semi-Caucasian stock of 
the Mediterranean. This Strandlooper either co-existed alongside the Bushman or preceded and 
was followed by this specialized desert negro. In time the Strandloopers died out, leaving perhaps 
some traces of their presence in varied Bushman strains, and bequeathing to the Bushmen their 
wonderful gift of drawing and engraving, so reminiscent of the cave and rock pictures of the Solu- 
trian and Magdalenian Cavemen of Europe or the Palaeolithic and Neolithic nomads of Algeria and 
the Sahara. 

We may imagine, however, some two thousand years ago, a South Africa beyond the Zambezi 
and Kunene rivers given up for a time to the dwarfish, steatopygous, yellow-skinned, click-using 
Bushman. 

The next disturbing element may have been the Hottentot ; a hybrid between negro and 

that the fowl was earlier introduced into East Africa by seafaring Arabs, thus reaching the Bantu home 
by another route long anterior to two hundred or three hundred years before Christ. The fowl was 
seemingly not introduced from Java or Sumatra into Madagascar by the early Malay colonists of that 
island ; but within the Christian Era by the Arabs ; and in Madagascar it bears no native name resembling 
the Bantu root-word -kuktc. It may nevertheless be argued that the fowl, like tobacco and the Brazilian 
Casarca duck, might have been introduced to the coast regions of Bantu Africa quite recently, long after 
all Central and South Africa had been ' Bantu-ized ', and have rapidly spread over the southern third of 
the continent, carrying its name with it. But in that case why did not its name similarly reach the negro 
languages across the Bantu border-line t Tobacco and the ' Muscovy ' duck are nowhere known by 
universal names throughout Bantu Africa, though their Portuguese names of ' Taba' or 'Tabaco', and 
' Pato ' may still survive here and there and be shared by Sudanic, Nilotic, Nigerian, and Bantu languages. 
The Bantu, it is to be noted, have, like the Aryans, remained faithful long after their dispersal to the 
word-roots referring to the animals, plants, implements, and abstract concepts known to them in their 
original home. 



24 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

negroid and some more northern Bushman race, which seems to have migrated from Equatorial 
East Africa south-westwards to the Central Zambezi and thence to the Atlantic coast near Walfish 
Bay, and on again southwards till the Hottentots entered (what is now) Cape Colony and displaced 
the Bushman. Later, it may be, there came other invaders from the north-east, by sea, rather than 
by land, the mysterious gold-mining, stone-building, monolith and phallus-worshipping people who 
origmated the Zimbabwe walls, temples, and emblems. These are amongst the unsolved mysteries 
of Africa ; but the most striking of these stone cities, together with this whole impulse and 
procedure of gold-mining, most certainly were foreign to the Bantu arts and pursuits. The Bantu 
have seldom any word for gold. The tribes oldest in legendary history in South and East Africa use 
for gold an Arab word meaning ' moneys '. Zimbabwe and its like originally, perhaps, and cer- 
tainly later, early in the Christian Era, became associated with the exploring and trading voyages 
of the south Arabians ; and among the early writers of Islamic times there were to be gathered 
traditions that when the Arabs first visited the south-east coasts of Africa they found them peopled 
with ' Wakwak ' savages, who from the brief allusions made strike one as more like Bushmen than 
Bantu. The arrival of the Bantu hordes (the ancestors of the Karaiia, Becuana, Zulu-Kafir, 
Mafafigane, and Rofiga peoples), maj' have been the cause of the abandonment of the stone 
fortresses and mining depots by the sea-people whose forerunners designed or built them. After 
a time, however, the Arabs got into friendly relations with the Bantu colonizers, who in a much 
clumsier fashion imitated their mining and their stone-building. The Arabs, indeed, by their trade, 
their influence, and their slave-markets seem to have moulded the conquests of some early Bantu 
warrior-chief into that empire of the Mwenemutapa^ — Lord of the mine— which the Portuguese 
found still a potent state when they reached South-east Africa at the commencement of the sixteenth 
century. 

The Bantu were quite possibly settled on the more northern coast of the Indian Ocean— the 
land of Zanj — at the beginning of the Christian Era. The early Arab traders from Mokha, Aden, 
Mokalla, and Maskat cultivated friendly relations with them. A hybrid type sprang up, the SwahiU, 
or men of the ' Suahil ' (coast-lands). With the aid of the Arab daus (sailing vessels) many of 
these Swahili from the land of Zanj or Zafig (the Persian or Arab name for Black man's country, and 
the origin of ' Zanzibar ') colonized the Komorco islands and even reached Madagascar, supplying 
the Malagasy dialects with numerous Swahili words. 

In the Congo basin the Bantu invaders often appeared as solitary huntsmen, boldly attacking 
the big wild beasts with their iron spears. Bantu culture throughout the Congo basin is closely 
associated with the iron spe&r—^ongo), Kongu, Lionga. They probably found the Congo forests 
peopled already with forest negroes speaking tone languages of West African type or with a still 
more primitive people, the Congo Pygmies. There would even seem to be portions of the inner- 
most Congo basin which the tall Bantu have not yet penetrated and where there are only Pygmies. 
On the Northern Congo there still remain patches of non-Bantu territory inhabited by negroes 
speaking languages of an as yet unclassified type, vaguely styled ' Sudanic '. Somewhat similar 
to these are the Forest Lendu to the west of the Albert Nyanza. 

The first great Bantu migrations undoubtedly emanated from the vicinity of the Victoria Nj'anza 
and north Tanganyika, and were directed round and not through the Congo forests. But in course 
of time, the Bantu communities founded in the region of the Albertine Nile and the Nyanzas, or 
farther still to the north-west between the sources of the Wele and the Aruwimi, broke through 
the wall of forest, and sent streams of migrants across the northern parts of Congoland to the 
Gaboon and the Cameroons ; reaching as their final effort the island of Fernando Po, which was not 

1 Mivene = ' lord ', ' monarch ' ; Mutapa. = ' mine ', ' digging ', ' excavation ', in the dialects of the 
Lower Zambezi. This the Portuguese corrupted into Monoinotapa. 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 25 

very anciently severed from a Cameroons promontory by some volcanic rift. Such an east-to-west 
propulsion might, in contact with the Nigerian peoples of the Cross river and Benue basins, have 
created by fusion the Semi-Bantu languages ; and no doubt one or two groups of such arose in this 
way and not very anciently. But it is more probable, taking all known facts into account, that 
a large section of the Semi-Bantu speech forms is either descended from sisters of the Bantu 
parent tongue (born in that central region north of the Benue, east of the Niger, and west of the 
Shari river), or has been originated by early, very early, south-westward migrations of the proto- 
Bantu before the great eastward move into the Nile basin and before the exact shaping of Bantu 
features had taken place. 

One is led irresistibly to deduce from the linguistic, ethnological, and anthropological evidence 
before us that at some sucji critical period in their career the negro speakers of the early Bantu 
languages were brought under the influence of a semi-Caucasian race from the north or north-east. 
Perhaps it was a gradual drifting into Central Africa of Egyptian or Gala adventurers coming up 
or across the basin of the Mountain Nile ; an infiltration of a superior type of man rather than 
a forceful invasion. Descendants of such ancient civilizers of Central Africa are undoubtedly to be 
seen at the present day in the Bahima, Ruhinda, Batutsi aristocracies of the Nyanza regions, the 
Mangbettu and Azande 'royal' famihes of the Nile-Congo water-parting, the Bapi-bupoiigaj of 
central Congoland, the Luba chieftains, and the many handsome-featured pale-skinned castes and 
ruling clans in so many of the Bantu peoples. Such good-looking ' negroid ' types may be 
encountered among the Zulus, the Becuana, the Hererco, the Alunda, Baluba, Manyuema, and the 
northern Congo riverain tribes, the Fang peoples, and the Duala of the Cameroons. Livingstone, 
Burton, Stanley, as well as later travellers, were all struck with the Egyptian-like features of the 
aristocratic families in the big Bantu states and kingdoms or among the warlike tribes of Central 
Africa, Similar aristocracies were noted by the pioneer missionaries and traders in southernmost 
Africa. 

The Bantu-speaking peoples of Africa, it might be here stated, do not constitute a race apart 
from other negroes or offer any homogeneity of physical type. But on the whole they represent 
so much the average negro type that ' Bantu ' is still in favour as a physical definition among crani- 
ologists. In reality, thej' are just fifty millions of negroes whose speech belongs to one of the 
many language families of ' negro type ; only in this case the language family instead of being 
confined in its range to a hundred villages or two hundred square miles, is spread over the southern 
third of Africa— say over 3,500,000 square miles— from the Cameroons, the Northern Congo, the 
Nyanzas, and the Mombasa coast to Cape Colony and Natal. Bantu languages are spoken by Congo 
Pygmies and forest negroes of marked prognathism and stunted stature, by fuzzy-haired brown- 
skinned Fernandians still in the stone-and-wood age of culture, by tall-statured, handsome pale- 
skinned negroids with Egyptian profiles — the Bahima and Batutsi, by great, burly, coarse- 
featured, downright, ' West Coast' negroes like the Wanyamwezi, the Baganda, the OOvambui, and 
the folk of the Angola coast-lands ; by tribes with the yellow skins, broad, wrinkled faces of the 
slit-eyed Bushmen, by the very black-skinned, large-eyed comely Atonga of Nyasa, the semi-Arab 
Swahili or Karana, the stately Zulu, the mean-looking Batwa of Bangweulu, the Assyrian-Uke 
Baluba and Bupongm, the simiesque Banandi of the Ituri forest or Babofigco of the Gaboon, and the 
all-round, moderately ugly, black negroes of average stature and average negro characteristics 
throughout the rest of South and Central Africa. 

Yet about the Bantu speech and the culture which accompanies it (ordinarily) there is a suggestion, 
strengthened by the association of these languages with metal-working (iron more especially), with 
agriculture, cultivated plants, and cattle-keeping, that adds to the impression derived from their 
legends, their religious beliefs, games, and weapons. It is that the Bantu language family was finally 
moulded by some non-negro incomers of possibly Hamitic affinities, akin at any rate in physique 



26 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

and culture, if not in language/ to the dynastic Egyptians, the Galas, and perhaps most of all to 
those 'Ethiopians' of mixed Egyptian and Negro-Nubian stock that down to one thousand years 
ago inhabited the Nile basin south of Wadi Haifa and north of Kordofan. Such a race may even 
have been akin to the Tibu farther west, the Tibu of Fezzan, the Eastern Sahara, and the Libyan 
desert. We know that some of the weapons of the Central Congo are to be traced northwards to 
Tibu weapons and implements of ancient date. 

In spite of the suggestion of Egyptian influence in the domestic animals and plants of Bantu 
Africa (as also of the Western Sudan) and of the Egyptian profiles among the Bahima, I cannot but 
think this ' Egyptian '■ influence over the Bantu was wrought indirectly through Gala, Ethiopian, and 
perhaps Tibu, through, more or less Hamitic peoples influenced by Egyptian civilization of an early 
type. If much direct Egyptian influence had found its way to Central Africa from the Lower Nile it 
must surely have imported into Darkest Africa that deep attachment to Stone— for building and for 
worship — which emanated from the Mediterranean and south-west Asiatic peoples. But no skill 
in stone-quarrying, stone-carving or stone-building ever reached the Bantu, or for the matter of 
that, the Fula, the Mandiiigtt), or the Hausa. Of all such arts the Bantu culture and languages are 
ignorant. 

The Baganda and Banyorto legends of the incoming strangers of remote antiquity, the wander- 
ing demi-gods ('Bacwezi' — ghosts, spirits) who came with long-horned cattle, trained dogs, iron 
weapons, religious theories, and the elements of civilization generally, make no mention of building 
in stone or of building at all. The very similar Ful shepherd aristocrats of Western Africa likewise 
had the ' Bantu ' culture, the herdsmen's craft, a simple agriculture with the hoe,^ an acquaintance 
with iron and copper (though copper plays a very secondary r6le in Ful and Bantu thought, legend, 
and speech) ; but no notion of stone-building. With the exception of the Bube or Fernandian 
indigenes, no Bantu people has been found living in an age of stone implements, though there are 
abundant evidences to show that nearly all Negro Africa (except perhaps the innermost forests of 
the Congo basin) went through ages of using flaked, chipped, bored, and polished stone weapons 
and tools. The Bushmen and Hottentots had remained in this stage, without knowledge of metals, 
using stone and also horn, bone, stick, thorn, and shell. Most of the forest negroes apparently 
adopted— or reverted to — wood before they were introduced to the use of copper. An industry in 
smelting and hammering copper, in exporting copper in the ingot or in manufactured form seems 
to have arisen a long while — many centuries— ago in Kataiiga, where the copper deposits are 
singularly rich ; and this trade in copper to have spread from south Congoland to north and west 

1 It is curious that, but for a few obvious loan-words in the east of Africa, there is absolutely no 
Hamitic impression or affinity about the Bantu languages. Lepsius seems to have been impressed by 
the complete dissimilarity between the two language families. I cannot see myself much evidence of 
Hamitic influence on the structure, syntax, or origin of the Nilotic negro languages and the Bongo) of the 
Egyptian Sudan— not such as there is for example in the Hausa and even Musgu. But one can detect 
in the numerals of the more eastern and south-eastern of the Nilotic tongues, and in a number of their 
nouns, evidence of Kushite (Gala and Somal) having long been in contact with the Nilotes, Masai, and 
Nandi. But one finds no such evidence in the Bantu languages, not even those of the Nyanzas, which 
are the most archaic. Yet in the regions where the purest Bantu speech exists you meet with these 
cattle-keeping aristocracies such as Bahima, Batutsi, and Ruhinda, whose physical resemblance to Galas, 
Somalis, even Abyssinians and Pharaonic Egyptians, is most striking. One can trace in the local folk- 
lore, religion, domestic animals, &c., the influence of the Caucasian or semi-Caucasian races of North- 
east Africa, but not a trace of their Hamitic languages. There is perhaps a little influence of the Nilote 
in the shaping of the Bantu mother language. Can the handsome negroids from the north and east who 
would seem to have been the leaven that stirred the Bantu dough more than two thousand years ago and 
who urged these Sudanic negroes to spread over and occupy the southern third of Africa have been 
derived from some stock like the Tibu which, though semi-Caucasian in blood, had received no language 
from the Asiatic Hamites .' 

^ Though the Gala, even far inland in Equatorial East Africa, knows and uses the plough, no plough 
has ever been known to the Negro or the Fula. 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 37 

Congoland ; and southward as far as Nyasaland. Was it pre-Bantu ? We have no means of 
telh'ng ; but there are many indications showing that the invasion of the Bantu was facilitated by 
the use of iron weapons, and that the working of iron ore and the fabrication of iron weapons and 
tools in Central and South Africa dates only from the Bantu conquest of the southern third of the 
continent. 

The spread of the more aristocratic ' negroid ' Bantu is also associated with the ancient 
Egyptian or Gala long-horned ox (Bos taurus aegyptiacus). This breed possibly had a west Asiatic 
origin, and it is evidently nearly related to the Indian humped ox. No trace of any wild progenitor 
has yet been found in its ancient habitat, Egypt and Ethiopia. It was obviously the first type of 
domesticated cattle in Africa. Later there entered East Africa the Indian Zebu breed, which may have 
also replaced the aegyptiacus type in southern Arabia. The Zebu, or humped type, crossed Africa 
from the east coast to western Congoland, the western Sudan, and western Zambezia, and travelled 
down the south-east coast of Africa to Zululand. The Hamites, I should say, had already intro- 
duced the long-horned aegyptiacus cattle to the regions south of the Victoria Nyanza. And here 
they were brought by that mysterious race, the Hottentot hybrid, to central South Africa and down 
the south-west coast to Cape Colony. At some unknown period afterwards the Bantu peoples 
round the Nyanzas received these long-horned cattle from the north and conveyed them in their 
southward migrations as far as Damaraland. Probably in all but the elevated regions of Central 
Africa these straight-backed, long-horned cattle died out from germ-diseases, which is why so many 
Bantu tribes at the opening up of Africa by the modern white man were without cattle or had 
adopted the humped cattle of Indian origin. Cattle, both of the aegyptiacus and indicus breeds, seem 
to have been introduced from Bantu Africa into Madagascar by Arab intermediaries and slave- 
dealers ; which is why a Bantu word for 'ox' is the chief term employed in Malagasy. 

One of the difficulties attending the acceptance of the theory that the ' Bantuizing ' of one-third ot 
Africa has been a long process in unwritten history and cannot be compressed within a period of about 
two thousand years, is the splitting up of the mother tongue into more than two hundred and twenty 
distinct languages, and the improbabilitj' of these languages with their marked idiosyncracies having 
sprung into existence in so short a period as is assigned by writers like myself. By searching 
Portuguese records in regard to the Kofiga) or Karaiia tongues we do not find a great difference 
between the speech of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and the speech of to-day ; the 
numerals of the Bakwiri or Barundu) at Ambas Bay (Cameroons) written down by some French or 
Dutch trader at the close of the seventeenth century are almost identical with the modern form. 

But with the evolution of languages, as of species. Nature — I believe — ^roce-eds per saltum, alter- 
nately with slow progression. A great jumble of events, and lo ! — new languages spring suddenly 
into existence. Those that suit the altered circumstances remain and continue their course for 
centuries with slow modifications. Not more marvellous would have been the rapid differentiation 
and specialization of the leading Bantu languages in Central and South Africa, between— let us 
say— the year One of the Christian Era and the twelfth century, than was the coming into existence 
of the Romance languages, engendered by the impact of the Goth, German, and Slav on the vulgar 
Latin of the decline and fall of Rome. No Romance language existed in the sixth century a.c. 
But, by the close of the twelfth century, Italian, Sicilian, Provencal, French, Castilian, Portuguese, 
and Rumanian were distinct, mutually unintelligible tongues ; analytic where the parent Latin was 
synthetic, possessing an individual character which has not greatly altered in the slow subsequent 
changes. Dante's Italian of the thirteenth century would be perfectly intelligible in the streets of 
Florence to-day, and is not very different from the dialect spoken in Central Italy from the tenth 
century onwards. Yet in the sixth century no such language existed. We might almost say, 
judging from the Oaths of Strasbourg and other scanty evidence, that the French language was born 
and shaped in its essential features between the sixth and the tenth centuries. English which 



28 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

would have been almost unintelligible to an orthodox Anglo-Saxon of looo a.c. was created 
between about iioo and 1350. 

I am disposed to agree with Lepsius in the belief that the Bantu language-type, like the parent 
speech of the Aryans, has taken a very, very long time to shape out of some negro speech in the 
heart of Africa ; I am only arguing that the commencement of the sudden and rapid invasion of 
central and southern Africa by the Bantu cannot be referred back much earlier than the second 
century b.c. ; and that the differentiation of the more than two hundred distinct forms of Bantu 
speech occurred subsequently and rapidly. Six thousand years ago the Aryan Schwdrmerei was 
probably just beginning, somewhere in eastern Europe. And there were then— I suggest— but 
the sHghtest dialectal differences in tribal speech amongst the Aryan Russians to indicate that one 
group of clans would become the progenitors of the Aryan-speaking Asiatics— would in Asia generate 
the Tokhari, the Pisacha, the Sanskrit, Prakrit, and Zend languages ; another tribe Aryanize the 
Lithuanians ; yet another section (as they marched north-westward, westward, south-westward, 
or southward) become ancestors of the Slavs, or the Goths and Germans, the Kelts and Kelti- 
berians, the Itali, the Dakians, Thrakians, and Greeks. 

But if close resemblance in structure and syntax, if similarity of numerals and pronouns, and the 
possession in common of a great number of root-words of nouns and verbs, adjectives and preposi- 
tions are to be given full value as evidence of near relationship and of a recent origin from a common 
source, then we must regard the expansion and differentiation of the Bantu languages as a much 
more recent and rapid process than that which brought about the Aryanizing of all Europe and 
much of South-west Asia. 

The map of Bantu Africa will show the main directions taken in presumed history by the 
different streams of Bantu migration ; and an examination of the groups of Bantu languages will, 
after detaching true and widespread Bantu roots from their vocabularies, leave a residue which 
must represent the assimilated fragments of prior languages spoken by the peoples whom the Bantu 
armies conquered and fused with ; just as in the Keltic tongues, the Armenian, Albanian, and the 
modern Romance dialects there are words retained from languages of utterly different affinities 
which were in occupation of the land when the Aryan or Aryanized invaders came with their 
overpowering influence. Some very slight influence of Gala (a Hamitic ' white man ' speech) can 
be traced through the East African Bantu, about four hundred miles south of the present Gala range 
in East Equatorial Africa. The Sudanic tongues, the Nilotic and Masai, even the Nubian and 
Kordofan languages have sent words from the north — chiefly of domestic animals, wild beasts, and 
trade goods— circulating through northern and western Congoland, through the Nyanza Bantu, the 
speech of Kikuyu, Kilimanjaro), Usambara, and the coast-belt of Equatorial East Africa. The 
unclassified, somewhat monosyllabic tongues of the Niger delta and the Cross river have influenced 
the worn-down Bantu languages of the West Cameroons. The influence on Bantu of Arabic, 
Portuguese, English, French, and Dutch is so palpable and (excepting that of Arabic and Persian) 
so comparatively modern that it hardly comes within the range of philological studies. It needs no 
explaining. Considering how long the Arabs and the Gala Hamites have been in influential contact 
with the Bantu of East and South-east Africa, and how powerfully the Aryanized Persians of the 
tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries a. c. influenced the Zaiigian coasts and islands, it is surprising 
how comparatively few Arabic and Persian words have crept into Bantu speech. Swahili is by 
far the most Arabized of the Bantu tongues ; yet except in refinements of vocabulary often ignored 
by the common people, it remains essentially and very typically a Bantu language. The fact that 
the ancient and mediaeval Bantu invaders of eastern Zambezia and South-east Africa knew and 
cared nothing for gold till some incoming foreign people from across the seas taught them the value 
of that metal, is shown by the absence of any true Bantu root-word for 'gold'. The word by 
which 'gold' is rendered in the Zambezian and South-east African Bantu languages is— if not 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 29 

a variant of the Portuguese ouro or the English 'gold' — derived from Arabic, and usually 
a corruption of dirham^ {ndarama., ndalamu). 

Subtracting the foreign, the pre-existing elements from the modern Bantu tongues, we are left 
in nearly every group with a surprisingly large proportion of words traceable back to a common 
inheritance from Old-Bantu, from the pristine Bantu of North Equatorial Africa. Most of the defeca- 
tions from this rule are due to that human love of metaphor and trope, that dislike in timid or refined 
minds to calling a spade a spade, a devil a devil, a urinal a urinal. Totemism, superstition, would 
start a practice of referring to dreaded snakes not as ' nyoka, \ ' the snake ', but as ' the long animal ', 
'the hisser', 'the coiler'. The Bantu tongues have as many paraphrases for alluding shame- 
facedly to the genital organs or the functions of generation and defecation as the most modest speech 
of Europe and America. The variations of Bantu vocabularies, especially in the south, have been 
mainly caused by Hloonipa. This word— a verb in Zulu meaning ' to have shame ', to be ashamed ' 
— covers the practice of not calling some common object, some beast, bird, fish, utensil, or 
geographical feature by its proper name if that name happens to be the cognomen of a near relative, 
a husband, father, brother, mother, great friend, or respected chief. The custom refers more to 
women's utterance than men's ; unhappy Woman throughout the long history of the ascent of the 
human species having always been regarded as unlucky, as an Eve doing the wrong thing and 
bringing down ill luck by offending the vague Powers of Nature and Fate. Consequently, in parts 
of Bantu Africa, if a woman marries a man named ' Lion ', though she may continue to call her 
husband shyly and whisperingly by his name, she will henceforth call the real lion, the 'roarer' 
the 'slayer of beasts ', the ' big cat '. Farther north, if the totem animal of the clan, or the most 
striking local example of divine or demoniac power is a crocodile, it might not do to be heard calling 
'crocodile' (on the principle of letting sleeping dogs lie). So the crocodile— to the confusion of the 
inquiring philologist — is not called Ngwena, or Ngundu, by one of its widespread Bantu names, but 
' the long one ', ' the sly ojie', 'the snapper-up ', or some other roundabout nickname. Evidently, 
however, as with family slang in our own land, a fashion in misnomers seldom starts from the 
vagaries of a few fantastics ; otherwise the Bantu languages would not have remained after some two 
thousand years of dispersal so astonishingly true to type. 

Before the reader's, attention is turned to the long series of illustrative vocabularies which 
I have thought it best to supply as a prelude to the discussion in detail of the existing Bantu lan- 
guages, it might assist him or her if I outHned the most striking features of the presumed Bantu 
mother speech. We can, of course, only deduce these from an analysis and comparison of those 
Bantu languages which have preserved the greatest proportion of widely-distributed word-roots in 
their vocabulary, or have similarly retained archaic forms of prefix, adjective, pronoun, preposition, 
adverb, and verb, which, from their recurrence and re-emergence in so many parts of South and 
Central Africa, would seem to have been part of the common stock of ideas in the original Bantu 
centre of dispersal. I shall thus have supplied some standard of comparison by which the diver- 
gency and the degree of divergency of the modern Bantu languages may be gauged, in the outcome 
of their development from the parent tongue of North Equatorial Africa, two to three thousand 
years ago. 

The following are examples of some among the many noun-roots of universal or considerable 
distribution in Bantu Africa ; given in the shape which they probably assumed in the original 
language or group of dialects (the Ur-Bantu of German writers, or as I prefer to style it in Enghsh, 
Old-Bantu) from which the two hundred and seventy-six Bantu languages and dialects of to-day 
are descended. 

' In its turn, no doubt, derived from the Greek drachma. 



3° THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

Noun-roots 

Father (Se, Sa, Si ; Tata) ; mother (Nya, Na, Nyina ; Mama) ; brother (-ina, -dugu, -pangi) ; 
sister (-lumbu) ; maiden, virgin (-wali, -wala, -isika, -dumba) ; grandparent (Kaka, Kcokco) ; 
child, son (-keke, -ana, Mwna) ; wife (-ka, -kazi) ; twins (-pasa or -longco). 

Chief (-kama, -ami, -fumV -kcosi, -ini (-ene)) ; doctor, medicine-man (-fumu,^ -ganga) ; witch, 
sorcerer (-luki, -sawi, -sawa, -lemba) ; thief, stealer (-ibi, -iba) ; man (-ntu, whence Muntu = a 
man, Bantu = men) ; male (-lume) ; female (-ka, -kazi, -katii) ; body (-wili, -biri, -zimba) ; skin 
(■gcoba (-gcovi, -guzi), -kanda) ; head (-tu, -twe) ; hair (-bale, -bili, -suki, -kisi) ; nose (-gulco, -pulco, 
-pula, -pombco, -indco) ; eye (-isw) ; ear (-tu, generally Ku-tu) ; lip (-Icomco) ; mouth (-nwa) ; tooth 
(-inco, -gegco, -songa) ; tongue (-limi, -laka) ; chin, beard (-devu) ; saliva (-te, Mate); neck (-kingco, 
-kcosi) ; shoulder (-bega) ; buttock (-takcj) ; back, backbone (-gongco, -uma, -tana, -busa) ; chest 
(•fuba,^ -adi, -tulu) ; breast, nipple (-bale) ; heart (-tima— this word is sometimes used also for chest 
and liver) ; navel (-kcofu, -kuvu, -tcotco, -kundi, -kombco) ; belly, stomach (-vumu, -fu, -nda, -mimba) ; 
bowels (-tumbco, -da or -ra). 

Arm (-bcokoo, -kconco) ; armpit (-apa) ; hand (-anda, -anja) ; finger or toe (-nwa, -nye, -kumu) ; 
finger-nail, and sometimes finger (-ala, -dala, -jala) ; penis (-bcolco) ; thigh (-berco) ; leg (-gulu, 
-rundco) ; foot-sole (-ayco) ; vein (-sipa, -sisa) ; blood (-rojpa, -gazi, -nga, -kame or -gama) ; milk 
(■ziwa, -bale) ; fat, butter, oil (-futa ^) ; bone (-fupa and -kupa,^ -bisi) ; tear (-scozi, -ziga, -bezi) ; 
breath, life, soul (-conyco, -oya, -oyiM) ; death (-fu, -fua ^) ; ghost, spirit (-zimu, -limu, -banda, -dumba). 

Sky, and often God and rain (-gulu or -iguru, -julu, -lungu, -ingu) ; rain (-bula, -lungu) ; sun, 
sunlight, daylight (-juba, -ise, -sana, -langa or -tanga) ; moon, moonlight, month (-ezi from -ela, -era, 
to be white, shining, -gondco, -sungi) ; star (-ezi, -eti — perhaps from the same source as moon — and 
•nyanye, -nini, -sonda, -tanda, -data or -jata) ; year (-aka, -vu) ; night or day (-Ico or -ila>— leloj is a 
widespread root for 'to-day' — naku, -siku, -tuku, or -fuku) ; darkness (-giza, -sise, -ilima, -rima, 
or -zima) ; wind, cold (-pepco) ; smoke (-cosi, -isi, -iki, -ika, -dinga) ; fire (-lilco, -otto, from -ota, to 
warm, -pia, -bazu) ; charcoal (-kala) ; earth, ground, country (-si or -ti) ; stone (-bwa, -tadi, -ala or 
-bale, -manya) ; salt (-nyu, -ngiia, -kale) ; iron, iron ore (-ela or -bela, -uma, -tadi, -londu) ; water 
(•zi, -diba or -ziba) ; river, stream (-geda, -gazi or -giji, -itco, -donga) ; lake, broad river, sea or 
(•ziba, -anza or -anja, -zadi, -sabi); mountain, hill (-scozi, -lima, -pili); river-valley (-rambco or 
■damboi) ; road, path (-dila, -gila, -handa, -bwka). 

Tree, stick (-ti) ; dry wood, firewood (-kuni, -kui) ; thorn (-iba) ; grass (-ani, -asi) ; banana- 
tree (-gomba, -konda) ; banana-fruit (-tcoki, -konda, -dizi) ; yam (-lungu, -coma, -kua, -rali) ; wine, 
mead, or beer (-alwa, -lebu, -lafu or -Icofu) ; mushroom (-bcoa) ; forest (-bira, -itu, -zitu). 

Bee, honey (-uki) ; termite (-swa) ; fish (-swi) ; frog (-ula) ; snake (-coka, -piri (viper), -mamba 
(cobra)); crocodile (-kwena, -gandu, -mamba); egg (-ki, -landa) ; bird (-uni); wing, membrane 
(-papa) ; guinea-fowl (-kanga) ; francolin (-kwale) ; domestic fowl (-kuku). 

Beasts of all kinds— flesh (-ama) ; rat (-baba, -puku, -kcosw) ; porcupine (-nungu, -gumba) ; 
elephant (-dubco, -jcofu, -damba, -dembto) ; hippopotamus (-gubu, -vubu) ; rhinoceros (-pela, -pem- 
bele) ; pig (-gulu, -guluba) ; buffalo (-ati, -aka) ; giraffe (-twiga) ; ox, cow, cattle (-gombe or -kcomco) ; 
milch-cow or breeding-goat (-gcoma) ; horn (-mba, -pambe, -senga), -iga) ; goat (-buzi, -budi, -paeni) ; 
dog (-bwa) ; cat (-paka, -simba ') ; leopard (-gwe, -koi, -sui) ; lion (-simba, -tare, -tambco) ; hyena 
(-pisi,^ -mbwi, -bungu, -puru) ; monkey (-kima); baboon (-yani, -kolcobe, -pombco); ape (-zika, -scokco). 

Sorcery, fetish, religion, witchcraft, to bewitch (-Icoka or -dcoga, -sawa ; -banda ; -lamba, -kisi, 

' A marked correspondence in Bantu phonology exists between/ and i, v and ^, j and/, z and v : 
so that we find especially in the West, but also in East Africa, -kumu alongside -finnii, -guia, alongside 
-vuta, and -fiita,, -kuba, and -fuba, -fua. and -kua ; -stimu corresponding \.o_-fu7?tu and -zuta to -vuta. 

' The range in meaning of this root is considerable. Sometimes it rises to ' lion ', sometimes sinks 
to ' genet '. ' Query, cognate With old root for ' bone ' ? 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 31 

-flti) ; magic, medicine (-ganga) ; name (-ina or -zina, -itto) ; song, to sing (-imba, -imbco) ; fear, 
noun and verb (-eoga, -topa, -tina, -tia) ; shame (-sconi) ; hunger (-zala, -ala) ; sleep {-Ico, Tulco, from 
the verb-root -la, -lala, to extend oneself) ; dream, noun and verb (-Iwta, -dcotto) ; dance, noun and 
verb ("kina, -bina) ; love, desire, noun and verb (-penda, -kunda, -tanda) ; intelligence, and verb ' to 
know ' (-manya, -manyi) ; goodness, good (-ema, -wa, -inco, -ncoga, -ntofu, -scoga, -bote, -bota) ; 
bad, badness, excrement (-bi) ; rottenness, rotten (-covu, -ora or -coza, -vunda) ; fierceness, bitter- 
ness (-kali) ; hardness (-gumu, -guma) ; smallness, little, young (-tco or -tu, -dongco, -ke, -nandi, 
-titi, -nini, -gunco, -ana) ; greatness, large (-kulu — from -kula, to increase^ — nana) ; oldness (-kulu, 
-nuna or -duna, -kuka, -kcota, -dala) ; young, new (-pya) ; whiteness, white (-ela, -eru, -tcoka, -tuba) ; 
sickness (-dwala) ; shortness, (-fupi) ; length, distance, height, ' there ' (-le, -la, -de, -rare) ; ' within- 
ness ', inside (-da, -mu, -te) ; ' betweenness ' (-kati) ; place, ' hereness ' (pa-, -nco) ; house (-ndu, -zco, 
-ztobco, -dagco, -dabco, -umba — clay-walled) ; home (-ka, -kaya ; -anda, -banda, -ganda) ; canoe (-atoa) ; 
paddle (-kapi, -kasi) ; knife (-ale or -bela, -siu, -hamba, -panga, -paka, -pcokco, -mage) ; spear (-onga, 
-ongco, -fumu) ;bow (-ta, -tta) ; arrow (-fwi, -songa, -bamba, -ketco, -sala, -tagco) ; axe (-pasa, -bazoj 
or -bagco, -zcoka, -gambe, -gimbu, -temco) ; shield (-gabco, -guba) ; clothing — anciently ' skin ', 
' pelt'— cloth, blanket (-gubco) ; door, doorway (-kuki, -ugi,- -ibi, -balco, -pitco ; -liangco) ; drum 
(■gcoma) ; thing, property (-ntu, -ma or -uma). 

Prefixes and Preprefixes 
The original forms of the prefixes alone and of the preprefixes combined with them were 
probably as follows. It should be remembered that the preprefix is virtually identical with the 
'article ' of Aryan and Semitic languages. It is also the concord-particle and pronoun of the class to 
which the prefix belongs : — 

Prefix. Preprefix and Prefix. 

Class No. T. Mu- (singular) ] usually reserved for human Gu-mu- (Wu-mu-). 

r beings, and almost invari- 

,, „ 2. Ba- (plural) j ably for men and animals Ba-ba-. 

„ 3- Mu- (sing.) Gu-mu-. 

,, „ 4. Mi- (pi.) Gi-mi-. 

,, ,, 5. Di-, Li-, or Ri- (sing., sometimes used as an Di-di-, Ri-ri-, Li-li (I-ri-, E-ri-). 

augmentative) 

6. Ma- (pi. and collective) Ga-ma-. 

„ „ 7. Ki- (sing.) Ki-ki-. 

,, „ 8. Bi- (pi. and collective) Bi-bi-. 

„ „ 9. N- (M-), N, Ni- (sing.) Gi-ni-, Yi-ni-, In- (Im-), In-, Ini-. 

„ „ 10. Zi-, "Gi; Ti- (pi.) Zi-zi, Itii-, I-ti-, I-ti-n-. 

„ „ II. Du-, Lu-, Ru- (sing., a good deal associated Du-du-, Lu-lu-, U-lu-, Ru-ru-. 

with ' length ') 

„ „ 12. Tu- (pi. and collective diminutive) Tu-tu-, U-tu-. 

,, „ 13. Ka- (sing., nearly always used as a diminu- Ka-ka-, A-ka-. 

tive) 

„ „ 14. Bu- (sing., collective, and sometimes dimi- Bu-bu-. 

nutive as plural to Ka-) 

,, „ 15. Ku- (sing., often used as preposition mean- Ku-ku-, U-ku-. 

' to ' , ' towards ') 

,, „ 16. Pa- (a locative, meaning ' place ',' 3t ')' ori ') Pa-pa-. 

„ „ 17. Mu- (a locative, meaning 'in ') Mu-mu-. 

„ ,, 18. Gu- (sing., augmentative) ? Gu-gu-. 

,, „ 19. Ga- (pi. to Gu-, augmentative) Ga-ga-. 



32 



THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 



Associated with these preprefixes and prefixes, when they assumed the role of demonstratives, 
was the ' directive n', a prefatory nasal which usually has the eifect of ' this is soand-so ' when 
preceding a noun or a pronoun, and which may be connected with either the 9th prefix or with an 
old root meaning ' is ', ' it is '. This initial n- {n- before a guttural, m- before a nasal) in many of the 
Bantu languages gives a more insistent character to personal pronouns or demonstratives, in the 
sense of 'this, this one'. With the 'directive n' affixed, these foregoing prefixes became in their 
archaic forms (and in this shape reappear in numerous existing groups) as follows : — Class i. Wgu- 
mu ; 2. Mba-ba ; 3. Wgu-mu ; 4. Ngi-mi ; 5. Ndi-li, Ndi-di ; 6. Nga-ma ; 7. Nki-ki ; 8. Mbi-bi ; 
9. Wgi-ni, Nyi-n' ; 10. Nzi-zi ; II. Ndu-lu; 12. Ntu-tu ; 13. »ka-ka ; 14. Mbu-bu ; 15. Nku-ku ; 
16. Mpa-pa. (No such nasalized demonstratives are traceable for Classes 17, 18, and 19). 

The most archaic forms which can be deduced for the Numerals are the following : 

1. -nwe, -nye, -guma, -dala (meaning ' finger' or ' thumb') ; -mu, -mco, -mwe, -mcosi, -mcosa. 

2. -bali, -bale, -bili. 

3. -tatu, -satu. 

4. -ne, -nai. 

5. -tanco, -sanoj. 

6. -sambco ; -kaga ; -sasatu, -sasaba ; -tandatu or Ntatu ndatu (3 + 3) ; -tupa, -tcoba. 

7. Sambco, Samboj-bali ; Mpungati. 

8. -nana. 

9. -enda, Kenda ; Ifuka, Ivua. 

10. -kumi ; -longco, Mu-longco ; -kama. 

(Plurals of tens — twenty, thirty, &c.— were Gama-kumi, Gimi-loiigco, &c. In the Bantu mother 
language there were no special terms for ' twenty ' as in the Semi-Bantu and Sudanic tongues, nor 
was reckoning by scores, as it is in them). 

100. Gatna or Kama ; Dili-gana, Eri-gana. 
The original forms of the Personal Pronouns in the Bantu mother speech were probably these : 

I Mi, N, Ne, Ni. (Other modern forms Uke Wgi, Ngu, Ndi, Nze, Mbi, Mba are pos- 

sibly the original pronoun N- prefixed to particles meaning ' am ' or ' here '.) 

me -mi, -n-, -ni-, -ngi-. 

my -ngi, -nge, -m, -mi, -ni, -ne. 

Thou Gu, Gwe (We), Ku-, "Wu-. 

thee -ku-. 

thy -kco. 

He (she) Gu, Gwe (Yu, Ye), Ka-, A-. 

him (her) -mu- ; -ge, -ke, -ye. 

his (hers) -kwe, -ke. 

We Tu, Su (Si), Twe, Cwe, Swe, Hwe, Fwe. 

us -tu-. 

our -itu. 

Ye Nu, Nyu, Nwi (Ni), Mu, Mwe. 

you -ni, -nyu, -nu-, -mu-. 

your -inyu, -inu. 

They Baba, babco. 

them -ba-, -bco. 

their -baboj. 

The reflexive pronoun ' self was probably -li- (-ji-, -zi-, -ri-, -i-, -e-). 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 33 

' All ' was rendered by -onse, -onte or -onke ; and in some senses by -wna and -ama. 

' Many ' was -ngi or -iiigi, -vula or -bula, -bama. 

Adjectives were scarcely distinguishable from consonantal forms in Old-Bantu, and their more 
striking examples in persistence of word-root are cited with the nouns in the foregoing list. Several 
suffixes were probably employed in ancient as in modern Bantu to give an adjectival and adverbial 
sense to noun-roots, notably the widespread suffix -fu or -vu, which perhaps may be traced to an 
older form -bu, and be related to the 14th Class prefix. Adverbs were allied to nouns and pronouns, 
and prepositions likewise. Amongst these last, roots that are characteristically persistent and must 
therefore have been present in Old-Bantu are : pa-, on, at ; ku-, towards, to, there ; si- or -nsi, down ; 
-la, -le, -li, -di, -dia, far, distant, there ; nda, -da, inside ; -tei, -kati, between ; -eru, -nja, -nze, outside ; 
-pi, which ? where ? how much ? ; -nu, much, exceedingly, properly ; -mbele, before ; -pi or -fupi, near. 

The adverbial particles of negation, usually when employed with the verb, were prefixed or in- 
fixed in conjunction with the nominative pronoun particle which precedes the verb-root. They were : 

Ka- (becoming -kco, as a relative adverbial suffix) ; Sa- or Ta- ; Ki- ; Si- or Ti-. 

The following suffixes seem to have existed in the Bantu mother speech for incorporation with 
the verb-root at its terminal to modify, reverse, and extend its meaning. Already, perhaps before 
the divergence of the main groups occurred, it was becoming customary to change the pristine -a 
of the verb-root termination into -i to express negation or doubt, -e to give a subjunctive or potential 
sense to the verb,' -u or -u to indicate other changes of meaning. But in addition to this inflexion 
of the terminal vowel of the verb-root, a variety of suffixes came into use which have remained in 
force amongst nearly all the descendants of the Old-Bantu. 

These were in all probability : 

(i) -ba or -wa,^ probably one of the word-roots meaning ' be ', and used to turn a verbal root 
from the active voice to the completely passive ; that is to say, passive with the suggestion of an 
agent causing passivity. Example : ^u-leka, to leave ; ^u-lekwa, to be abandoned (by some one). 

(2) -ka. This particle also turns a transitive verb-root into an intransitive, but indicates passivity 
without an agent directly causing it. The comparison of the -ka suffix with the -ba or -wa. passive 
and the ordinary transitive verb-root used in an active sense, might be illustrated in English by the 
following example : ' He cools, chills ' : this would be equivalent to the active verb in Bantu : ' He 
is chilly or cold ' : this would answer to the sense of the -ka suffix : ' He is cooled or chilled ' (by 
some one or something) : this would be implied by the -ba or -wa suffix. Thus if -pasua (a develop- 
ment oi-pasa) meant ' to split ' in Old-Bantu, -/aswka would mean ' to be in fragments ', and -pasuwa. 
' to be split ' (by some one). 

(3) -ga or -inga. This suffix conveyed either a sense of thoroughness in action, or still more, 
continuity in the sense of the Enghsh participle termination -ing. It also inferred habitual or 
recurrent action. Example : -pula, ' beat ' ; -pulaga, ' beat thoroughly, continuously '. 

(4) -sa (za, pa, sia ?) was causative. Thus if -lia was ' to eat ', -//sa or -//sa would be ' to cause 
(some one else) to eat '- 

(5) -la, -ila or -ira and -ia (and -ela or -era or -ea, by absorption of the terminal -a '■' ; also -ina or 
-ena) indicated doing a thing to, for, or by another person : as for example -fa = ' to die ' ; but -fia 
and -fira would mean ' to die for (or on behalf of) or through ' another person. 

(6) The vowel u (or in conjunction with the terminal a, co) combined with -la or -ra, expressed 
a sense of reversal. Thus if -fuiiga meant ' to shut ', -fungula. would mean ' to open '. 

' Examples of the change to -/ and -e would be : Ni-panga. or Mpanga., ' I make ' ; Ni-pange, ' that 
I make ', 'let me make ' ; and N-ki-pahgi, ' I not make '. 

' In the Nyanza group and some of the western Bantu languages the passive suffix is -iiwa. 

^ A + i constantly resolves itself into e in Bantu ; a + te into a). In these suffixes /, r, and d, I and n 
frequently permute ; as well as .f and/, s and z, b and w. 



34 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

(7) -pa was connected perhaps with the root meaning ' place ', ' location ', ' at ', but came to 
mean as a verbal suffix ' becoming ', ' developing into ', ' acquiring certain characters '. Thus from 
the adjective -nene, ' fat ' or ' large ', was made the verb -nenepsi, ' to become fat ', from -bi arose 
-bjpa, ' to become bad ' ; from -togto ' fear ' was constructed -ii)^&)pa, ' to be afraid '. 

(8) -ana indicated reciprocal action : Ku-penda would mean ' to love ', but Ku-pendaaa. ^ ' to love 
one another '. 

(9) -ama and -ta probably had a reflexive sense, meaning to do certain things for one's sell.- 
Thus -ima would be lengthened into -imataa, ' to erect one's self ; -pa, ' give ', became -paia, 'to 
give one's self or ' to get ' 

(10) -ile or -ide (with the variant -ine), perhaps also -isi (and, from their fusion, -itsi, -idzi, -ije) 
conveyed a sense of past or preterite action ; and in fact -ile (-ine, -ide, -ire) suffixed to the verb- 
root has become the chief form of preterite tense throughout the Bantu languages. The alternative 
form -isi (extended into -itse, -idzi, -ije, &c.) has to a great extent disappeared as an independent 
suffix, and is only traceable with difficulty in the composition of words. Thus, assuming -kunda or 
•gonda to mean ' love ' or ' desire ' in the Old-Bantu, it would become in most of the modern Bantu 
languages -kundiie in the preterite sense of I (Thou, he, &c.) loved ', or -gonzi (-gond-isi), a form 
in which it actually exists in some of the Nyanza languages. More often the -itsi suffix united the 
other suffixes and verbal forms. It may really have arisen from an older combination of the -ide 
preterite with the -sa causative. The present form in Luganda (-idza) rather suggests this. 

In addition to these suffixes, the Old-Bantu, like some of its descendants, probably affixed 
other ' prepositional ', locative, adverbial particles to the verb-root after the manner of -pa (No. 7 in 
this list. In this connexion -mu would mean ' in ', ' inwardly ' ; -kcij, ' to ', ' towards ' (as well as from 
quite another root, ' not ') ; -ge (-je) would be interrogative ' how ? ' — in modern Swahih u-ta-fanya-ys 
means ' how wilt thou manage it ', or literally, ' thou — will— do — how ? ' 

Probably in Old-Bantu, as in its modern descendants, the verb was conjugated by prefixed as 
well as suffixed particles ; and these last partook of the nature of prepositions (like ku, 'to '; pa, 
pa>,' here', 'now', ' there ' ; -a, ' of ' ; na, ni, 'with'), adverbs and pronominal particles, related to the 
noun prefixes — ka, ma, gu, la, da, nga, ngi— and mostly by auxiliary and abbreviated verbal nouns, 
such as li (di) and ba, meaning ' being' ; ta, ya, ' doing ', ' going '. 

X The most strikingly widespread verbal roots in the modern Bantu languages probablj' assumed 
the following forms in Old-Bantu : 



abuse, insult 


■tuka. 


beat 


-pula, -bula, -tera, -beta. 


bite 


•luma. 


breed 


-zala, -ala, -biala. 


bring 


•lata. 


build 


-lunga, -tunga. 


bury 


-zika, -jika. 


buy or sell 


-gula, -suma, -tenga, -landa 


come 


-iza, -pika or -fuka. 


cut, chop 


•tema, -baza, -senga, -kata. 


dance 


■kina or -bina. 


deny 


-kana. 


die 


•fu, -fua, -fa (-kwa). 


dig, hoe 


-lima. 


drink 


•nyua, -nvia. 



This was sometimes extended to -zana., -ngana by fusion with other suffixes. 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 



35 



eat 

evacuate, defecate,rain, 

give birth 
fall 
fear 

fight, quarrel 
fish, catch fish 
give 

go 

heat, warm, cook 

hunt 

know 

laugh 

leave, cease 

love, want, desire 

press, milk 

rot 

say, speak 

see 

send 

sing 

sit, remain, abide 

sleep, extend the body, 

snore 
smell, stink 
stand, stop, be erect 
steal 

strike, kill 
watch, tend 



-la or -da, -lia or -dia. 

■nya (this root is related to the ' mother' or feminine prefix, nya-). 

■gwa, -bwa. 
•tia, -tina. 
-rwa, -rwana. 
■vuba, -luba. 
■pa, -nika. 

-genda, -gya (-ja, -ya), -tamba, -hamba (march, walk), -pita (pass). 
■ota, -aka, -pi, -pika. 
•winda, -wifiga. 

-manya, -dzi, -dziwa, -jiwa, -azi. 
-seka or -seba. 
•leka, -sika. 

-penda, -kunda, -gonda, -funa, -tanda. 
-kama. 

-bora (-bcoza), -bunda. 
■ti, -gamba. 
-bSna, -lola, -laba. 
■tuma. 
-imba. 

■ikala, -sala. 
■lala, -koina or -gona. 

-nuka, -nuiika. 

-gima, -sima. 

■iba. 

-ita, -tta, -ta ; -kuba, -buba, -bula. 

■linda. 

-lila. 



weep, cry, mourn 

The original concept of the verb in Old-Bantu was no doubt participial, of the ' verbal-noun ' 
order, the noun of action. But these verb-roots seem in Bantu to be older than most of the nouns 
that do not, like the verb-roots, terminate in -a ; as though actions were described before all but the 
most prominent objects. The original verb-roots were largely monosyllabic and never more than 
disyllabic ' (unless onomatopoeic) ; but I cannot agree with some authorities who have argued that 
the whole of the Bantu roots, substantival and verbal, can be traced back to utterances of a single 
syllable. Yet they tend that way, and perhaps, in the far past of African peoples, might have been 
traced to an ultimate affinity with a monosyllabic parent stock, which afterwards left behind more 
direct and monosyllabic tone-using descendants in the regions between the Cross river and the 
Volta. 

The simple verb-forms in Old-Bantu obviously ended in -a (with the exception of two or three 
irregular, interjectional verbs, such as Ti, ' say ' ; Njco ! ' come ! '; Li, ' be ' ; Pi, ' cook ', and various 
other meanings) ; and the majority of the nouns formed from verbs ended in -Od (probably from -au), 
-i, or -u. The -e termination of noun-roots may, like those that end in -a., have been very ancient 
and indicate independence of origin from verb-roots, or may — as so often occurs in verbal suffixes 
and prefixes — arise from the fusion of a- and -i. 

^ It is noteworthy that many archaic word-roots in Bantu begin with a vowel and are disyllabic 
such as -ati (buffalo), -ota, (heat), -isca (eye), -atod (canoe). 

D 2 



36 THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS 

Indeed, in reconstructing the phonology of Old-Bantu, and especially of the still earlier African 
parents of that language family, one is led to assume a greater simplicity of vowel sounds even than 
exists to-day in the very Italian-like Bantu languages, and to postulate only o, a, /, and u for the 
ongmal Bantu vowel equipment. So many of the existing u's and unstressed o's, as well as the «'s, 
can be traced back to fusions of a and u, a and i, or to the broadening of u and i. 

As far as we can trace the phonology of Old-Bantu by comparing, one with another, the pro- 
nunciation of root-words in the more archaic Bantu tongues of the present day— notably the Nyanza- 
Tanganyika-mid-Zambezian groups — we may surmise that it made no use of tones or clicks to imple- 
ment its resources in differentiating sounds ; and that, besides a simple vowel system— o, a, T, ii, and 
perhaps U — it possessed the following consonants (interesting deficiencies being also noted) :— 

Labials m, b, p, possibly w. 

Labial-dental v, f. These, however, may well have been absent in the pristine days, and 

have arisen subsequently, just before or just after the great dispersal, 
principally from b. 

Dental-lingual 6, s, s. "S was doubtfully present, as a variant of / and s. £> almost certainly 

was absent, and is still of very uncommon occurrence compared with 6. 

Lingual-alveolar d, t, I, n. R is doubtful as a radical letter, though often arising recurrently 
from / and d, and in turn producing z. 

Palatal-lingual ;'. /, if it had already appeared, arose from a palatalizing of d (dy, d) or g 

(gy) ; a lingualizing oiy, or a hardening of s. C, f, f were probably absent 
from Old-Bantu. 

'Palatal y. In the primitive Bantu speech it is doubtful \i y existed as a distinct pro- 

nunciation from I and gl. 

Palatal-faucal n. This ringing nasal sound was probably heard when n preceded a guttural, 

and there may have been in Old-Bantu some of that general nasality of 
utterance which so strongly characterizes most of the negro languages of 
West Africa as to amount almost to a physical and racial trait — a distinc- 
tion still more to be remarked in Bushman and Hottentot and in the Semi- 
Bantu. But the n as an unsupported consonant (like the ng'va. German or in 
the English words 'king' and 'ringing') — so common a feature in modern 
Bantu — can S^lways be traced back to a fusion between w and g or k. 
The guttural y was probably absent from Old-Bantu, not having as yet arisen 
from the slurring of^ or the faucalizing of w. 

Faucal k, g. But no x, r, or q. 

Aspirate h was probably absent, though it was soon to arise from p, s, k, or /. 

Even in the Old-Bantu home there must have been a tendency among the dialects of the mother 
tongue towards an abrupt and wide-ranging variation between certain consonants— a psychic 
disturbance, so to speak, such as must often arise in aggregated genera and species of animals and 
plants or full-blown human languages, when they are about to produce great variations from type. 
And this sudden impulse towards varied pronunciation caused transitory or permanent permutation in 
consonants. Yet the permuted and the previous forms of word-root must have co-existed in the same 
tribe as they often do at the present day. These alternations were particularly marked as between 
labials and dentals— i; changing to z,/ to s, and /to 6 ; between labial and faucal— w and ^,/and 
k, V and g ; between the lingual and the alveolar — / and d (together with r, which last is scarcely 
distinguishable in Old or Modern Bantu from / and d) ; / and n, t and r ; and between the palatahzed 
rfandy, rfand s, /and 5, /and c, s and/. F permuted easily to /and w, and still more readily and 
inexphcably to ft, as soon as the great Bantu dispersal commenced. The aspirate, now so prominent 



OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 37 

in the phonology of the majority of Bantu languages, was almost certainly absent from Old-Bantu. 
No root-word traced back to its most primitive form discloses the presence of h among the Old- 
Bantu consonants. The modern Bantu aspirates represent an older p,f, s, or k, or the faucal gasp 
of a vanishing click in the pre-Bantu languages. 

In conclusion, I might state that I do not share the theory of certain German philologists that 
we should attribute to the Old-Bantu some degree of vagueness in consonantal utterance, resulting 
in 7 being the parent of the modern ^ or w, z^ the antecedent of 6 and w,v and/; ;vof ^,and so forth.' 
The comparative study of the existing two hundred and twenty-six languages derived from Old-Bantu 
leads, on the contrary, to the conclusion that this mother speech of innermost Africa had broad, 
simple vowels, and distinct, well-defined consonants, almost limited in range to m, b, s, z, d, t, I, n, 
k, and g. In this respect, in the development of intermediate vowels and consonants between those 
of more pronounced type, the modern Bantu languages have only followed a parallel course to the 
Aryan, Semitic, and Hamitic languages. It may be argued that the early articulate utterances of 
Man were vague in sound : undecided in vowel quahty, and in the influence of tongue, of teeth, 
nose passtge, and epiglottis on consonantal out-breathings. The extraordinary Bushman language 
family may be pointed to as an illustration of a very primitive form of speech surviving, and offering 
a similar vagueness in utterance. But the Bushman dialects may quite well be, like the Bushman 
race, examples of speech forms that have greatly degenerated and have been much specialized by 
isolation in South African deserts. And the vowel sounds of Bushman and Hottentot appear to me to 
be simple, few, and clearly marked, except for nasality of tone. It is their clicks which often obscure 
the values of the consonants. But even here we have no great range of subtle consonantal sounds 
as in the modern languages of Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia. The Bushman lan- 
guage, no doubt, like the race that uses it, is exceedingly ancient and shows the severe attrition ot 
long usage. The simplification of vowel 'and consonant values (like the sudden simplification of 
customs after long slavery to tradition) tends to be one of those revolutionary occurrences which 
accompany the birth of a new language species or a new people : for instance, the Arabic dialects of 
the Sudan and of East Africa — rapidly becoming two new languages — are softening the more exasper- 
ating of Arab consonants and enlarging considerably the use of broad, distinct vowels ; Swahili 
Arabic, with the regular intercalation of vowel and consonant, is at the opposite pole to the Maghrib 
dialect of Morocco, which is mainly a collocation of choking consonants. One has only to compare 
the phonology of modern Arabic with that of the ancient Semitic tongues of Mesopotamia and Syria 
to realize (as also in the case of Polish and Russian, as compared to Yugo-Slav and Old Lithuanian) 
how languages tend as they spread, develop, and are more and more spoken, to differentiate their 
vowels and their consonants with ever-increasing complexity ; so that at last the speech becomes 
unspeakable by a newer generation or unpronounceable by an invading usurper. Then one of those 
radical changes takes place which gives birth to some new and more harmonious jargon : Latin 
becomes Romance, Greek changes into Romaic, the cumbrous Anglo-Saxon is modulated into the 
pleasantly Frenchified English of Chaucer, which we still speak. And I should not be astonished 
if, during the next twenty or fifty years, several languages of Africa and Western Asia — even 
Armenian, Lesghian, and Albanian— were scrap-heaped, and forms of speech with simpler, more 
melodious phonologies were adopted in their place. 

It is because the majority of the Bantu languages are so simple and clear in their phonology, 
so logical in their syntax that they are learnt with comparative ease by the stranger. The majority 
of them are much easier to master and to retain in the memory than Hausa, Ful, or Arabic. Those 

' Still less do I agree with their ' pooling ' problematic vowel sounds by the device of a heavily cir- 
cumflexed i (?). They cannot themselves suggest how this is to be pronounced. The circumflex is 
a shallow and out-worn mystification. 



38 DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES 

languages will survive— certainly Hausa and Arabic will, though I doubt whether the world or even 
the heart of Africa will tolerate for long the innumerable plurals and countless verb intricacies of 
the fantastic Fulde speech— but they will not spread much beyond their present limits. Already m 
northern Equatorial Africa Hausa and Sudanese Arabic are giving way to the Bangala of North 
Congoland as a trade and administrative language, because it is a harmonious clear-cut, easily 
acquired, sufficiently expressive form of speech. Swahili is carrying all before it as the trade 
language of the regions between Oakland and the Zambezi. Zulu-Kafir will become the second 
language of South Africa if its exponents are wise enough to eliminate the silly clicks which at 
present mar its phonology and cause the European to take up instead the ugly and stupid jargon 
known as ' kitchen Kafir '. 

The political importance oi the Bantu languages in the future will be as great as the political 
importance of the Indian vernaculars. This has been an additional inducement to me to study 
them. But it is perhaps the unwritten history of Negro Africa enshrined in their word-roots 
which has proved for me the strongest lure in this long-sustained work of research. 



CHAPTER III 

ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF 276 BANTU AND 
y ^ SEMI-BANTU LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS 

NOTES FOR THE GUIDANCE OF READERS IN RESPECT TO THESE 

VOCABULARIES 

The orthography, both in regard to African geographical names and the rendering of African 
languages, is that adopted throughout the volume and explained in detail elsewhere. A summary 
of its principles for convenience is given here in apposition to the vocabularies. 

M, b, V, p, f, and w, are pronounced as iii EngHsh. When any of these or other sounds 
are aspirated, the aspiration, if pronounced and distinct, is indicated by the letter h'^ : and where it is 
less emphasized, by the Greek aspirate '. In numerous Bantu languages there is considerable 
indecision on the part of the individual speaker or the tribe as to the utterance of h and zc, so 
that to the European listener the labial consonant is heard sometimes as a b, at others as a w, 
and occasionally as bv or vh. I have preferred to write it either w, b, bv, or v, according as the 
local or predominant pronunciation caught my own ear, rather than to impose accents on the w, 
which in reality give little help to the English student, who is sure to be understood by the native 
if he uses either a b, w, or v. Nevertheless this indeterminate labial is represented by several 
writers well qualified to hold an opinion, as w. Y is used by me for the consonantal i (the 
Germany). There is a great tendency to palatalize consonants in Bantu ; that is to say, to follow 
them by an ^'or a jv sound {dy, ty, ny, ky,gy). There is no other logical method of rendering this 
pronunciation than by adding the y to the palatalized consonant. Where, however, this 
palatalization (a very faint i or y) follows the terminal consonant and the employment oi a. y might 
mislead the eye, the effect is better given by the vertical accent '. 

G and k are pronounced as in English, the g being always as in the words ' get ', ' give ', ' go ' 
The faucal k (the Arabic j) is represented by q. The Greek gamma (r, y) stands for the velar 
g (the Arabic d), which is often rendered in English by gh and which is pronounced like the 
French r grasseye, or like a lower utterance of x- This last— the Arabic f and Scotch ch — is 
represented by x, which is to be taken as the equivalent of the Greek x- This is the value of g 
and ch in Dutch and in many German words ; but the more palatalized sound of the terminal ch, or ch 
before a consonant, so often heard in German in ich and licht, is represented by x. H is pronounced 
as in English or German, but the strong h of Arabic (^) is rendered by //, or sometimes by the 
double h (hh). The faucal contraction of the Arabic ain ( f\ is represented by _1 ; the mere 
elision of a vowel or consonant by the apostrophe, ' ; and the strongly marked hiatus (the Arabic 
hamza) — which is the gap in pronunciation occurring between distinct words in English (such 
as 'still ill')— is shown by ;. The nasal consonant sounding like ng in 'ringing' is indicated 
by n, or the merely nasalized consonant or vowel by ~. A'' is pronounced as in English. When 

^ There is much aspirating of consonants in numerous groups of Bantu languages. Wherever ph, 
th, dh, gh, kh, vh, &c., are encountered in this work they must be pronounced separately and with their 
true values : p-h, t-h, &c. 



4° NOTES FOR THE GUIDANCE OF READERS 

it is an initial consonant preceding another consonant it is slightly vocahzed, something like the 
pronunciation of im in the English word 'unto'. When it is doubled, like all other double 
consonants it is doubly pronounced. 

The Polish or dental / {'f) is heard in some Bantu languages (as it is in Portuguese and 
Brazilian pronunciation) but not so prominently or with such etymological importance as to be 
worth discrimination. The ordinary Bantu / is alveolar, like the English. It interchanges with r 
to such an extent that little distinction can be made in transcribing certain languages, except under 
the circumstances mentioned below. One person may use /, another r in pronouncing the same 
word in the same tribe or clan. The ordinary Bantu r sounds very much like the r in the 
pronunciation of Germans or of educated English people. The rattled r of Spain or the southern 
half of France is present in a few Bantu tongues (such as the Nyorco dialects) and is best and 
most logically represented by a doubled r. The cerebral r (?) of provincial EngUsh and of 
many South Asiatic tongues is virtually unknown in Bantu Africa. The velar r {)■) is scarcely 
distinguishable from y, and should be thus expressed unless it can be shown to proceed from 
an older alveolar or dental consonant. R permutes most easily with t and d. In some languages, 
however, it is necessary to discriminate between r and / in writing and in pronunciation,, because 
r has taken the place of t, as / may have of d, in the prefix forms and word-roots. 

With regard to the dentals, s is always the upper or light hissing sound, as in the word ' hiss ', 
or ' saint ' ; z similarly is always the lower and heavier sibilant as in ' hazard ' and ' zeal '. The 
English sh and sh (French ch and^) are rendered by/S- and ^ ; the English th in 'think ' and ' bath ' 
by 6 ; and dh [th in ' that ' and ' bathe ') by d. T and d, when printed without aspirate, accent, or 
modification are to be pronounced as in English and most other languages. But the t in Bantu 
is often aspirated or pronounced explosively, somewhat as English people use the word ' utter ' 
when they speak of 'ut:ter astonishment'. The aspiration — as already mentioned— is indicated 
by the h or the ' following the t; and the explosive quality by the accent ' { = t'). The t in Africa 
on the lips of natives often glides into an r sound. When it is most like an r I spell it thus, 
when most like a / I render it by / (or d, as the case may be). I do not think it necessary, from 
any point of view, to discriminate further between the various slurred or eccentric pronunciations 
of t by the tongues of Africans, as these variations are — at any rate in Bantu — of ^o etymological 
importance. The d in Bantu is occa.sionally (as is the /) heard as though doubly pronounced, and 
is in such cases doubly written. The dental, alveolar, palatal, and lateral clicks in the Zulu-Kafir 
languages are represented respectively by (f, i, f, and 7. 

C stands for the combination of ^^, a fusion of consonants that is more conveniently represented 
by one symbol, the Italian c (as before i and e). It often results from a palatalized k, which in 
some tongues is best rendered by ky; and is pronounced like the English ch in 'church'. 
Similarly j is used for the combined sounds of dij. Where these compound consonants appear 
to be doubled in pronunciation they are more logically rendered by tc and dj, as they are thus 
pronounced. Just as the c comes very near ky, so the j sound is scarcely distinguishable from 
the palatalized d' (dy). In some of the south-eastern Bantu languages there are palatalized 6's, d's, 
and p's, which are a source of much unnecessary fuss and complication of writing by some who 
have rendered them on paper. They should be written in accordance with their local pronunciation 
as by, vy, py ; bs, vz, ps ; or b^, vij, and p^. 

The vowels of this phonetic alphabet are, of course, given their ' Continental' values rather 
than those of the eccentric English spelling which grew up in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. O unaccented is pronounced as o in 'not' or 'doll'- o represents the sound of o 
in ' store ' or aw in ' gawd ' ; o is a little deeper than the average German pronunciation of that 
vowel and represents the sound of the Enghsh u in ' hurt ', or i in ' bird '. A, a (similarly shaped 
throughout, even in italics) always stands for the a in ' father ', ' rather ', ' gala '. The short 



IN RESPECT TO THESE VOCABULARIES 41 

sound of this vowel (similar to the English u in ' but ', or the o in ' worry '), is represented by (X, a. 
■/E, CB is the equivalent of the English a in ' fat ', ' gather ' or the French e in fentme. Unstressed 
e has the value of ^ in ' met ', ' rend '. E, e is the e in ' fete ', or a in ' hate '. E, e gives the short 
sound of e in mere and e in ' there ' (really a fused diphthong between e and o). / is the 
English i in ' hit ' ; i, t, the e in ' cedar ', and ee in ' feet '- U, it unstressed represents the u in ' pull ', 
' put ', ' bull ' ; and u, u is the u in ' ruler ', and the 00 in ' mood ' (the French ou, German u). U,u = 
the French u. The sound of o in 'bone' (French au and German oh) is represented by the 
Greek &). I have not thought it necessary to discriminate further between the various pronuncia- 
tions of the single symbol o (o, o, u)), as to do so is quite needless for the philological understanding 
of my subject, and only an unnecessary puzzle to the reader's eyes. In some of the South and 
South Central African forms of Bantu there is a rather indeterminate vowel which varies in 
pronunciation between the short u in ' put ' and the o in ' hope '. This is particularly observable 
in the Secuana group and in the tribal name ' Basutco '; which is ordinarily rendered ' Basothoo ' by 
specialists and is actually pronounced more like Sutco than anything else, though to some it 
seems more akin to S(otlth(5. There is a vacillation also between the sound of t in 'pit' and e in 
' met ' in many Bantu tongues ; but in such cases I prefer to write it as i or e, according as the 
sound of the word struck my own ears or those of some trustworthy colleague in African 
philology ; for in the etymology of Bantu there is considerable permutation between e and ;' when 
they are unstressed. 

The stress mark is ~, and the unstress "- Neither is employed unless the pronunciation of the 
vowel is exceptionally deep or light. The accent or pitch of the voice is indicated by '. This 
is so normally and frequently on the penultimate syllable that the accent is only emploj'ed when 
an exception to the prevailing rule in Bantu transfers the voice-pitch to the first, last, or other 
syllable than the penultimate. Monosyllables are not accented unless uttered with vehemence. 

The ordinary high and low voice tones in speaking =3= , are best shown by employing 

the accent ' for the high tone and ^ for the low. The other tones of the speaking voice so prominent 
in the East Asiatic or West African languages are unrecorded in connexion with Bantu (wherein the 
manner of speaking more resembles the European mean than the voice production of Hottentot and 
Bushman, of West Africa, or Eastern Asia), and it is not necessary to provide for them in this work. 
The use of the high and low tones of the voice for purposes of etymological distinction is not 
common in Bantu and is only observable (perhaps) in the Becuana group and most markedly 
in the Paiiwe languages of the nOrth-west Bantu area. Even here they scarcely come within 
the scope of the present work, which is not so much a pronouncing dictionary as a treatise of 
comparative philology. In the case of the southern Nigerian tongues, the discrimination of tones 
in language transcription is of great importance.^ 

The conventional symbols J and o stand for 'male' and 'iemale'. The essential and (in nouns) 
virtually unchangeable root of the word is printed in heavier type where it is necessary to hold 
it in view; consequently the reader will regard the lighter-printed syllables as changeable 
excrescences on the main concept — preprefixes '', prefixes, suffixes, and infixes. When there are 
articles or preprefixes present in a language they are usually, but not always, given in these 
vocabularies, so that the Bantu word takes its fullest form. But when in ordinary pronunciation 
the preprefix is dropped, the word is printed with only its customary class prefix (if any). 

The plural forms of the nouns are separated from the singular by a semicolon and begin with 

^ A reference on this point might be made to my Phonetic Spelling (Cambridge University Press). 
The tones of the South Nigerian languages have been accurately described in Mr. Northcote Thomas's 
recent works (Harrison & Sons, and ' Man ', R.A.I.). 

* The preprefix is the vowel or syllable which precedes the actual prefix. 



42 NOTES FOR THE GUIDANCE OF READERS 

a minuscule letter. Frequently only the plural prefix is given, the rest of the word being the 
same as in the singular. When this plural prefix replaces a detachable prefix in the singular, 
it is followed (unless the whole word is printed) by a hyphen (-) ; where the plural prefix is 
super-imposed on the singular form of the noun (which may be the bare root-word or retain 
its singular prefix), the plural prefix is followed by a plus sign ( + ), unless for the reader's 
special convenience the whole of the plural form is printed. When it is necessary to draw special 
attention to the plural form of the word, which may— very rarely— differ in slight degree from 
the root of the singular, the abbreviation pi. is prefaced. The hyphen preceding or following 
a word means that the root form must be preceded or followed by some varying detachable prefix 
or suffix. Variants of what is substantially the same term are separated from one another by 
a comma only ; quite distinct words by a full stop. Figures and letters in brackets are the 
distinctive number of a dialect, a peculiar word or two of which may be quoted as a variant, if 
it is not sufficiently distinct from the dominant type of language to be represented in a separate 
column. But figures may also indicate noun classes when connected with demonstrative pronouns. 

As many equivalents as possible are given for the one English term or concept, provided 
their composition bears on the etymological connexions between the Bantu languages. Ordinarily 
the most commonly used word is printed first ; but because the reader from a partial knowledge 
of any of these languages here illustrated does not recognize an equivalent of the English test 
word he must not be in a hurry to conclude that this equivalent does not exist ; for it maybe scarce, 
recondite, or archaic, and thus have escaped his notice. Great care has been taken to attribute 
to no language or dialect words the existence of which cannot be attested ; but it may often 
be only among the wise men or old women of the tribe that the word is remembered or rightly 
applied. These vocabularies are intended primarily for etymological purposes, and do not 
necessarily represent the most modern and current form of speech, but all the words known to 
be or to have been in these Bantu languages since they first came under observation ; just as English 
or French might be illustrated by selections from the recorded speech of the three last centuries. 

The gaps in the columns mean that the author has been unable to find an equivalent native 
word, either because of the still very faulty nature of our records or because the concept is lacking 
where the language is spoken. In a very few cases the whole of the columns attributed to 
a form of speech may be blank. This provision of space serves a double purpose : it draws 
attention to the exact lacunae in our knowledge and may perchance stimulate research ; and it 
provides the necessarj' room for filling up these vocabularj' forms completely in course of time 
and in later reprints. The name of the scarcely known language or dialect at the head of the 
column records its attested existence as a Bantu tongue ; and one object in the setting forth of these 
276 languages and dialects has been to place before the reading world as complete a list of known 
forms of Bantu speech as possible.' It is probable, indeed, that scarcely one distinct Bantu language 
now remains unlisted in this book under some fairly accurate and locally recognizable name, even 
though from deficient information I may not have enumerated all its dialects. As regards 
naming the languages, I have got as near as I could to the local designations. Where this was 
not possible, or it was vexatious to set aside some name long-established in European mouths, 
I have chosen the term most likely to lead the inquirer to the spoken tongue or to its printed 
records in literature. 

On referring to such for verification 01 my own version, a reader may chance to observe 
that the original European or American authority spells the word differently to its form in my book. 

' The largest number illustrated in previous works is fifty-six. My total is approximate, as it is not 
always easy to decide the separation between a language and a dialect. In all about 276 forms of speech 
are catalogued in the following vocabularies, and about 270 are illustrated. The specimens of Semi- 
Bantu are additional. 



IN RESPECT TO THESE VOCABULARIES 43 

In such cases I have departed fr:om the original spelling in favour of m}' own phonetic system, 
in order not to puzzle my readers by perpetually varying methods of sound-representation ; 
or because I knew the other author's version to be incorrect in the light of later research. It 
must be borne in mind that I have travelled most extensively over Bantu Africa between 1882 and 
1907, and have put many orthographies to the test as regards local native pronunciation. Yet 
I respect other people's version of a word which may differ from my own (unless palpably an 
error in hearing, writing, or printing), and give, if need be, the alternate version. Similarly, should 
any very critical person peruse these vocabularies and find minute differences between the words 
here recorded and those he has been accustomed to hear pronounced in Africa, let him not 
too rashly conclude that I am wrong : we may both be right, but the critic may have listened 
to a different dialect or to a more precise or more careless speaker. Some of my own early work 
of the 'eighties in Bantu or Nilotic transcription was at one time hastily condemned as inaccurate 
by other philologists following in my tracks, and for many years I sat meekly under their rejection 
of my version, until fuller information came along (or previously buried work was unearthed), and 
I was found to have been right after all : it had merely been the case of a different dialect or 
a speech wrongly named, but genuine under another designation. Similarly, I have in this book 
resuscitated and rehabilitated the work of half-forgotten pioneers by transferring the vocabularies 
they had wrongly named or wrongly placed to their right titles and geographical allotment. 

The Bibliography which follows these language illustrations recounts in detail the sources 
01 my information. For convenience of classification I have arranged the Bantu languages into 
forty-six groups distinguished numerically by letters of the old alphabet. The formation of the 
groups is guided mainly by interrelationships, and a little by propinquity ; their sequence is geo- 
graphical, and commences in the north-east of the Bantu field with the most archaic and primitive 
examples of this speech family— the languages round the Edward, Albert, and Victoria Nyanzas. 
The course followed thence is southward and eastward down through East and East Central 
Africa to Zululand and Cape Colony, and back northwards into the western parts of Central Africa 
till the survey ends with the Island of Fernando P6. 

The following is' a list of the groups for convenience of reference : 



The Nyanza Languages 

The Wunyamwezi Languages 

The British East Africa Languages 

The Kilimanjarco Languages 

The pambala Languages 

The Zaiigian Languages 

The Usagara-Ugcogo) Languages 

The Upper Rufiji Languages 

The Lower Rufiji-Ruvuma Languages 

The North Ruvuma-North-east Nj'asaland Languages 

The Ukiiiga Languages 

The Taiiganyika-Baiigweulu Languages 

The North-west Nyasa Languages 

The Yacu-Ngindoj Languages 

The Mogambique Languages 

The South Nyasaland-Southern Rhodesia Languages 

The Pungwe-Sabi Languages 

The Mapaiigane-Ronga Languages 



BANTU : 




Group 


A. 


J) 


B. 


)j 


C. 


V 


D. 


)) 


E. 


TJ 


F. 


5» 


G. 


>J 


H. 


)J 


I. 


?) 


J- 


)5 


K. 


J) 


L. 


?5 


M. 


5) 


N. 


)) 


0. 


JJ 


P. 


}i 


Q- 


}} 


R. 



44 NOTES FOR THE GUIDANCE OF READERS 

The Becuana-Transvaal Languages 

The Zulu-Kafir Languages 

The West Central Zambezia Languages 

The Western Zambezia Languages 

The North-west Zambezia Languages 

The South-west Africa Languages 

The Afigola Languages 

The Kongo) or Westernmost Congoland Languages 

The South Congoland (Luba-Lunda) Languages 

The Upper Kwangco Languages 

The Kwaiigco-Kasai Languages 

The Central Congoland (Luaiige-Lcomami) Languages 

The Middle Lcomami Languages 

The Elila-Lcowa-Lualaba (Bulega) Languages 

The Ruwenzori-Semliki Languages 

The Upper Ituri Languages 

The Wele-Aruwimi Languages 

The Aruwimi-Lcomami Languages 

The North Central Congoland Languages 

The Kwa-Kasai-Upper (JOgcowe (Teke) Languages 

The Central OOgcowe Languages 

The (jOgcowe-Gaboon Languages 

The Spanish Guinea-West Cameroons Languages 

The Manenguba Languages 

The Middle Sanaga Languages 

The Pafiwe (Fang) Languages 

The Kadei-Sanga-Lcobai Languages 

The Fernandian Languages 

The Cameroons-Cross River Languages 

The Cross River-Calabar Languages 

The Benue Languages 

The Bauci Languages 

The Central Nigeria Languages. 

The Tcogcoland Languages 

The Senegambian or Guinea Languages 

For the convenience of readers I append in an abbreviated form the scheme of phonetic system 
of spelling adopted in this book. 

Consonants : m, b, v, p,f, and w \ n, d, f, s, z, r, l,j, and jj; ; /;, g, k, as in English ; c hke English 
cli ; X like ch in ' loch ' or in German machen ; i like German ch in ich, licht (almost English sh) ; 
y (Greek gamma) like g in modern Greek or the French rgrasseyeor the Arabic ghain ; ^ = English 
sh\ f = English sh or French J; d= English ih in ' that ', and 6 = English th in ' think ' ; and « = 
the ng in ' ringing '. The dental click in Zulu-Kafir is (f, the alveolar i, the palatal f, and the lateral p. 

Vowels : A = English a in 'father' ; a, the sound of u in ' but ' ; a, the sound of a in 'gather', 
' hat ' ; f = f in ' met ', e = ^ in ' fete ', e = e in' there ' ; z" = ? in ' hit ' ; 2, t = im' ravine ' ; o = o in 
' not', o = in 'store ', co = o m ' bone ', 6 = tt in ' hurt' ; m = m in ' pull ',u = 00 in food ', m = 
French u. 



Group 


s. 


jj 


T. 


') 


U. 


)) 


V. 


5) 


W. 


Ji 


X. 


J» 


Y. 


)» 


Z. 


!» 


AA. 


J) 


BB. 


).. 


CC. 


5J 


DD. 


)) 


EE. 


J3 


FF. 


» 


GG. 


JJ 


HH. 


;j 


n. 


jj 


JJ- 


!) 


KK. 


jj 


LL. 


5? 


MM. 


J5 


NN. 


)) 


GO. 


i) 


PP. 


5) 


QQ. 


r 


RR. 


)) 


SS. 


J> 


TT. 


SEMI-BANTU : 


Group 


A. 


)j 


B. 


;j 


C. 


)? 


D. 


;j 


E. 


)j 


F. 


19 


G. 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

TOGETHER WITH DEFINITION OF GEOGRAPHICAL ALLOTMENT OF EACH TONGUE 
AND EXHIBITION OF PREFIXES AND CONCORDS 

GROUP A 

THE NYANZA LANGUAGES 



Sub-group A i Konjco 
I, 01u-konj« 



Sub-group A 2 Nyoro) 
2. Uru-nyorco 
2 a. Ru-gufigu 



2 b. Ru-kycopi 

2 c. Uru-torco (Ru-songora, Ru-ir«, 6^^,) 

2 d. OOru-hima 





I. 


2. 


2 a. 


2 b. 


2 c. 


2d. 


English 


Olu-konjeo 


Uru-nyorto 


Ru-gungu 


Ru-kycopi 


Uru-torco 

(Ru-songora 

tz«^Ru-irco, is^c.) 


tOru-hima 


Adze 


£-suka; esi- 
suka 


En-cwanku. 
Em-baizi 


... 


... 


En-cwanku 




Animal, wild 


Eny-ama 


Eny-ama. 


Eny-ama. 


Eny-ama 


Eny-emera. 


Eny-emera. 


beast 




Eny-emera. 
Eki-sorco 


Ny-emera 




Eny-ama 
Efi-kura 


Eny-ama 


Ant 


M-bali; pi. 
esim-bali. 
N-suki 


OOru-hazi ; em- 
pazi. OJmu- 
zigya ; ba- 


Nkwiri 




Em-pazzi 


Em-pazzi 


Ant, white 


Emi-lungulu 


En-swa. 


N-kuyege 




En-pwa 


En-swa 


(termite) 


i.pl-) 


(Ki-swa = a 












termite hil- 














lock). 














En-kubebe 










Ape (chim- 


Eki-tera; ebi-. 


I-sike. 


Eki-kuya 


• •• 


Ki-tera. 


Yi-siki 


panzi or 


M-pundu 


Eki-kuya; ebi- 






Eci-kuya 




gorilla) 














Arm 


OOku-bcokca 


OOmu-kionco ; 


OL)mu-kconto 


OOmu-kconco 


OOmu-kconco 


OOmu-kconco 


Arrow 


(jOmu-swa ; 
emi-. 
Eki-korco; ebi- 


emi- 
OOmu-tegco ; 
emi-. 

OOmu-stogi. 
E-kimara. 
OOmw-ambi 


Bu-seogi 


Eii-gcowe 


OOmu-scogi 


Wmu-ambi 


Axe 


Em-basa ; //. 
esiom- 


Eny-anzi. 
Em-paiigco. 
En-demu 


M-pangco 




E-hafigu ; pi. 
m-paiigu 


Em-pangco 


Baboon ... 


Eii-gerebe ; 

esion- 


En-k<obe 


Ki-guri ; bi- 


... 


En-kereb.e. 
Em-pundu 


Eii-kcobe 


Back 


OOmu-gongco 


OOmu-gongco. 
Eki-bega 


Ma-vega. 
Mu-gongeo, 
Ki-buni (loins) 


OOmu-gongu 


(x)mu-goiigco 


OJmu-gongco 


Banana ... 


Oi)bu-kamata ; 
ama-kamata 


Eki-tcoke ; ebi-. 
En-konje 


Ki-tcoke; bi-. 
N-gonja 


Eki-tcoke 


Eki-tcoke 


Eci-tcoci 


Beard 


Esion-deru. 
{one hair of = 
(Onu-leru) 


COmu-leju, 
Ebi-reju 


Mu-redu, 
Mu-redju. 
(Ji-miri junka 
= one hair of 
beard) 


COmu-ledyu 


OOmu-ledyu 


Ebi-rezu 


Bee 


En-zuki ; 

esion-ziuki 


En-jcoki 


K-cokyee ; //. 
b-cokyee. 


En-jcoki 


En-jcoki 
Em-buri 


En-zcoki 


Belly 


^n-daor^n-da. 
Bu-kcole. 
Olu-isira 


En-da 


Mu-da 


En-da 


En-da 


En-da 



46 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Olu-konjco 



Uru-nyorco 



2 a. 
Ru-gungu 



2 b. 
Ru-kycopi 



2 c. 

Uru-toreo 

(Ru-songora 

andRu-irat, <5>^c.) 



2d. 
OOru-hima 



Bird 



Blood . 

Body 
Bone , 



Eny-conyi 



Borassus palm Eci-koaga 

Bow OObu-ta ; ama- 

Bowels ... Aman-da 
Brains ... OOb-ongco. 

Esion-cuere 
Breast (man's) Eki-kuba 



Eny-eonyi ; 

esiony-. 

Uny-uni. 

Mu-isundi 
(JL)mu-sasi 

OOmu-biri 

Eri-kuha; ama- E-gufwa, 

I-g^fa ; ama- 



E-sAgama. 
E-samaga 
OOmu-biri 



Kiny-coni ; bi- Eny-<anyi 



Mu-sagama E-sagama 
(7rMu-samaga 
Mu-biri OOmu-biri 

Ki-g^fwa; bi- 



Breast 

(woman's) 
Brother . . . 



Buffalo 

Bull ... 
Buttocks 



Canoe 

Cat 

Charcoal .. 
Chief 



ChUd 



Cloth 



Cold ... 

Country 
Cow . . . 



Eri-bere ; ama- 



Aka-tugu;a)bu-, 

Eki-ktoga 
OObu-tta ; 

ama-tta 
Ma-ra (pL) 
OObw-ongto 

Eki-fuba 
■ I-were ; ama- 



Ka-tugco 
Bu-ta ; ma-ta 

Bw-ongco 



OObu-ta 



Eny-tonyi 



E-sagama. 
E-samaga 
OOmu-biri 
I-gufwa ; ama- 

Aka-kojga 

OObu-tta 



OObw-ongco OObw-ongco 



I-weri; ma-veri I-bere 



Eki-fuba 
I-were 



Eciny-oonyi 



E-sagama 

OOmu-biri 
I-guffa 

Aka-tuga 

OObu-ta 

OOw-ongoj 

Eci-fuba 
I-bere 



OOmu-hara or Omw-ana-wa-id«o Mw-ana-wa-ici Omw-ana-mau Omw-ena-we-itco Omw-ene-w-esco 
Omw-ana-w-etu OOmu-genzi. 
OOwa-nyina. 
Mu-nyanya. 
B-ene (//.) ^ 
Em-bcogw ; Em-bcogco' 

esiom- 
En-de e-nume E-nimi, Numi 
Ebi-kalereo Ebi-bunto 

(//.),Eri-tak«; 
a.ma.-(c/deas/s) 
OObw-atto ; am- OObw-atco 

ato) 
Aka-jangeo 



En-jangu 
Ama-kara 
OOmu-kama; Mu-bitw.OOmu- 
aba- kamwa; aba-. 

OOmu-nyorca. 
OOmu-lemi. 
OOmu-kungu 
Omw-ana ; ab- Omw-ana 



Em-bo)gca Em-bcogco 

Gi-numi 
Bi-nyco (//.) 



Bw-atco ; ^/. Bw-atco 
g-atco" 



Em-bcogco 

(Ente)eci-nume 
Ebi-bunco 



Em-bcogco 

E-nimi 
Ebi-bunco 



ana. 00-lume- 
keke $. Aka- 
mu-keke = /«- 
fant 

OOmu-tanda. 
Omw-enda 
(cotton) 

Em-behco. 

OOmu-rombe 
Eki-taka 



=s 



(om-cojco 
mu-tco = ^ 



OOmu-tanda 

(cotton). 
Oru-goye 
(bark) 
Em-behco 

En-si 



Mu-kama 



Mw-ana Omw-ana 

ob'-saiza = 5 
„ mu-tco = 5 
Mu-halco 

Hg-oyi (cotton). Ru-buku 
Lu-vugco 

(bark) 



Obw-atco 

En-jangu 
Ama-kara 
OOmu-kamwa 



OObw-atco 

En-zangu 
Ama-kara 
OOmu-kama. 
OOmu-bitco 



Omw-ana 



Omw-ana 



En-de e-sigija En-te e-zigija 



Ky-alco 
En-te gi-za- 
gidya 



En-te 



OOmu-tanda. 


OOmw-enda 


Oru-goye 

(bark). 

Oru-kcozi 




Em-behco 


Em-behco 


En-si 


En-si 


En-te e-bugu- 
ma 


En-te e-zigiza 
N-gabe, 
N-gcobe. 
Ki-gabco 



1 B-ene is the equivalent of the B-ena ifi^-vas.) further south, meaninc; ' kinsmen ' 
^ Perhaps this is a slurring of Ga.ms.-t(o : 7>ide Lu-masaba. 



' brethren ' 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



47 



English 



I. 
01u-konj<o 



Uru-nyorco 



2 a. 
Ru-gungu 



2 b. 
Ru-kytopi 



2 C. 

Uru-torw 

(Ru-songora 

andRa-ira, 6rc.) 



2d. 

OOru-hima 



Crocodile 



Day 



Devil, 
spirit 



evil 



Doctor (medi- 
cine man) 
Dog 



Donkey 
Door ... 



Dream 

Drum 

Ear 

Egg 

Elephant .. 

Excrement 

Eye 



En-dicaka 

(snake). 

I-hondue 
Ki-roo. 

Bu-hingi. 

Omw-esi, 

Omw-ise ( = 

daylight) 
COmu-limu ; 

aba- 



Mu-kumu 

Em-bwa ; 
esiom- 



Bu-seku. 

ODI-uyi, 

R-uyi; pi. 

esiony-uyi 
En-dcotcd 

En-gwma 
OOku-twe; ama- 

twe 
Ere-ye; ama-yi. 

Eri-hui 
En-zo3gu ; 

esiton- 
Ama-gedzie. 
Ama-vezi. 
Ama-idzai 
Er-isco 



En-sambia. Gi-nyconigim 
Em-pyeo 

Eki-reo. I-zcoba Mu-ki-rco. 
(JL)mu-sana Ki-rco; ebi-rco. 

Hangwe 



En-sambia 



En-sambia 



Eki-rco, Eci-roa Eky-ireo ; ebi- 



OOmu-cwesi ; ... ... (jOmu-cwesi 

aba-. 

COmu-zimu ; 

aba- 
COmu-fumu ... ... COrau-fumu 



(Ji)mu-cwesi 



Em-bwa. M-bweni Em-bwa 

Eki-bwa {a big 

dog) 
En-kaina 
OOru-higi ; //. Mu-zigw 

em-pigi 



E n -dcdtco. N -dcosir i 

Eki-rco tea 
Efi-gcoma Eii-gcoma En-geoma 

(jOku-tu; ama-tu Ku-tu ; ma-tu OOku-tu 

Ei-huri ; ama- I-huri ; ma- 
huri 
En-j(ojco N-zuzco; N-jejcj N-jcoju 



Ama-zi 



Er-is 



Ma-bi 



R-isco ; ma-isu Er-isco 



Face, forehead 


OObu-su 


Fat 


Eki-sawu. 


«. 


Ama-guta {oil. 




butter) 


Father 


Tata. I-se. 




E-sa 


Fear 


Eri-saga 


Finger 


(jOmQ-nwe ; 




erne-. 




OOmu-rcotco. 




Eki-kumco 


Fire 


OOmu-rirco 


Fish 


Eyi-swe ; 




esi-swe. I-sui. 




I-sumbi ; esi- 


Foot 


Eki-sandco. 


• 


OOku-gulu 


Forest 


OQrou-situ. 




Olu-longe 



OObu-sco 



Tata. Baba 



ipco; 

ama-ijsco 
OObu-sco Bu-sco 

Eki-paju ; ebi-. Ma-savu 

Ama-gita {oil, 

a-c.) 

Tata. 'Sco. I-se. Tata 
I-se-nytowe 
(my). I-si. 

I -SCO 

Eii-kise. A-tinyiri 

OOku-tina 
OOru-kumco; en- Lu-galco. Kalco OQmu-kumco 

Eki-ara ; eby- 

(Eki-saiza = 

thumb) 

(jOmu-rirco Mu-lirco Mu-rreo 

En-cui N-tui En-cii 



Eki-renge. Ki-renge. 

Eki-gere ; ebi- Ku-gulu 
Eki-bira Ki-bera 



E-kigere 



Em-bwa. Em-bwa. 

Eki-bwa {a big Eki-bwa {a big 

dog) dog) 

Oru-higi ; any- Oru-higi ; eny- 

igi igi 



En-dcotco 

En-gtoma 
OOku-twe or 
COku-tuitu 
I-huli 

En-deaba, 

En-daeba 
Ama-izi. 

Ama-tutorco 

Er-isco 

OObu-sco 
En-sazu. 

Ama-vutta, 

Ama-futa 
Tata. I-se,I-sco 



OOku-tina 



En-dcotco 

Efi-gcoma 
OOku-tu; ama-tu 

Ei-huri 

En-zcozco 

Ama-zi 

Er-isco 

OObu-sco 
Eki-sadzu. 
Ama-zita 

Tata. I-se, I -SCO 



OOku-tina 



Oru-kumco or OOru-kumco ; pi. 
OOdu-kumco en-kumco. 

Eki-ara 

OOmu-rrco OOmo-rrco 

En-cu. En-fwi En-tchu or 
En-cu or 
Em-fii 
Eki-gere ; ebi- Eki-gere ; ebi- 



Eki-bira 



Eci-bira 



E 2 



48 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





I. 


2. 


2 a. 


2 b. 


2C. 


2d. 


English 


Olu-konjco 


Uru-nyoro* 


Ru-gungu 


Ru.kytijpi 


Uru-toru 

(Ru-soiigora 

ii«rfRu-iro),<5r'<:.) 


OOru-hima 


Fowl 


En-gcokto ' 


En-keokca 


En-kcokco 


Eii-kcoko> 


Eii-kcokco 


Eii-kcokco 


Frog 


Eki-tere 


Eki-kere 






... 


Eki-kere 


Ghost 


OOmu-limu ; 


COmu-zimu ; 


Mu-zimu 




OOmu-zimu ; 


OOmu-zimu ; 




aba- 


emi-. Eki-turu 






emi-. OOmu- 
zummco 


emi- 


Giraffe 


... 


N-tuiga 






En-tuiga 


... 


Girl 


... 


Mu-isiki 


... 




. .. 


.. . 


Goat 


Em-buri, Em- 
buli ; esiona-. 
Em-bene 5 ; 
■pi. esem-bene 


Em-buzi 


M-buli" 


Em-buzi 


Em-buze. 
Em-penne j 


Em-buzi 


„ (he) ... 


Esa-mban (J). 
Em-fay a 


Em-berabuzi, 
Em-paya (S). 


... 






... 


„ (she) ... 




Buguma (j) 




. . . 






God 


Ru-hanga or 


Du-hanga." 


Ka-tonda 


Ru-hanga 


Ru-hanga" or 


Lu-gaba or 




Du-hanga 


Ka-tonda 






Du-hanga 


Nyam-hanga 


Grandparent 


I-sekuru 


Is-efi-kuru. 
Nyin-eii-kuru 


... 




... 




Grass 


Om-wata. 


Om-wata. 


Bu-sibbi. 




Eki.suki. 


Om-wata. 




Eki-suki 


E-tete. 

OObun.yansi, 

OObu-yansi 


Lu-saka 




E-scojoj. 
E-tete. 
Em-burara. 
OObu-nyasi 


OObu-nyadzi 


Groimd 


OOmu-taka 


I-taka 


I-taka 


I-taka 


I-taka. A-hansi 


I-taka 


Ground-nut 


... 


Eki-nycobwa 


... 


... 


Ama-kere. 
Eki-nycobwa 


Eci-nycobwa. 
Ama-kerre 


Guinea-fowl 


En-ganga 


Eki-tajumba 


Nku-jumba 


. .• 


En-tajumba 


Eci-kanga 


Gun 


Em-bundu 


COmu-gangco 


Mu-duku 




OOmu-gangco 


Em-bundu 


Hair 


OOlu-yuwiri ; 
esion-ziwiri. 
Se-suere. 
Bu-eya (on 
body) 


l-scaki; ama- 
scoki 


I-scoke (Bo-ya, 
on limbs) 


I-scoke 


I-scoke 


I-scoke 


Hand 


Eki-ganza. 


Eki-ganja. 


Ki-ganja. 


Ki-ganza 


Eci-ganza. 


Eci-ganza. 




Eme-nue (z. e 


Ebi-ara ( = 


Mu-kconco ; 




OOmu-kconco 


OOmu-kconco 




fingers) 


fingers). En- 
garoj, OOmu- 
kconu (also 
lower arm) 


mi- 








Head 


OOrau.twe ; 
eme-twe 


OOmfi.twe ; emi- 


Mu-tue 


OOmu-twe 


OOmu-twe 


OOmu-twe 


Heart 


OJmu-tummco. 
OOmu-tima 


OOmu-tima. 
OOmu-tuma 


Mu-tima 


OOmu-tima 


OOmu-tummco. 
OOmu-tima 


OOmu-tima 


Heel 


Aka-sinzirw ; 
oibu- 


Eki-sinzirca. 
Eki-kongcoijco 


Ki-sinziroj 


... 


Eki-sinzirco 


Eki-tsintsinco 


Hide 


Eki-ani. 
Eri-gcoba 


Eki-satco. 
00ru.hu. OOmu- 
guta. Eii-gcozi 

(for slinging 
infants onback] 


Ki-satco. 
N-gcozi 


Ru-hu. M-pirri 


Eki-satco 


OOru-hu ; em-pu. 


Hill 


Eki-cwa ; ebi- 


Eki-swa. 
Em-bara 






Oru-scozi 


... 


Hippopotamus 


> Eyi-sere ; esi- 


En-jubu 


M-vuvu 


... 


Em-vuvu. 
En-sere 


En-zubu 


Hoe 


I-suka 


En-fuka. 
Em-funi 


... 


... 


... 





Emin Pasha adds the word vutte : perhaps in error. 



Ru-hanga also means ' skull '. 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



49 



English 



I. 
Olu-konjco 



Uru-nyor<o 



2 a. 
Ru-gungu 



2 b. 

Ru-kycopi 



2C. 

Uru-torco 

(Ru-songora 

andRn-irw, 6^c.) 



2d. 
OOru-hima 



Honey 
Horn ... 

House... 



Hunger 

Husband 
Hyena 

Iron . . . 



Island... 



(jOb-ukyi 
Eri-hembe; 

ama- 
Eny-umba ; 

esiony- 



En-zala. 
En-jera 

Em-piti 



(Obw-caki U-eoki 

Ei-hembe ; Ei-hembi 

ama-. En-kule 
En-ju.. Ka; //. N-umba 

ama-ka. 

(0-mba.=allAe 

house of) 
En-jara N-zala 

I-ba,Ba (Barco) 
Em-pisi M-pici 



En-ju 

En-jala 
Em-pisi 



(jl)bw-coci (JObw-wci 

Yi-hembe; ama- Yi-hembe; ama- 
Eki-kuli 



Eky-coma, Eki-coma. Bi-coma 

Ec-coma. OObu-tale. 

M-seke OOmu-singa 

OOku-itsinga or Ei-ziSga Ki-singa 

Eri-tsinga ; 

ama- 



Eny-umba ; 
ama-. En-ju, 
En-zii 

En-jara 

Om-gwiraro> 

Em-pisi, 
Em-pehe 
Eki-coma 



Ei-ziiiga 



En-zca 

En-zara 

Em-pidzi 
Ec-wma 

Eki-rwa 



Ivory 


Er-into 


Er-inco 


El-inco la n 


jejco 


Er-inco 


Omw-inu 


Knee 


. Eri-ru 


OOku-jii 


Ku-vivi 0} 


Ei 




OOku-ju, 


OOku-zco 








vivi,Ma-vivi 




OOku-zco 




Knife 


Wmu-hamba 


COmw-ihiu. 
OOmu-horco. 
OOru-gesto 


Ki-ambi 




Mu-yco 


OOmu-hyco. 
OOmu-tambi 


OOmu-siu 


Lake 


En-gedze 


Eny-anja 


Mu-sanga, 
Ny-anja 




... 


Eny-anza 


Eny-anza 


Leg 


(jOku-yulu. 
M-bundti 


OOku-guru. 
OOmu-rundi. 
Eki-rumbu 


Ku-gulu 




OOku-gulu 


OOku-guru. 
OOru-guru 


OUku-giu:u 


Leopard .. 


Efi-gwe 


En-g« 


M-umwa 




Efi-gwe 


Efi-gco 


Efi-gwe 


Lion 


En-dare; esian 


En-tale 


N-tali. ?Simba 


. . . 


Eki-cuncu 


En-tare 




dare 














Lips 


OOmii-nyu ; 


OOmu-nwa ; 


Mu-mwa ; 


mi- 


OOmu-nwa 


OOmu-nwa ; 


OOmu-nwa ; 




emi-nyu 


eme- 








emi- 


eme- 


Magic 


CiOmu-lcoyi. 
(jObu-ganga 


OOmu-rcogoj, 
OObu-rcogco. 
Ebiama-hanco 


Mu-lcogco 




... 


OOmu-reoji. 
OObu-ganga 


OOmu-rcogco 


Maize 


Ebi-kusa 


Ebi-cori 


Mi-scoli 






Ebi-gusa, 
Ebi-ccoli 


Ebi-cori 


Man 


OOmu-ndu ; 


OOmu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 




OOmu-ntu 


OOmu-ntu ; 


OOmu-ntu ; 




aba-ndu. 


aba-ntu. 


ba-ntu 






aba-ntu 


aba-ntu 


Man, vjr. .. 


OOmu-lume 


COmu-sadja 


Mu-saiza 






Om-gwirarco 


O0mu-seizi;aba 


Meat ... .. 


Eny-ama 


Eny-ama^ 


Eny-ama 




Eny-ama 


Eny-ama 


Eny-ama 


Medicine . . 




OOmu-bazi 


*(■ 






... 


... 


Milk 


Ma-tai 


Ama-ta 


Ma-ta 




... 


Ama-te 


Ama-te 


Monkey .. 


En-gende;esion 
Efi-gema 


- Efi-kende 


... 




... 


En-kende 


Efi-kyende 


Moon 


OOmu-gesera, 
OOku-esera. 
OOkw-ezi 

{moonlight) 


OOku-ezi. 
Om-wezi. 
En-zorco 

[full moon) 


Mu-ezi 




OOkw-ezi 


OOkw-ezi 


OOkw-ezi ; 
am-ezi 


Mother ... 


Nya-nsansu. 
Mama 


Mau. Nyco-kco. 
Nyina. Nya-, 
Nya-bco, Qt^c. 


... 




Mama. Mau 


... 


• •• 


Mountain ... 


OObw-eruka. 


Oru-pcodzi 


Lu-stozi 




Ru-scozi 


Oru-scozi. 


I-banga; ama- 




Eri-lambcij. 








Ebi-rika. 


banga 




OObu-rambco 










Oru-wanga ; 






^. cliff) 










em-panga 





Also : OOmu-ncofu, '■flesh ', ' boneless meat'. 



5° 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Olu-konjco 



2. 

Uru-nyorco 



2 a. 
Ru-gungu 



2 b. 
Ru-kyeopi 



Paddle 

Palm ■wine, 

Parrot 
Penis 

Pig 

Pigeon 

Place 



Rain 

Rat 

Rhinoceros 
River 



Road ... 

Salt ... 
Shame 
Sheep . . . 

Shield... 
Shoulder 

Sister . . . 



Skin ... 
Sky ... 
Slave... 
Sleep ... 



OObu-abu 

En-gusu 
Ei-sulu ; esi- 
sulu 

En-gulii-we 
Eri-iba ? 

Aha-ndu. 
He-tisi 



Em-bula 
Em-beba;esiom- 
Efi-kura 
Eki-sesa. Oru- 

si. OOmu-sia. 

Em-basa 
En-sera 

Mu-nyu 
En-sconi 
Em-buri. Em- 
bangali (? S) 
En-gabco 



Mw-ale-we-itu 
(i. e. our vir- 
gin). Mu-hara 

Eii-gcoba. 
OOmu-nyue 

Olu-btola. 
Olu-vura 

Mu-iru ; ba-iru. 
Mu-sana (}) 

OOtu-lco 



En-gahi. 
Eii-kasi 
Ama-rwa 

En-kusu 
Em-bwlco 



Bu-gemi 



Em-boolco 



Em-punu M-pimu 

Eri-iba ; ama- E-iva ; ma-iva 
iba 



Aha-ntu. 

(Sivia.- prefix. 

Omw-anya. 

Eki-ikarco 
En-jura 
Em-beba 
En-kura 
Eki-saru. 

Eky-ambu 



Ma-gongco 



N-dakali 
Em-bewa 
N-kura 
Ki-ambu 



Mu-handa 



N-scani 
N-tama 

En-gabu 



(i)mu-handa. 

I-kute 
Eki-sura 
En-sconi 
En-tama. 

Em-paya (S) 
En-gabeo 
Eki-bega. 

I-bega 
Mu-nyanya. 

OOwa-nyina or 

Wa-mau 
Oru-hu. Ki-satw. 

tOmu-biri N-gcozi 

Ei-guru Ki-gulu 



N-jirco 

Mu-gera 

Mu-handa 

Ki-sura 

En-tama 



Mw-ana-ma-isi 



OOmu-iru 
OObu-ru 



Ku-basia 



Ru-hu 
I -guru 

Vi-ame ? 



2 c. 

Uru-torco 

(Ru-songora 

^wrfRu-irtD, dfc] 



Mouth 


Ubw-anco ? 


Aka-nwa 


Ka-mwa 


Muka-nwa 


Oru-suga 




Bu-nco ? 










Nail (of finger 
or toe) 
Name 


Eci-ala ; ebi- 
E-rina 


E-nconco 
Ei-bara ; ama- 


Nconco 
I-bara 




E-nconco 
I-bara 


Navel 

Neck 

Night 


tOmu-kundi 
Ebi-cia. 

Efi-goto 
E-kirco. 


Ebi-tyia, 
Ebi-kya {pi.) 
E-kirco. 


Balagco 

Muki-rco 


... 


Ebi-tyia. 
Oru-tsia 
Eki-rco 


Nose 


Wa-mira 
OOmu-huri ; 
emi-. E-nindco 


Wmu-irima 
E-nyindto 


Ny-indco 


N-indu 


Eny-indco 


Oil palm ... 
Ox 


En-de ; esion- 


En-te. E-nimi 


En-te. Korwa En-te 


En-te"" 



Ama-rwa 

En-kusu 
Em-borco. 
Eci-borco 
Em-punu 
Eri-iba ; ama- 

Aha-ntu. 
COmw-anya 



Em-bula 
Em-beba 

Eki-saru 



2d. 
(x)ru-hima 



OOmu'handa. 
(jOmu-mpanda 

En-sconi 
En-tama 

En-gabco 

OOmu-nyanya 

Oru-hu 
Ei-guru 
OOmu-iru 
COtu-ru 



Aka-nwa 

E-nconco 

I-zina ; ama- 
zina 

Ebi-tsia. (Ama- 
vaka. — throat) 

Nydki-rco or 
Nyeci-rco 

Eny-indco 



En-te. 
En-gombe 

{ancient term, 
nearly forgot- 
ten) 



Ama-rwa 

En-kusu 
Em-borco 

Em-punu 
En-kombe 

OOmw-anya 



En-zura 
Em-beba 
Eii-kura 
Ec-ambco ; ebi- 
ambco 

(jOmu-handa 



En-sconi 
En-tama 

Eii-gabco 
I-bega ; ma- 

OOmu-nyanya 



Oru-h'u ; em-pii 
Aha-iguru 
OOmu-iru 
OOtu-ru 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



51 



English 



I. 
Olu-konjw 



Uru-nyorco 



2 a. 
Ru-gungu 



2 b. 
Ru-kycopi 



2 c. 

Uru-torco 

(Ru-soiigora 

anciRn-iTo), 6^f.' 



2d. 
OOru-hima 



Smoke 


a)mu-ki. 


CiOmu-ika 


Mw-ika 


... 




OOmu-eki 








Snake 


En-zcoka 


En-jcoka 


M-piri^ 


... 


Son, boy ... 


OOmw-ana 


OOmw-ana. 
OOmw-cojto. 
Ak-ana; cobw- 
a.x\a.{littleson). 
(jOmu-tabani 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana 


Song 


Olu-imbco. 
Eri-wina 

{dancing song] 


Eki-zina 


Ki-zina 




Spear 


I-tumco ; ama-. 
I-tsummcd 


Ei-cumco 


E-fumu 


I-cumu 


Spirit, soul 


(JOmu-zimu. 
Aka-horcoga 


OObw-oomezi." 
OOmu-zimu 






Star 


En-gununo3 ; 

esiofi- 


Eny-inyizi. 
Eny-unyuzi 


Ny-izi 


Ny-ezi 


Stick 


Omw-ig&j 


Omw-igcj. 
Efi-ktoni. 
Ru-himbco {a 

divining-rod) 


Mu-beri 


Mw-igco 


Stone 


Eri-bwe ; ama-. 
Eri-gwe 


Ei-bare ; ama- 


E-bali; ma- 


Ru-bengu 


Stool 


Eki-tumbi 


En-tebe 






Sun 


Eri-coba. 
Umu-ise 


I-zcoba 


Zcdba 


I-zuba. 
Umu-sana 

(= daylight) 


Tail 


(JOmu-kira 


OOmu-kira 






Tear 


OOmu-sconi ; 
cm\-{^=shame 


Ei-ziga 


Ki-ziga 




Testicles ... 


Emi-hege {pi.) 


Ama-gcosi (//.) 


Ama-gcisi 


. . . 


Thief 


Omw-ibi ; 
abe-ibi. 
COmu-higura 


Omw-ibi. 
(jOmu-suma 


A-iviri 


... 


Thigh 


Eki-hinga 


Eki-berco 


Ki-berco 




Thing 


Eki-ndu. 
Eii-ganga 


Eki-ntu. Ntu 


Eki-ntu 


Eki-ntu 


Thorn 


Ere-h'wa ; ama- 


Ei-h'wa 


I-gcoa 


... 


Tobacco . . . 


E-taba. 
Ka-sinse 


E-taba 


E-taba 


... 


To-day ... 


Munabwiri 


Deroj. Hati 


Lerto 




Toe 


Aka-sanwe. 
Eri-ncS ; 
ama-nco 


Aka-gere ; cjbu- 


Ka-kumu ; 
efi-kumu 


... 


To-morrow 




Ny-enkya. I-jco 


... 




Tongue 


Lu-leme 


OOlu-limi. 
En-gamb<o 


Limi 


0-rimi 


Tooth 


Er-inya>, EI- 
inco ; am-en&a 


Er-inoj 


L-inco ; ma-inco 




Town, village 


Eki-kale. OObu- 
tala. E-tieka 


Oru-buga. 
Eki-ka 


Ki-kali; bi- 




Tree 


(jOmu-ti ; emi-ti 


OOmu-ti 


Kisali 


... 


Twins 


Aba-hasa 


Aba-roiigtd 


Ba-longoj 


... 


Urine 


Ama-sco 


En-kari 


Efi-kali 


... 


Vein 


... 


Eki-nywa (.') 


... 


... 



Omw-ika 

En-zok' 
OOmw-ana 



Eki-zinna 

I-cumco 
Omw-oyco 
Eny-inyuzi 
Eii-kuni 



Omw-ika 

En-zcoka 
OOmw-ana. 
OOm-tozco 



Eci-zinnu 

Ei-cumo3 ; ama- 
OOmu-zimu 
Eny-onycozi 
Efi-kconi 



E-wie, Ei-bwe; Ei-bare; ama- 
ama-. Ei-bare 

En-tebe En-tebe 

I-zcoba I-zcoba 



OOmu-kira 
Er-izi ; ama-izi Er-izi ; ama- 

Ama-gcosi Ei-gcosi ; ama- 

OOmu-stunma OOmu-summa 



Eci-ntu. Ntu 

Eri-h'wa 

E-taba 

Hati. Derco 

Aka-gere 

Oru-rimi 

Eci-inco ; 

ebi-inco 
E-kka. 

O-rrembco 
OOmu-ti. Eci-ti OOmu-ti 
Aba-rongco Ama-hapa 



Eki-ntu. Ntu 

Ei-h'wa ; ama- 
h'wa 
E-taba 

M-buenu 
Oru-kumco ; efi- 
kumco 



00-rrimi 

Eri-inco ; ama- 

inco 
O-rrembco ; 

pi. en-dembco 



En-kari 



En-kare 



Cf. words for ' viper' - 



Also the word OOru-coya = ' breath ', allied to the East Bantu root for ' spirit', -coyco. 



52 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF. BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Olu-konjco 



Ura-nyorto 



2 a. 
Ru.gungu 



2 b. 
Ru-kytopi 



2C. 

Uru-torco 
(Ru.songora 

andRu-iTa,&'c.) 



2d. 
(jOru-hima 



War 


Oru-hi 


OObu-lemu. 
(JL)bw-emi 


Lamagco 




OObu.lemu. 
Oru-gamba 


Oru-gamba 


Water 


Ama-gedzi. 
Ama-Ssi 


Ama-dzi. 
Eii-gezi 


Ma-izi 


Mi-jezi 


Ama-izi. 
Ama-tunga 


Ama-izi 


Well, source 


Eri-ziba? 


I-ziba. Eii-gezi. 
Kitun-gezi 




... 


I-ziba 


Ei-ziba 


White man 


tOmu-jungu 


tOmu-jungu. 
Eki-tuku 


Mu-zungu 


... 


OOmu-zungu 


OOmu-zungu 


Wife 


OOmu-kari; aba- 


OOmu-kazi. 

Mu-ka- {with 
possessive pro- 
noun) 


Mu-kali 


... 


OOmu-kazi 


OOmu-kazi 


Wind 


Em-beheo. 
I-hunga 


Em-behco. 
I.hunga. 
tOmu-yaga 


Mu-yaga 


... 


Em-behco 


Em-behco 


Witch ^ ... 


OOmu-rcoi. 
(jL)mu-kumco 


OOmu-rcogco 
M-bandwa 


Mu-lcogco 


... 


OOmu-lcogco 


OOmu-lcogeo 


Witchcraft 


OObu-rtoi 


I-rcogco 


... 


.. . 


... 




Woman . . . 


OOmu-kari 


OOmu-kazi. 


Mu-kali 


... 


OOmu-kazi 


OOmu-kazi 


Womb 




En-da 


■ >• 


... 




. .. 


Wood 


Ru-kwe; //. 
esian-kiie 


En-kii 


Efi-ku 


En-kii 


Efi-kue. 
En-|sari 


Eii-ku 


Yam 


Eki-hama 


Eki-rali 


... 


. . . 


Eki-rali 


Eci-ra 


Year 


Omw-aka. 
Eri-bcoga ( = 
sproutingcorn 
new year). 


OOmw-aka ; 
emi-aka 


Omw-aka 




OOmw-aka 


Omw-aka 


Yesterday... 


... 


I-jo 










Zebra 


En-turege 


En-tulege 


En-tulege 




En-tulege 


En-tulege 


One 


•guma, -yuma 


•mu 


-mu 


•mu 


•mco (Du-mco) 


-miie 


Two 


-here, -were 


•biri, -wiri 


-biri, -wiri 


■bili 


■biri, -wiri 


-biri 


Three 


•satu 


-satu 


•satu 


-satco 


-patu 


-satu 


Four 


-ne, -nai 


-nai, -na 


-na 


-ne 


-nai 


-na 


Five 


■tanu 


-tanco, -tanu 


•tanco 


•tanco 


-tanu 


-tanu 


Six 


OOmu-kaga 


OOmu-kaga 

{pi. emi-) 


Mu-kaga 


Mu^kaga 


OOmu-kaga 


OOmu-kaga 


Seven 


OOmu-sanzu 


OOmu-panju 

(pi. emi-) 


Mu-sanju 


Mu^sansu 


OOmu-sanju 


OOmu-sanzu 


Eight 


OOmu-nane 


OOmu-nana 

{pi. emi-) 


Mu-nana 


Mu-nani 


OOmu-nana 


OOmu-nana 


Nine 


Omw-enda 


Omw-enda 
(j>/.emy-enda 


Mw-enda 

) 


Mw-enda 


Omw-enda 


Omw-enda 


Ten 


Eri-kumi 


I-kumi 

{pi. ama-) 


E-kumi 


I-kUmi 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


Eleven 


E-kumi na c 


■ I.kumi n'e-mu 


E-kumi n'em' 


I-kuminaki 


mu I-kumi n'e-meo 


I-kumi n'e-mue 


Twenty ... 


■yuma 
Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-kumi ga- 




Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 




a-bere 


a- biri 


biri 




a-wiri 


a-biri 


Thirty 


Ama-ktmii 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-kumi ga- 




Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 




a-satu 


a-satu 


satu 




a-patu 


a-satu 


Forty 


Ama-kumi a-ne Ama-kumi a-na Ma-kumi ga-na 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi a-na 












a-nai 




Fifty 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-kumi ga- 


... 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 




a-tanu 


a-tanu 


tanco 




a-tanco 


a-tanu 


' ' IViUA 


' stands also for 


'■wizard'. ' divin 


er', '■magician'. 


The better side of '■ witchcraft' 


is met with under 



' doctor ' 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



53 





I. 


2. 


2 a. 


2 b. 


2 C. 


2d. 


English 


Olu-konjco 


Uru-nyorco 


Ru-gungu 


Ru-kycapi 


Uru-torco 
(Ru-songora 


(jOru-hima 



Hundred . 
Thousand . 



Eri-gana 
Eri-gan' ne- 
guma 



I-gana 
OOru-kumi 
(Ka-gana 

lo.ooo) 



Ki-kumi 
Lu-kumi 



I-gana 



I, me, my . . . Ngie, Njie. 

N-, Ndi-. 

•n-. -a-ge 
Thou, thee,thy Ewe,Tami ! U-. 

-ku-. -a-yto 
He, him, his Oyu. A-. 

■mu-. -a-ye 

We, us, our Sitwe. Tu-. 

■tu-. -etu 
Ye, your, our Inyue, Inyu. 

Mu-. 

-ba-. -enyu 
They, them, Aba. Ba-. 
their -ba-. -a-bco 



Nycowe. N-. Wge. 
-un. -n-. -a-nge -a-ngca 

Wewe, 00-. Wewe. CO-. 

-ku-. -a-we. -co -ku-. -co 
Uwe, Ye. A-. Ye. A-. 

-mu-. -e, -yi -mu-. -codi 

Icwe, IctX. Tu-. Icwe. Tu-. Itwe 

-tu-. -a-itu -tu-, -itu- 

Inyuwe. Mu-. Nyuwe 

■ba-. -a-nyu 



Abco. Ba-. 
•ba-. -a-bu 



Bahco, Badi. 
Ba-. 

-ba-. a-bco 



All 



This, these 



-usi,-cosi(ab-cosi, 
ey-cosi, g-usi, 
esi-iisi, ebi-osi, 
(ow-cosi, (Sr'C.) 



Yco-yu, ba-ba ; 
co-nco^rgu-nco, 
gi-nco or i-nco ; 
ri-nco, ga-nco ; 
ki-nco, bi-nco ; 
e-nco, si-nco ; 
lu-nco ; tu-nco ; 
ka-nco ; bu-nco ; 
ku-nco ; ha-nco 



■cona (b-cona, -cona 

y-cona, g-cona, 

bi-cona, z-cona, 

tu-cona, bw- 

cona, kw-cona, 

h-cona) 
Ngu-guorco-nu, -nco {wz'ik class 

ba-nu ; gu-nco, prefix) 

e-nu ; di-nco or 

di-nu, ga-nco ; 

ki-nu, bi-nu ; 

e-nu, zi-nu ; 

ru-nu ; tu-nu ; 

ka-nu ; bu-nu ; 

ku-nu ; ha-nu 



That, those 



Yco-lia 
(o-lia, 

ri-ria, ga-lia ; 
ki-lia, bi-lia 
e-lia or yi-lia: 
si-lia ; lu-lia 
ka-lia; bu-lia 
ku-lia ; ha-lia 



ba-lia ; (jO-nuna, ba- 
gi-lia ; nuna ; gu-nti- 

na, e-nuna ; 

di-niina ; cs^c. 

00-li, co-linya, 

ba-li,ba-linya; 

gu-li,gu-linya; 

^'c. 00-gu,ba- 

li; co-gu,e-gi; 

e-ri,a-gco; e-ki, 

e-bi; e-gi,e-zi; 

o-ru ; co-tu ; 

a-kco ; co-bu ; 

co-ku ; a-hco 



•ri {with 
prefix) 



class 



I-gana 


I-gana 




Ma^gana 
e^kumi 


Nycowe. Ni, N-. 


Nycowe. N-,Ni 


-n-. -a-nge 


-n-. -a-nje 


Wewe. 00-. 


Iwe. 00-. 


-ku-. -a-we 


-ku-. -a-we 


Iwe, Uwe. A-. 


Uwe, Oria. 


-mu-. -yi 


A-, Ya-. 


Icwe. Tu-. 


•mu-. -ye 
Yitwe. Tu-. 


-tu-. -a-itu 


•tu^. -a^itu 


Inyuwe. Mu-. 


Yimwe. Mu^. 


•ba-. -a-nyu 


•ba-. -a-nyu 


Abco. Ba. 


Abco. Ba. 


•ba^. -a^bco 


•wa-, -ba-. 




-a-bco 


•cona (dj^c.) 


-cona (cp'C.) 



{As in Uru- 
nyorco; bictthe 
demonstrative 
answering to 
' this here' is 
more often pre- 
ceded by the 
' directive n ' : 
Ngu-nu, mba- 
nu ; figu-nu, 
ngi-nu; ndi-nu, 
iiga-nu ; ^'c.) 

Ngu-li, mba-li, 
Sr'c. Ngu^gu, 
mba-bco ; Ngu- 
gu, figi-gi ; 
6^f. 



{Much as in 
Uru-nyorco). 
The dejnon- 
strative ' that ', 
however,is -ria 
(oo-ria, ba-ria ; 
gu-ria ; 6^1:.) 



Bad ... 


-bi, -kirco 


-bi 


Black... 


•iraulu. 


-iragura 




G-iraguru 


of verb) 



{root 



-bi 



-bi 



-bi 
-irugadju 



-bi 



54 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



I. 
Olu-konjto 



Uru-nyorco 



2 a. 
Ru-gungu 



2 b. 
Ru-kycopi 



Female 



■kali, humans 
and small 
7nammals; -esi- 
yija, cows; -bu- 
wuma, coivs 
andgoats\-(Si\v- 



■kazi. -isiki. 

■toj, mu-tco 



Fierce, sharp, 
bitter 

Good 

Great 

Little 

Long 

Male 



Old ... 

Red ... 
Rotten 
Short ... 
Sick ... 
White... 



Above, up, on 
top 
Before 

Behind 
Below, down 

Far 

Here 

In, inside ... 



-w-ene. 
-kulu. 



■buya 
■nene 



■nunu. -ke 



•ruma {verb)^ 
■rua {verb roof) 
•rungi ^ 
-kuru. -kutcd 

■ke. -toitw 



Middle 

Near 

Outside 

Plenty, many -ngi 

There E-ria. Ha-! 



■de, ■le ■raiha. -hangu 

■lume -sadja or -saija 

{men). -tojco 
{children). 
■enume {oxen). 
rumi {birds) 
•kuru {mostly 
in verbalform) 
■tuku ■tvik.vLTa.{verbal) 

-junda {verbal) 
■kuhi -gufu. ■ihi 

■aluere. -kuni ■rwara (verb) 
■era ■era, ■ruwera 



Ha-iguru. 
Eru.guru 
Ah-ese COmu ma^is<o-ga 

Na-mbere 
Eny^uma ya 
He-nsi Ha^nsi ya. I-fco 

Ha-ra 
E-nco Ha-nu, Ku-nu 

(jO-mu (jO-mu, 

OOmun.da 
Ha-gati 
Ha-ihi 
Ah-eru 



Where ? 

No! ... 



J.yehe ! 



■ingi 

OO-ku. Ku-li. 
A-hto. Ha-li 

N-kaha? 

Kwaha! Anga! 
A-a! 

Ti-(ti,ta),ta, ti- 
tu,ti-mu,ti-ba). 
■ta-(u-ta-,(i3-ta, 
•ba-) a-ta-, ^t'c.) 

■bu-sa (cf.Swa- 
hili ' Kabisa'. 
-bu-sa means 
'in vain', 
' naked ') 
'■ Co7npare word for ' leopard ' in Caga. 



Not {wilh verb, Si- (Si-ndi 
as prefix, in- Si-wa- 
/ix, or suffix) Si-a, Si-tu 
Si-mu-,Si 



2 c. 

Uru-torco 

(Ru-songora 

i?WRu-irco,&-'f.) 



2d. 
(jOru-hima 



-kazi. -zigise. 

-isiki 



■ruruma {verb) -rruma {verb) 



■rungi 
•kcotco. -kuru 

■taitu. -titirco. 
-ke 
-raiha 
-saija 



-rung! 

-kuru. -pangu, 
-hangu 
-itce, -ce, -cice 



•seizi. -irumi, 
-cozco {chil- 
dren). -enimi 
{oxen) 



-ikuru, -kura -ikuru 



-nanata {verb) 
-junda {verb) 
-gufu 

-rwaire (verb) 
-era {verb) 



Ha-iguru 

OOmu ma-sco-ga 

Eny-uma ya 

Ha-nsi 

Ha-ra 

Ha-no3 

OO-mu 

Ha-gati 
Ha-ihi 
Aha-iru 
(jOmw-eru.-ingi 
Ku-li, Ha-li. 
OO-ku 



-tukura {verb) 

-guffu 

-ruara {verb) 
-era, -wera 

{verb) 

Ha-iguru 

OOmu ma-sco-ga 

Eny-uma ya 

Ha-nsi 

Ha-ra 

Ha-nco 

OO-mu 

Ha-kati 
Ha-ihi 



-inji 
OO-ku. 



Ku-ria 



Kwaha ! N-ga ! N-gabuse ! 



{As in Uru- 
nyorco) 



{As in Uru- 
nyorco) 



-bu-se 



Cf. Zulu and words for ' straight', ' building\ 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



55 





I. 


2. 


2 a. 


2 b. 


2C. 


2d. 


English 


Olu-konjco 


Uru-nyorco 


Ru-gungu 


Ru-kyupi 


Uru-toru 

(Ru-songora 

awrt^Ru-iru, (2r»f .) 


OOru-hima 


To 


Eri-i 


a)ku- Ku- 


OOku- 


a)ku- 


OOku- 


„ beat ... 


■tera 


-tera 


... 


■tera 


-tera 


„ buy, sell 


■awcola, -wwla 


•tunda. -gura 


... 


•gura 


-tunda 


„ come ... 


-asa 


•ija 




■ija 


■iza 


„ cut 


-dura 


-tema 




■temera 


-temera 


„ dance ... 


•bina, -win a 


-zina, -n-zina 


• . ■ 


-zina 


-guruka 


„ die 


-wa, -kuwa 


•fwa 


... 


•fa 


■fa. -akaba 


„ eat 


-lia 


-dia 


... 


■dia 


-dia 


„ give ... 


■ha. (-ha in com- 
posiiidn) 


-wa, -ha. 
■gaba 




•wa, ■ha 


-hwa, -wa 


» go 


-genda 


•genda. -gya 


... 


■genda, 
-ngenda 


-njenda 


„ kill ... 


•ita 


-ita 


... 


■ita 


-ita 


„ know ... 


-kiasi 


■manya 


... 


-manya 


-manya 


„ laugh ... 


•seka 


■seka 




■seka 


■seka 


„ leave off, 


■leka ? 


-leka. -siga 


... 


■leka 


-reka 


cease 












„ love, want 


■sima. -yenda 


-enda. -gonza, 
-gondza 




■enda. -gonza 


-kunda. 
-n-yenda 


„ see 


•langera 


-buna, -dora 


... 


■buna, rora 


-buna, ■dora 
■subora ? 


„ sit, remain. 


-ikala 


-ikara 




-ikala 


-ikara 


abide 












„ sleep ... 


-rara 


-rara. -gconya 


-viyama 


-rara. guna 


-biama. -rara 




(Eri-rara) or 


{to pass the 






•guna 




-lala 


night), -guna 
(snore). 
■niama, -bi^ 
yama ? 








„ stand, stop 


... 


-emera. -teka. 


• ■• 


•ema, ■emera 


■ema, -emera 


be erect 




-imuka 








„ steal ... 


-iba 


-iba 






-iba 


-iba 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN OLU-KONJOl)^ 

Preprefixes are present in Olu-konju. 

Class I. OOmu^ (concord comu-, yo)-, u- ?) ; 2. Aba^ (ba-) ; 3. OOmu- (comu-, gu-) ; 4. Emi^ (eml-, gi-, 
yi-, i- ?) ; 5. Eri. (ri-) ; 6. Ama- (ama-, a-, ga-) ; 7. Eki^ (ki-) ; 8. Ebi^ (bi-) ; 8 a.' Ebi^(bi-) ; 9. E., Eyi^, 
En-, En-, Em^, N- (M-) (en-, e-, ey-) ; 10. Esi-, Esiu-, Esian-, Esion-, Esiony- (en- .', esi- ?) ; 11. Clu^ 
(7r OOlu^, Oru-, Odu-, (jOnu- (lu-, du-) ; 12. Wtu- (tu-) ; 13. Aka- (ka-) ; 14. OObu- (bu-) ; 15. OOku. (ku-) ; 
16. Aha- (ha-, he-) ; 17. (JOmu- (mu- ?). 



' The prefix above the line is the equivalent of the infinitive ' to '. The root of the word is also the 
form of the 2nd person imperative. 

''■ The concord particles are shown within brackets and commence with a minuscule and not a capital 
letter. The adjectival form is usttally given first. 

^ The 8 a prefix which is given here, and which is prominent in the West Equatorial Bantu 
languages, is nothing but the phiral prefix 8 employed in a collective or singular sense : generally with 
a diminutive signification. 



56 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



PREFIXES, &c., IN URU-NYORO), URU-TOR(x), AND CORU-HIMA 

Preprefixes are present. 

Class I. COmu- (comu-, mw-, m-, ngu-, gu-, ougu-, towco-, o)-, u-, a-); 2. Aba- (aba-, ba-); 3. (x)mu- 
(comu-, cDgu-, gu-), 4. Emi- (emi-, e-, i-, egi-); 5. I-, Ei-, Eri-, Ji- (in Rugungu) (eri-, di-, ri-, li-) 
6. Ama- (ama-, a-, aga-, ga-) ; 7. Eki- or Eci- (eki-, ki-, ci-) ; 8. Ebi- (ebi-, hi-) ; 8 a. Ebi- (ebi-, bi) 
9. En- (Em-), Eni- (Eny'-), Ng-, Yi-, Gi- (en-,e-,i-, eyi-, gi- ?) ; 10. Same as 9 (concord, en-, e-, i-, ezi-) 
II. Uru-, a)ru-, Odu- (oru-, du-, ru-) ; 12. OOtu-, Utu- (cotu-, tu-) ; 13. Aka- (aka-, ka-) ; 14. a)bu- (cobu-, 
bu-) ; 15. OOku- (coku-, ku-) ; 16. Aha- (aha-, ha-) ; 17. (Sixa-a.- {preposition only) . 

In Uru-nyorco, if not in the other kindred dialects, an ' honorific ' prefix A- would appear to be 
present, especially in terms or titles of address as A-b(oki !, A-bvvcoli !, A-cali !, A-dyeri !, A-kiki !, 
A-mcoti !, &c., &c. The Nya- or feminine prefix is also present. 

Ru-gungu and Ru-kycopi would seem, from the very little we know of them, to agree with Uru-nyorco 
in prefixes and concords ; except that in Ru-gungu and perhaps in Ru-kycopi, the preprefixes are inclined 
to drop out of pronunciation. 



1. Olukonjcois spoken in the districts round the south and south-east flanks of the Ruwenzori range, 
and west of the Semliki river and of Lake Edward up to the Ituri basin, along the mountains of the 
Congo watershed southwards to the ist degree of South latitude. 

2. Urunyorco is spoken in Bunyorco, east of Lake Albert and west of the Victoria Nile, Lake Kicoga, 
and the River Kafu. 

2 a. Rugungu is spoken in northern Bunyorco, especially between Fajaco on the Victoria Nile and 
Lake Albert, in the district of Magungu. 

2 b. Rukycopi is spoken in the Nyorco settlements along the west coast of Lake Albert. 

2c. Urutorco is spoken at the south end of Lake Albert (in Busongora) and in Torcu, namely, the 
northern and eastern flanks of Ruwenzori and as far east as the frontiers of the kingdom or province of 
Buganda. 

2 d. (Oruhima is spoken in Ankoile and Mporcorco, east of Lake Edward, west and north of the 
Kagera river. 



GROUP A 

THE NYANZA LANGUAGES {continued) 



Sub-group A 2 {continued') 

2 e. Uru-karagwe (Ru-ragwe) 

2 f. Uru-kerebe ' 

2 g. Lu-ziba (Lu-sinja '^) Ru-nyambu 



Sub-group A 3 North Tanganyika 

3. Urunya-ruanda and 3 a Ki-rundi 

3 b. Ru-ha or Ru-tutsi (Tusi ', Ki-jiji) 
Sub-group A 4 Buganda 

4. Lu-ganda (including Lu-sese 4 a and Lu-scoga 4 b) 





2 6. 


2f. 


2g- 


3-* 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi 


Lu-sese 4 a, and 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Adze 




En-cankwi 


... 


En-torizco. 
Umu-horco .' 




E-gya. 
Em-bajco 


Animal, wild 


E-nyama 


E-namenswa. 


... 


I-nyamaswa. 


In-yama 


N-scolco. 


beast 




I-ri ; ma-ri 




I-nyama. 
Iki-kcoku 




E-nangazi 


Ant 


Em-pazi. 




ODbw-asi. 


En-tcozi. 




N-sana-fu. 




E-niangto 




E-nyangoj 


Uru-pipi 




N-sansa. 

N-kcolcotco. 

Em-pazi 


Ant, white 


En-swa 


OOmu-swa. 


En-swa 


(jOmu-swa. 


En-swa 


En-swa. 


(termite) 




En-swa 




Urun-swa ; 
in-swa 




N-kuyege. 

Ama-guye(//.) 

N-kwenda 


Ape (chim- 




... 


... 


En-jangwe 


... 


E-dzike, I-zike 


panzi or 














gorilla) 














Arm 


COmu-k<on<o 


Eii-galco 


(jOku-wcokcij. 
COm-k<an<o, 
Mu-ko>nco ; 
emi- 


Uku-bcokco. 
Umu-k«onco 


Ukco-wcokco ; 
ama- 


(JOmu-kconco 


Arrow 


Omw-ambi 


Omw-ambi 


(jOw-ambi, 
OOmw-abi 


Umw-ambi. 
Ubw-enge. 
Umu-tegco 

{snare, arrow) 


Umw-ambi 


OOmu-sale, 
Aka-sale. 
OOmu-tegeo 


Axe 


Em-pasoa. 


Oi)Iu-sinzu. 


E-senya ; ama- 


I-suka, In- 


Em-pasa ; //. 


Em-badzi. Em- 




I-sembe ; ama- 


Em-bezoj. 




suka ; ama-. 


idzi-wasa ? 


baidi. N-ya- 






En-sena 




I-senyco 


I-dzuma 


nzi. Em-pasa 


Baboon 


En-kcawe 


Eii-kube 


En-kcobe. 
Eii-kende 


Em-pundu 




Eii-kcobe. 
N-sudde(4b) 


Back 


(jOmu-gongco 


OOmu-gongco 


Om-gongco or 
Um-gongco 


(JOmu-gongco ; 
emi-. Umu- 
goiigeo ; imi- 


Umu-gongco 


OOmu-gongco. 
E-bega. 
Ki-dindco (4 b) 


Banana ... 


Eki-ttoke ; evi- 


Eki-tcoke ; ebi-. 


Eki-tuke ; ebi-. 


Egi-tcoci; ebi-. 


... 


Eki-tcoke ; ebi-. 






Eki-hisye 


En-gamu 

{tree) 


Iki-tcoke (3 a). 
Um-ugwi(3a). 
Iki-agara (old 
R.) 




Gonja. M-bide. 

Eii-emco (4 a). 
Ki-gcogco (4 b). 
Eri-envu ; 
m-envu 


Beard 


OOmu-lezu 


Ebi-rezu 


N-dedyu, 
Mu-reju 


Ubu-anwa or 
Uby-anwa 


... 


Eki-rebu.COmu- 
levu (4 a). 
Eki-rebco (4 b) 


Bee 


En-zcoki ; 
ne-nycoki 


En-zcoki 


Ny-coki 


En-zcoki. Uru- 
yuki. Uru- 
zuki ; in-zuki. 
Aka-sazi (3 a) 




Enj-uki 



^ The Ki-kerewe of Ger7na7i writers. ^ Including the ' Ci-zinja ' ' Ba-zinza ', ' Ru-haya ' and ' Ki-mweri ' 

of German writers. ' Inchiding Stanley's ' Ki-jiji ' and Last's ' Hcolcohcolco '. 

* The second or lower word is generally Ki-rundi. Ki-rundi differs mainly from Ruanda in retaining U and I as 
preprefixes instead of 00 and E. A few words of the dialect spoken by the Batwa or Pygmies in Burundi are 
inserted on the authority of Father van der Burgt. 



58 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





2 6. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi 


Lu-sese4a,a«(/ 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Belly 


En-da ; ama-da En-da. 


Umo-nda. 


E-bondco. 


In-da ; ama-da 


I-bunda; ama-. 






Ru-bunda 


Uru-bunda ; 
m-bunda 


In-da 




Em-bunda 
(4 a). OOlu- 
butw ; em-. 
N-da (4 b) 


Bird 


Eny-wnyi 


En-coni 


Eny-uni. 


Eny-coni, 


N-zewa. 


Eny-wnyi. 








Eki-kungrii 


Iny-coni 


Inywni 


N-coni (4 b) 


Blood 


E-s^gama 


En-s&gama. 
Eki-amba 


E-sagama 


Ama-rasco 


... 


OOmu-sai. 
Mu-sahi (4 a) 


Body 


Om-wili 


N-gingco 


Umu-biri 


OOmu-biri, 
OOrau-wiri 


Umu-wiri 


COmu-biri 


Bone 


E-gufwa ; ama- 


I-gufwa ; ama- 


Um-gufa 


E-gufwa. 
I-gufa (3 a) 


... 


E-gufwa ; ama-. 
I-gumba ; 
ama- 


Borassuspalm 


i Eki-kcoga ; evi- 






... 


... 


Aka-tugu. 
OOlu-kuma 


Bow 


OOvu-ta ; 


OObu-ta ; 


(Ji)vu-ta, 


OOmu-hettco. 


Umu-hetco 


Aka-sale. 




ama-ta 


ama-ta. 
OObco-kcoma ; 
ama- 


(jObu-ta 


Umu-kekerco, 
Umu-wangco 

(3 a) 




OOmu-tegco. 
Bu-tta(4b) 


Bowels 


Ama-da 


Ama-ra 


Urii-ra; ama-ra 


In-da ; ama-da. 
Uru-ra ; in-da 


... 


Ebien-da 


Brains 


OOvw-ongco 


OObw-ongoj 




(jOb-y-ongo3 


... 


(JObw-ongco 


Breast (man's 


1 Eki-fupa 


Eki-fuba. 
En-korco 


Eki-fuba 


Iki-tuza 


... 


Eki-fuba. 
Aka-ligyi 


Breast 


I-vere ; ama- 


I -here; ma- 


Ma-bere 


I -were 


I-wele ; ama- 


I -here ; ama- 


(woman's) 














Brother ... 


Omw-a-itu ; 


... 


Um-rumuna. 


Mw-ene-tata. 


Mu-sadza. 


Mu-ganda. 




av-a-itu 




I-lumbu, 

Ka-lumbu. 

Mu-kuru 


Umu-saza. 
Umu-hara. 
In-suti (3 a). 
Umu-kuru. 
Umu-rumuna 


Mw-ene-we 


Mwa-nyina. 
Mu-tabani 

(4 a) 


Buffalo 


Em-bcogoj 


Em-bcogto 


Em-bcogeo 


Em-bcogco. 
Im-bcogco 


... 


Em-bcogco 


Bull 


E-numi 


E-numi. 
Ki-masa 


Eki-masa 


I ki-masa. 
In-fizi 


Iki-masa ; ivi- 


En-te sedume 
En-te numi 


Buttocks ... 


Eki-bunu; evi- 


Eki-bunu ; ebi-. 


Uru-ende ; 


Eki-bunco. 


... 


OOmu-tulira. 






Eki-takto ; ebi- 


m-pende. 
(Nyco = aniis^i 


Ama-takoj 




Ama-takco. 
Mu-fundco 

(4 a) 


Canoe 


Uvw-atoj 


OObw-atcojama- 


Ubw-atco 


Ubw-atoj, 
Uby-ata) 


Uw-atco 


Eri-atco ; am-. 
Bw-atco. 
E-bamvu 


Cat 


En-zangu 


Ru-baka ; 


Ny-ato, 


En-turu. 


Iny-awco 


Ka-yayu. 






m-paka. 


Ny-amoj 


I-tulco. 




Kapa ; 






En-simba 




I-jang^vi. 
Akany-awu 




ba-kapa. 
Ka-jaiigwa 

(4 a). Mu-yai 
(4 b) 


Cattle 


Oru-gco ; 
ama-gco 


En-te 


Ki-remba 


I-|Sa> ; ma-pco 
Ifi-ka 


Ifi-ka 


En-te 


Charcoal ... 




I-kara 




I-kara ; ama- 


... 


Li-anda ; 
am-anda 


Chief 


En-kama 


Mu-kama. 


0)mu-kama. 


(jOmu-tutsi. 


Umw-ami 


OOmw-ami ; 






Mu-hinda 


(Omu-temi ; 
aba- 


Umw-ami ; 
ab-ami. Umu- 
tware ; aba- 




ab-ami. Mu- 
kama (4 .1). 
OOmu-kungu 







GROUP A 


: NYANZA LANGUAGES 




59 




se. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


hu-sese^?i,and 








Ru-nyambii 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Child 


Omw-ana ; 


Omw-ana. 


Umw-ana. 


(x)mw-ana. 


Umw-ana ; 


(JL)mw-ana ; 




aw-ana 


Eli-ana 


Um-keremeki. 
Um-tabari 


Mama 


aw-ana 


ab-ana. 
Ak-ana ; 
obw-ana. 
Aka-teo ; cobu- 


Cloth 


Omw-enda ; 


Omw-enda 


Umw-endeo. 


Oru-tabbi. 


Umw-enda 


N-goye, 




emi-enda 




Ulu-bugcj 


Umw-enda 




(Olu-goye. 
Lu-bugco 


Cold 


Em-behoj 


Em-behoa 


Mu-iaga 


Im-behco 


Im-behco 


Em-pewco. 
OObu-titi 


Country ... 


En-si 


Eki-alu 


En-si 


Oabu-taka. Iki- 
hukco, -hugco. 
In-si 


In-si 


En-si. Ebi-alco 


Cow 


En-te ; ama-te 




En-te mu-kazi 


Eii-ka. Ifi-ka. 
In-gabe. 
A-yimara .' 


Ifi-ka ; 
pi. nifi-ka 


En-te en-dusi 


Crocodile ... 


E-mamba 


En-sambi 


En-pambi 


In-gcona (3 a) 


... 


E-gconya, 
N-gconya 


Day 


Eki-lco ; evi-lco. 


Lu-naku ; //. 


Eki-lco. 


E-zorrco. 


I-zuwa. Iki-lco; 


Eki-rco (4 a). 




Om-zana 


n-naku 


(jOmu-pana 


Umu-si ; imi- 


ivi-leo. Mu-usi 


OOlu-nakco ; 






COmu-sana 


Umu-nsi. 




e-nakco. Jco. 










Oru-ntaga 




Mu-sana ( = 










(daylight) 




daylight) 


Devil, evil 


OOmu-zimu 


(jOmu-zimu 


E-mandwa 


Em-bandwa, 


I-mandwa 


Lubare ; ba -f , 


spirit 








Im-bandwa 




Mu-sambwa 

(4 a, 4 b) 


Doctor (medi- 


A-laguza. 


OOmu-fumu. 


Umu-genge (?) 


OOmu-pfumu. 


Umu-fumco 


ODmu-saw^co.^ 


cine man) 


Um-fumu ; 
awa- 


OOmu-laguza 


Em-fumu 


I-mandwa. 
In-daruza 




OOmu-ganga. 
OOmu-fumu 


Dog 


Em-bwa ; 
ama-bwa 


Em-bwa 


Em-bwa 


Em-bwa or 
Im-bwa 


Im-bwa 


Em-bwa. 
OOgu-bwa ; 
pi. aga-bwa. 
Eii-koidi (4 a) 


Donkey 


En-dcagcowe 


... 


En-dcogcobe 


In-dcogcobe 


In-dcogcowe ; 
pi. idzi-dcogco- 
we 


En-dcogoi 


Door 


Ur-ugi ; inz-ugi. 


I-hara. 


Uru-igi ; en-igi 


(jOmu-riangco. 


... 


(jOIu-igi, Lu-gi ; 




OOmu-langco ; 


I-lembco. 




Urw-ugi. 




pi. enz-igi 




emi- 


OOmu-liaiigto 




I-lembco 




OOmu-liangco. 
(jOmu-zigco 


Dream 




Eki-rcotco 


En-dcotco 


En-dcotco. 
In-zcozi 


In-dcotco 


En-dcotco 


Drum 


En-gcoma 


En-gcoma 


En-gcoma 


En-gcoma, 
In-gcoma 




Efi-coma. 
N-gcoma (4 b) 


Ear 


OOku-tu 


(jOku-tui; ama- 


Uku-twi. 
Ili-twi ; ama- 
twi 


Ugu-tu 


Uku-twi ; ama- 
twi 


OOku-tu ; ama- 
tco. OOku-tui 

(4 a) 


Egg 


I-huli; ania- 


I-huli ; ama- 


I-huli. I-iiri 


E-gi ; ama-gi 


Eli-gi ; ama-gi 


E-gi ; ama-gi. 


Elephant ... 


huli 
En-stodzoj ; //. 


En-zcozu 


En-yudyu, 


In-zcovu. 


In-scovu 


I-gyi (4 a) 
En-jcovu. 




nama-stodzw 




En-jcoju 


In-dayi (old 
R.) 




En-jcobu (4 a). 
N-dcovu (4 b) 


Excrement 


Ama-zi 


... 


Ama-zi 


Ama-zi. Ama-se 


Ama-vi 


Emi-zi. Ama-zi. 
Ama-di (4 a) 


Eye 


El-isco ; ama-sco 


El-isco 


El-isco, 


^-ipco or Ej-ipco 


Ili-nsco ; pi. 


Er-isco; ama-sco. 








Ri-ipoj 


orlc\-cia;pls. 
ama-pco, ebi- 
cico 


ama-nsco ; 


D-isco.E-moni 
(4 a). L-isco; 
ma-isco (4 b) 






' Also 


(X)mu-laguzi ; seep. 67. 







6o 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





2e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi 


Lu-sese4a,aW 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Face, fore- 


(ji)vu-seo ; 


(ji)bu-syto 




Oru-hanga 


Uvvco-seo 


Ama-sco. 


head 


ama-sco 










Bu-enyi. 
Ma-isco (4 b). 
Eki-eni (4 a) 


Fat, oil ... 


Ama-zuta 


Ama-zuta 


Ama-dyuta 


Uru-gimbci>. 
Ama-vuta, 
Ama-futa. 
Ama-zigwa. 
Am-engwa 
(oldV^.) 


Ama-vuta 


Ama-futa. 
Ama-buta(4a). 
Ama-savu 
(4 b). 
OOmu-zigco 


Father 


M-tata. I-se 


Tata. I-se. I-sco 


Tata. Ise. 

I-SOJ 


Data,Tata.Ra. 


Data 


Kita. Sebo. 








Sto. Se; aba-se 




Tata. Sa-. Se-. 


Fear 


OOku-tina 


OObu-tina 


Bu-tini 


Uby-wba. 
OOku-kuiiga. 
CObu-tina 


Uwu-tina 


Tia. OObu-ti. 
En-tisa 


Finger 


OOlu-kumu ; 


Eki-ara 


Eki-ara. 


Uru-tuki. 


Ulu-kumu. 


OOlu-nwe ; pi. 




en-kumu 




Oru-kumu 


Iki-kumwe 

(thumb) 


Uru-tcoke. 
Eki-dcole ; ivi- 


e-nwe. (JOlu- 
galco. Eki-ala, 
OOlu-kumco 
(4 a). Du-ala; 
//. nd-ala (4 b) 


Fire 


OL)mu-lil<a ; 


COmu-lilo) 


Om-riru. 


OOmu-rireo. 


Umu-canwa. 


(jOmu-lilco. Ka- 




ama- 


(Ku-ota = to 


Um-otco; 


(Ku-ota = to 


Umu-lilco 


wai. (Ku-cota 






warm oneself) 


emi-otco 


warm) 




= to warm) 


Fish 


En-fwi 


N-fwi. En-furu En-furu 


E-here. Em.fu. 


I-vui. In.siwi 


Ebie-nyanja. 










I-fwi,Uru-fwi; 




Em-fwi (4 a). 










in-fwi. Im- 




Em-pune (4 b) 










bcdga {old R.) 






Foot 


(x)gu-gulu ; 


OOku-guru. 


Eki-renge 


Eki-renge 


Umu-lundi. 


Eki-gere. 




ama- 


Eki-gere 






Uku.guru 


Eki-reiige(4a) 


Forest 


Eki-tundu 


Eki-tuntu. 


Eki-bira. 


I-^amba. 


Hi-lungu 


Eki-bira. 






(Eki-bira = 


Eci-tundu 


Iki-bira 




Lu-kcola. 






sacred grove. 








OOlu-kampa 






forest) 










Fowl .., ... 


En-kcokco 


Efi-kcokoj. 


En-kuku 


En-kcokco. 


In-kcokco. 


En-kcokco. 






(N-kcoko>rumi 




{\-%3^^= cock) 


(I-kungulume 


En-gcokco. 






= cock) 






= coc^ 


(Se-gwanga 

= cock) 


Frog 


Eki-kele; evi- 


Aka-kere ; pi. 
ama.kere 


Eki-kere 


Iki-keri 


Iki-kere ; ivi- 


Eki-kere 


Ghost 


• •• 


I-tunu 


Om-simu. 
Ki-zimu. 
Om-cwezi. 
Ki-ntuiige 


COmu-zimu 


OOmu-zimu ; 

imi- 


(jOmu-zimu. 

Mu-dimu(4a). 
Omw-oyeo 


Giraffe 


En-twiga 


En-twiga 


En-twiga 






En-tuga 


Girl 


COmu-isiki 


OOmu-hara ; 


(jOmu-siki, 


Umu-kcobva. 


Umu-kcowa 


OOmu-wala. 






aba- 


Mw-ipiki 


Umu-kcobwa 




Mu-hara (4 a). 












Mu-guna (4 b) 


Goat 


Em-buzi; ama- 


Em-buzi (//. 
same) 


Em-buzi 


Em-peni, 
Im-pene; pi. 
ama-hene 


Im-pene 


Em-buzi. 
M-budi (4 a) 


„ (he) ... 


... 


Em-paya. 
Ru-sabu. 


Em-paya. Em- 
buzi m-seja. 


I-sutwa.Iseku- 

rume. In-fizi. 

Iki-hebe {old 

R.) 
Umu-guma, 

Uwu-guma 


Ifi-gulati. 




„ (she)... 


... 


Bu-guma 


Em-buzi mw- 
epiki 


In-dcogcosa 


... 










{old R.) 







GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



6i 





2 6. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 2, a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese 4 a, a7id 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


God 


Ru-gaba ; en- 




Ru-gaba. 


Mu-rungu. 


Ki-mana. 


Ka-tonda. 




gaba 




Ka-zuba. 
Ka-tonda 


I-mana. 
Lu-haiiga 


Mu-lungu 


Lubare.* 

Mu-sambwa. 

Ki-wumba(4b) 


Grandparent 


Guku. Kaka. 
Tatenkulu J. 
Mawenkulu j 


Guka Kaka. 
Isenkuru 


... 


Isenkuru. Ku- 
kuru S. Nine- 
nkuruj. ^/j-o: 




Jaja 








Waba, I-waba 






Grass 


Evi-nyadzi 


I-nansi 


Bu-nyasi 


I-hamba. 

Ubu-atsi 




OOmu-ddco. 
E-subi, 
E-suwi. 
Bu-sambu 

(4 a) 


Ground 


E-zi. Na-hanki. 
I-taka 


I-taka 


En-si. I-taka 


OObu-taka 
Iki-taka 


I-zi. Kuki 


I-taka, E-taka 


Ground-nut 


En-kalanga 




N-por«o 


Eki-nycabco. 
Ici-coba. 
Ici-ema. 
Ici-anza (3 a) 




Eki-nycobwa. 
„ -ny-uwebwa 
(4 a). L-idco ; 
ma-idco (4 b) 


Guinea-fowl 


... 


En-kanga 


En-curucumbi 


En-sakara. 
lii-kanga. In- 
doyi {old R.) 




En-kcofu 


Gun 


E-huti 


N-bunduzito 


Em-bundudzi 


Em-bundu. 
I ii-guho> 




M-undu 


Hair 


I-zcoke; evi- 


I-scoke 


Uru-pcoke ; en- 


Mu-tscatsi. 


Imi-sadzi. 


Em-viri, 




zcoke 




^uke. 

Emi-papi, 

Ama-papi 


Umu-satsi. 
Ei-papi ; ama-. 
Ama-sunzu 


Uru-swiri 


OOlu-viri. 
I-scoke (4 a) 


Hand 


OOmu-ktonoj 


Eki-ganza 


Eki-ganya. 


Eki-ganza. 


Iki-ganza. 


Eki-ganja(4a). 








Eki-batu. 


Uru-pi 


Ukco-wcokco 


Eki-batu, 








N-garto 




Eki-ratu. 














E-kconco 


Head 


OOmu-twe; emi- 


OOmu-twe 


Um-twe, 
Umu-twe 


OOmu-twe; emi- 
twe. tjmu- 
twe ; imi-twe 


Umu-twe 


OOmu-twe 


Heart 


Om-tuma ; 
em-tima 


OOmu-tima 


OOmu-ganya. 
Omu-tima, 
Oraw-irima 


OOmu-tima 


Umu-tima 


OOmu-tima. 
E-meme {ster- 
nuni) 


Heel 


Eki-sinsinyco 


Eki-sinsinyco 


... 


Egi-tsintsinco, 
Iki-tsintsinco 




Eki-sinzirco 


Hide 


COru-hu 


Eky-ahi ; ebi- 


Urfi-hu ; em-pii. 
En-kanda 


... 


In-kanda ; idzi- 


E-diba. 
Eki-anjco 


Hill 


I-wanga ; ama- 


Mu-gongco 


Aka-vanga. 
I-guru 


Umu- (orAka-) 
scozi ; pi. imi- 
or utu- 


Umu-scosyi 


Ulu-scozi. 
(Ugu-swa = 
ant hill) 


Hippopotamus 


Em-fupvi 


En-zubu 


En-yubu, 


Em-vubu. 


Im-vuvu ; idzi- 


Em-vubu 




or En-supu 




En-jubto 


In-tondcome. 
In-vubu (3 a). 
In-tcotcomye 

{old R.) 




Em-bubu (4 a) 


Hoe 


I-gembe ? 


En-fuka 


I-gembe ? 
En-fuka. 
En-konju 


In-suka. 
I-gembe. 
I-funi 


I-gembe; araa- 


En-kumbi 


Honey 


(jOvu-eoki 


(JObw-coki 


(jQbu-odzi we 
nz-uki 


Emi-tsama. 
Uw-uki 


OOvu-coki 


OOmu-bisi 




' In Lu-ganda OOlu-bale also means ' sktilP. Vide note 


2, /. 48. 





62 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





2e. 


2f. 


3g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-nianda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese4a,a;«(/ 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Horn 


I-hembe 


I-hembe 


Y-embe; ama- 
embe. 
Em-pera 


I-hembe 


I-hembe 


N-ombe, Ka- 
gombe (horn 
as trumpet). 
I-hembe (4 a). 
Ej-embe ; ama- 
embe. L-iga; 
ma-iga (4 b) 


House 


En-zu 


En-zu. OOwa- 


N-dyu, En-zu. 


En-zeo, In-zu, 


In-zu. 


Eny-umba. 






(at the house of) 


N-jco, N-ju 


Aka-zu. 
Iny-umba 

(hut) 


Iki-banda 


En-ju. 

N-du(4b) 
Em-wamba. 
(E-ka = ho7ne) 


Hunger 


En-zala 


En-zara 


En-sadzi. 
En-jara 


E-sonji. 
In-zara 


In-zala 


En-jala. 
N-dala (4 b) 


Husband ... 




I-ba (her). 
I-ba-ni (iny). 
Ba-ro) (thy) 


OOmu-gori. 
Om-seidya. 
I-ba 


Umu-gabu 




Ba-(ba-ze=»2y, 
ba-Ico = thy, 
ba-we = her). 
Mu-sadja 


Hyena 


Em-bidzi 


Narawe-birwe ; 


Em-pisi. 


Im-pyisi. In- 


I-fisi 


Em-pisi. 






pi. naw'em- 


Em-pumi 


fisi. In-dumba 




Em-piti (4b). 






birwe 




(old R.) 




En-tagya 


Iron 


E-dztoma 


Eky-coma 


Eki-coma ; ebi- 


Mu-cuma or 
Ebi-uma. 
Umu-rinda 

(3 a) 


I-combela. 
I-dzuma 


Eki-uma. 
Ec-uma (4 a). 
Ama-tale 


Island 


... 


I-zinga ; ama- 


Eki-zinga 


Eci-rwa 


Iki-rira 


Eki-singa. 
Eki-dinga (4 a) 


Ivory 


... 


... 


... 


In-zcovu 


... 


Ei-sanga lie 
n-jtofu 


Knee 


Eki-zui 


Eki-zwi 


Uku-dyui 


Eki-vi. I-bvi 


Iki-dziii ; 
ivi-zui 


E-bvivi ; ama-. 
(jOku-bwi ; 
ama-bwi (4 a). 
Ki-vu ; bi-vu 

(4 b) 


Knife 


Oru-ipco 


OOmu-hyoj, 


OOmu-iycj, 


En-diga. 


Um-usoa. 


Ak-ambe ; 




COmu-pico 


OOmu-pco. 


Eki-hompco. 


In-tambi 


cobu-ambe 






Em-banda 


Ifi-gcota 






Lake 


Eny-anza 


En-anza 


Eny-andya, 


Eci-vco or 


Iny-anza. 


Eny-anja. 








Eny-anza 


Iki-vu. 
OOru-zi 


Iki-tanga. 
Tanganyika 


En-taba 


Leg 


OOku-gulu 


OOku-guru. 


OOmu-rundi ; 


OOku-guru. 


Uku-guru ; 


COku-gulu. 






Mu-rundi 


emi-. 
OOku-guru 


Umu-rundi 


ama- 


OOmu-gere (4 b) 
OOku-lenge ; 




e* 










ama- (4 a) 


Leopard ... 


En-zumura ; 


N-dara 


En-gto, En-goi. 


Efi-gwe 


In-dzumula ; 


Efi-gco, En-goi. 




ama- 




En-zumura 




ama-. N-gwe 


M-para (4 b) 


Lion 


En-tale 


En-tale 


En-tale. 
N-ganza 


En-tare 


In-tali 


Em-porogcoma 


Lips 


(jOmu-nna ; 
emi-nna 


Emi-nwa 


Eki-nwa ; 
pi. emi-nwa 


Eme-nua 


Imi-nwa (pi) 


Emi-nua (4 a, 
4b). 
Emi-mwa 


Magic 


Emi-wadzi 


Bu-lcogw. 


OObu-wazi. 


OOmu-reozi. 


... 


(jObu-ltogco. 






(Bu-ganga = 


OOru-gisa 


(jObu-ganga 




OObu-sezi. 






gunpowder) 








OOmu-sirisimbi 

(4a). 
OObu-ganga 


























(good magic, 














gunpowder) 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



63 





2 6. 


2f. 


2g. 


3- 


3 b- 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese4a,a«(/ 








Ru-nyambii 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Maize 


Ama-peo 


I-lingwa 


Eki-cori 


Iki-gori. Ma- 
nyorconyorco 


... 


Ka-scoli. Bi- 
dcomia (4 b) 


Man 


(JL)mu-ntu ; 


OOmu-ntu ; 


Oi)mu-ntu 


tOmu-ntu ; aba-, 


Umu-ntu ; 


OOmu-ntu ; 




awa-ntu 


aba-ntu. 




awa-. 


awa-ntu 


aba-ntu. 


Man, vir. ... 


Om-zaidza 


OOmu-seza 


... 


Umu-sore. 
I-mana. 
COmu-gabco 


... 


OOrau-saja. 
Mu-sada (4 b). 
OOmu-zira 


Meat 


Eny-ama 


Eny-ama 


Eny-ama 


Eny-ama. 
I-kembwa 
(3 a). • 
I-tambwa 

{Pygmy) 


Iny-ama 


Eny-ama. 
En-sal wa. 
N-sdrua (4 a). 
E-mamba (4b) 


Medicine ... 


(jOmu-wazi 


OOmu-ti 


Em-bazi 


OOmu-ti 


Umu-ti 


OObu-sahco. 
E-dagala 


Milk 


Ama-te (Ku- 
kama = verb) 


Ama-ta 


Ama-ta 


Ama-ta. (Ku- 
kama = verb) 


Ama-ta. 
(Ku-kama) 


Ama-ta 


Monkey ... 




Eii-kende 


En-kende 


Eii-kima 


... 


En-kima. 

En-guku(4a). 

Eii-kembco 

(4 b) 
Omw-ezi. 


Moon 


OOkw-ezi 


OOkw-ezi ; pi. 


OOmw-ezi. 


Umw-ezi or 


Ukw-edzi ; 






am-ezi 


Ukw-ezi ; 
//. am-ezi 


Ukw-ezi 


am-edzi 


Mw-edi (4 a). 
OOgw-egabco- 
gabco. £-zu>ba 


Mother ... 


Mawe 


Nina. Mawe. 


Maha {living). 


Mama. Kco. 


Koiya. Mama 


Ma-. Nyco-kco. 






Nto-kco 


Mawe {dead). 
Nina, Nyina. 
Nyco-kcL) 


Mawe. 

Nyco-kco. Nina 
or Nyina 




Nyina 


Mountain ... 


I-wanga 


I-banga 


I-banga, 
I-wanga. 
Uru-pcozi ; 


Mu-camco 


Umu-scosyi 


OOlu-scodzi. 
Lu-scodi (4 a). 


Mouth 


Aka-nwa 


Mu-nwa 


en-pcozi 
Aka-nwa ; 
utu-nwa. 
Umu-ltomca 


Umu-nwa 


Umu-nwa ; 
emi-nwa. 
Aka-nwa 


Aka-mwa 


Nail (of finger 


En-zala ; evi- 


Ru-zara ; en- 


Em-pambco 


Ec-ara. 


... 


OOlu-ala ; 


or toe) 


ala 


zara 




Urw-ara 




pi. enj-ala 
Lu-kumco (4 b) 


Name 


I-dzina; ama- 
dzina 


I-zina 


I-bara 


I-zina 


I-dzina 


Er-inya, 
Er-ina. 
I-bala (4 a) 


Navel 


OOmu-kundi 


OOmu-kundi 


Oni-kundi 


... 


... 


E-kundi. 
En-dira 


Neck 


Evi-dza 


Ebi-kya (//.). 
Ama-laka 

{throat) 


En-gtot(o 


£-zcosi 




E-kcosi. 
OObu-lagco. 
En-singco. 
Eii-kcjtoj. Bi- 
kie (4 a). Lu- 
kya. En-sikya 


Night 


Eki-lco. 


Eki-lco. 


Eki-lco 


E-^orco 


[-dzcolco. 


Eki-rco. Bu-ire 




(Dmu-itumbi. 


(Mw-irima = 




Ubu-cugco 


(4 b). E-tumbi. 




(OOmu-ilima = 


darkness) 








(Eki-zikiza, 




darkness) 










En-zikiza = 

darkness) 


Nose 


Eny-indco 


En-indco 


En-indco, 
Eny-indco. 
Ki-ulco 

{nostril) 


[-zuru 


^-dzulu 


Eny-indco. 
N-indco (4 a). 
Eny-endco 

(4 b) 



F 2 



64 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





2e. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b- 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese 4 a, and 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Oil palm ... 














Ox 


En-te 


En-te "' 


Umrsembe. 
En-te 


In-ka, En-ka. 


In-ka 


En-te!' 








In-gora {old 




(Eii-ombe, 










R.). 




obsolete except 










? Ifi-gombe ' 




for ' horn ') 


Paddle ... 


En.gahi 


En-gahi 


En-gai. 
En-gasi 


In-gafi. 
Uru-pondco 

{pole) 
En-zcoga, 


I-gefi ; ama- 


Eii-kasi 


Palm wine, 


Ama-rwa 


Ama-rwa 


Ama-rwa. 


Ama-lcoha 


Omw-enge 


beer 






Lamba 


In-zcoga. 
Uru-agwa 

{banana beer) 






Parrot 


Ki-suku 






En-kuranga 




Eii-gusu, 
Ki-kusu 


Penis 


Em-borto 




Em-borto 


Em-borco 


... 


Em-bcolco. 
Mu-ncoma(4b). 
CObu-saji 


Pig 


Em-bunu 


Em-bunu 


Em-punu 


En-gurube 


lii-guriiwe 


Em-bidzi. 
Em-bidi (4 a, 
4 b) 


Pigeon 






Ek-iba 


E-numa. 
Aka-numa 


In-zewa 


E-jiba. 
I-yemba (4 b). 
Ka-ibai ; 
bu-ibai (4 a) 


Place 


Aha-ndi 


Aha-ntu 


Aa-ntu, 
Aha-ndu 


Aha-ntu 


Aha-ndi 


Eki-fco. 
Awa-ntu. 
(JL)mu-tala 


Rain 


En-zula 


En-zura 


En-yura; en- 
dzura 


Em-vura 


Im-vula 


En-kuba. 
Ma-izi (4 a). 

Ma-di (4 b) 


Rat 


Em-bewa 


Em-beba 


Em-beba 


Em-beba 


Im-bewa ; idzi- 


E-mese. Em- 
beba (4 a). 
M-pube (4 b) 


Rhinoceros 


Em-pera 


En-kura 


Em-pera. 
N-kura 


In-kura 


Im-pera 


En-kula 


River 


(JL)mu-gera 


OOmu-gera 


OL)mw-iga. 


Ec-ambu. 


Umu-gesi 


(jOmu-ga. 








Ka-iga ; tu-iga Umu-gezi 




Mw-iga (4 a). 














Ki-bale (4 b) 


Road 


COmu-handa 


(JL)mu-handa. 
(Ru-kongo> = 

cattle road) 


Umw-anda, 
Umu-handa 


En-zira,In-zira 


In-jira 


OOIu-gudco. 
E-kubco. 
En-jira (4 b) 


Salt 


OL)m-tonyco 


COmw-conu 


Um-conyu 


Um-unyu 


M-unyu 


(jL)m-unyco 


Shame 


En-sconi 


En-sconi 


En-sconi 


In-sconi 


In-sconi 


En-sconyi. 
Bu-wemu 


Sheep 


En-tama 


Na-balega. 
(N-gondu = 

ram). 
(Mu-tama = 

lamb) 


En-tama 


En-tama. 
In-pari {old 
R.) 


In-tama 


En-diga, 
Ki-riga. 
En-ziga. 
N-tama (4b) 


Shield 


En-gaw 


En-gabco 


En-gabco 


En-gabco. 
In-gawco 




En-gabco, 
Ga-gabco 


Shoulder ... 


I-wega ; ama- 


I-bega 


I-bega 




I-bega ; 
ama-bega 


Bega ; ama- 
bega 


Sister 


COmu-nyanya 


... 


(jL)m-nyanya. 
Aka-lumbu 


Umu-hara. 
Umu-piki 


Umw-ipiki 


Mw-anyina. 
Mu-hara 












waitu {4 a) 



' /n names of deities like Liya iigombe. 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



6S 





2 6. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese 4 a, and 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Skin 


En-kanda 


OOru-hu. 


Uru-jsusu 


Oru-hu. 


Umu-wiri. 


OOlu-susu. 






(jOmu-bili 


Uru-satco 


Ifi-kanda 


OOlu-guta, 














Du-guta. 














E-diba, 














E-diwa ; ama- 














liwa. En-gcozi 














(for carrying 














children). 














Ir-iwa (4 a). 














Lu-u ; pi. 














em-pii (4 b) 


Sky 


I-guru 


I-gulu 


I-guru. 
Evi-re 


E-zuru, I-juru. 
Iki-rere 


I-dzulu ; i-juru 


E-gulu. 
Wa-gulu. 
I-banga (4 a). 
Yaii-gulu (4 b) 


Slave 


(jOrau-iru ; 


(jOmu-iru. 


OOmw-iru. 


Umu-hutu ; 


Umw-erco. 


OOmii-du. 




awa-iru. 


OOmu-zana 


OOmu-zana ; 


aba-. 


Umu-zia 


OOmu-zana 




(jOmu-sana 




awa- 


COmu-ja; 
aba-ja 






Sleep 


En-tu-lco 


En-ti-lco 


OOtu-rco 


E-ti-rco 


... 


OOtu-lco. 

N-dco-lco(4b) 


Smoke 


Omw-ika 


Omw-ika 


OL)mw-ika. 


OOm-cotsi. 


Umw-todzi. 


OOm-uka. 








Um-co|si 


Umu-ycotsi 

(3 a) 


Mu-si 


M-eosi (4 a, 
4b) '^ 


Snake 


En-zcoka 


En-zcoka. 
Em-piri 

(viper) 


En-ycoka. 
M-piri 


En-zcoka 


In-zcoka 


OOmu-scota. 
N-yeoka (4 b). 
(En-jeoka = 
intestinal 
worms) 


Son, boy ... 


Omw-ana 


(jOmw-ana. 


Umw-ana. 


Omw-ana. 


Umw-ana. 


Omw-afla. 






(jOmu-yanda. 


Um-codyco ; 


Umu-hungu 


Mu-hungu 


OOmu-tabani. 






OOmw-cozco. 


ab-codyco. 






OOmu-lenzi 






OOmu-tabani 


(JOmw-cojco 








Song 


Sinna 


Ru-embco ; 
n-embco 


Uru-dyengco 


CObu-zinnu. 
Uru-ririmbco ; 
pi. in-dirimbco 




OOlu-imba. 
OOIu-emba 


Spear 


I-dzumco. 


I-kyumu 


E-dzumu;ama-. 


E-cumco. 


I-cumco 


I-fumeo, 




Ekico-kulia 




I-cumu 


I-cyumu. 
Uru-huka ; 
im-puka (3 a) 




E-fumco; ama-. 
E-kcoba 


Spirit, soul 


OOmu-zimu. 


OOmw-oyco ; 


Umw-oyco 


OOmu-zimu ; 


. . • 


Omw-oyco. 




Omw-oyo3 


emy-oyco 




aba-. 
Umu-tima 




OOmu-zimu 


Star 


Eny-enyezi 


En-enezi 


Eny-enyenyco. 
N-sonda 


Eny-enyezi, 
Iny-enyeri. 
In-zatza (3 a) 


[n-sonda. 
I-sata ; ma- 


Emu-nyenye 


Stick 


Eii-kconi 


Eii-kconi. 
Eki-sanzu 


Efi-kconi 


Eii-kconi 


[fi-kconi 


OOm-iigco. 

Mw-igco (4 a, 

4 b) 
OOlu-butco 


Stomach ... 




Oru-fwco 


(jOru-fwa ; 












en-fwa 








Stone 


I-wale; ama- 


I -bale ; ama- 


I -bare ; ama-. 


E-wiye, I-buye; I-liwe, I-wuye 


Lu-ija. Ej-inja; 








Eii-kulugusi 


ama- 




ma-inja. 
Ki-azi (4 a). 
Lu-azi. I-bare. 
M-balebale 


Stool 


Eki-tebe 


Eki-tebe 


Eki-tebe. 


In-tebe N-tewe 


En-tebe 








En-tewi 









66 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





2 6. 


2f. 


2g. 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


- Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese4a,a«(/ 








Ru-nyambiJ 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-s&jga 4 b 


Sun 


I-zcowa 


I-zeoba 


I-zuwa, 


E-zcoba. 


I-dzua, I-zuwa 


En-juba. 






(Ma-langa- 


En-zuwa. 


I-zuwa 




(OOmu-sana 






rara = sun- 


S(oba, 






= sunlight) 






rays) 


I-zcoba 








Tail 


ODmu-kira 


COmu-kira 


tOmu-kira 


Umu-lizco ; imi- 


... 


OOmu-kira 


Tear 


... 


I-ziga; ama- 


Me-ise gco l-isos 
(water of the 
eye) 


Omu-zige. 
Iri-coscozi (3 a). 
Ama-pcozi (pL) 


... 


E-dzigga, 
I-ziga 


Testicles ... 


Ama-gtijsi 


Ama-gcosi 


Ama-gcosi 


Ama-bya 


... 


En-jagi. Ama- 
nege. Ma-i 


Thief 


Na-iwa ; pi. 
nawa-ibi 


OOmw-ibi ; 
ab-ebi 


OOmw-ibi 


OOmu-sambco 




OOmQ-bi. 
OOmw-ibi 


Thigh 


Eki-berco 


Eki-berca 


Eki-berco 


Eki-berco 


... 


Eki-sambi 


Thing 


Eki-ntu 


Eki-ntu 


Eki-ntu ; 
ebi-ntu. 
Idzi-ntu 


Eki-ntu ; 
ebi-ntu 


Iki-ntu ; ivi-ntu 


Eki-ntu 


Thorn 




I-hwa ; ama- 


I-wa 


Moj-scobe. 
I-gwa (3 a) 


... 


Eri-gwa. I-hwa 

(4 a, 4 b) 


Tobacco ... 


I-tebe 


I-papco 


I-tabe 


I-tabe. 
I-fari (old R.) 


I-tabe 


E-taba, Tabai 


To-day ... 


Bu-en&j 


Lerco 


Mbu-enu. 
Lelco 


Ougfu-m-cosi. 
Leru 


Ugu-mu-iisi 


Lerco 


Toe 


Oru-kumco 




Eki-ara 


Eki-gere 


... 


Ka-niilco. 
Aka-gere,001u-. 
Ki-nco (4 b) 


To-morrow 


Ny-edza 


OObw-ire 


Ny-enkea, 
N-encea 


Edjco 


Edzco, H-ezu 


J" 


Tong^ue 


OL)lu-limi ; en 
dimi 


- Oru-limi. 

I-laka(^z^//£/ 


OOlu-limi ; 

ndimi 


Eki-rimi 


Ulu-limi 


OOlu-limi 


Tooth 


El-inco ; 


Eli-inco; m-enco 


. Il-inco; am-enco 


Ez-inyeo, 


Idy-enyco ; 


Er-inyco ; 




ama-inco 


\-%\%(i>{molar) 


. Ri-inco 


Ily-inco ; 


am-enyco. 


ama-nyco. 






I-hongoj 




am-enyco. 


Il-inyco 


D-inco ; 






(tooth gap) 




Iri-nyco (3 a). 
I-senge (tusk) 




ma-inco. 
Ama-songezco 

(incisors). 

Ama-gegco 

(molars) 


Town, village 


! Oru-geo 


Eki-kale. 


OOru-gco. 


Uru-gco ; ifi-gco 


... 


Eki-buga. 






(jObu-kindcij. 


Eki-arco 


Eki-kali 




M-buga (4 b) 






I-ka 










Tree 


OOmu-ti 


OOmu-ti ; emi-ti OOm-ti ; imi-ti 


Egi-ti; ebi-ti 


Umu-ti ; imi-ti. 


OOmu-ti ; emi- 












Iki-ti ; ivi-ti 




Twins 


... 


Ama-rongco 




Ama-hapa. 
Ama-hombe. 
Im-panga 


... 


Aba-longco 


Urine 


En-kali 


Eii-kali 


... 


Efi-kare. 
Ama-ganga 

(animals') 


. .. 


Eii-kali 


Vein 


OOmu-zi ; emi- 


Mu-si, Mu-zi 




Umu-tsi ; imi- 


... 


OOmu-suwa 


War 


Ama-dzumu 


Bu-lemu. 
Ku-rwana 


... 


Ku-ruana. 
Iki-terco 


• ■■ 


OOlu-talco. 
OOku-lwana. 
Kia, lye (4 b) 


Water 


Ama-izi 


Am-enzi. 
(jOtw-endzi 


Ame-izi. 
Ama-ozi. 
Ame-ndzi 


Ama-zi 


Ama-dzi 


Ama-dzi. Ma-di 


Well, source 


I-ziwa 


I-ziba 


I-ziba. Y-engt. 
En-curco 


. I-scokco. 
I-liba 


Miwa 


En-sulco. 
OOlu-zi. 
Eki-diba 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



67 



English 



2 6. 

Uru-karagwe 



2f. 

Uru-kerebe 



2g. 

Lu-ziba 

(Lu-sinja) 

Ru-nyambu 



Urunya-ruanda 

a7id 3 a 

Ki-rundi (R.) 



3 b. 

Ru-ha or 

Ru-tutsi, 

(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 



4. 

Lu-ganda, 

Lu-sese 4 a, «»(J? 

Lu-scoga 4 b 



White man 


COmu-zungu 


Omu-zungu 


Um-wera 


OOmu-zungu 


Umu-zungu 


OOmu-zungu. 
Mu-dungu(4a) 


Wife 


Om-kazi; awa- 


Mu-ka 


Omu-kazi. 
Um-gori. 
Om-tedzi 


Umu-ka (3 a). 
OOmu-gore. 
(JUmu-geni 

{bride) 


Umu-gcoli; awa- 


OOmu-gule. 
COmu-kazi. 
OOmu-ka. 
OOmu-kiala 


Wind 


Em-behco 


OOmu-yaga 


Wmu-yaga 


Omw-iaga. 
Im-behco 


Im-behoj 


Em-behu, 
Em-pewu. 
(OOmu-yaga 

= a gale) 


Witch ... 


(jOmu-loogi 


OOrau-leogi ; 


OOmu-rojgi ; 


Umu-rcozi. 


. . . 


OOmu^lugu. 






aba- 


aba- 


Umu-pfumu 
{priest). Umu- 
vutsi {old R.) 




OOmu-sawu. 
Ka-buna 

{seer) ' 


Witchcraft 


ODvu-rcogi 


OObu-lcogi 


(jObu-reogco 


Ubu-lcozi 


... 


CObu-lugu. 
OObu-sezi 


Woman . . , 


Om-kazi 


tOmu-kazi 


OOmu-kazi. 
OOmu-ka. 
Om-tedzi; awa 


OOmu-gore 


Umu-gore. 
Umu-gcoligoali. 
Umu-kcowa 


OOmu-kazi. 
Mu-kadi (4 a) 


Womb 


... 




... 


N-da 


... 


OOlu-butu. 
OOlu-la 


Wood 


Oru-kwi ; 


Wru-kwi ; 


OOru-kwi ; 


En-k5 




En-kii. N-kwi 




en-kwi 


en-kwi 


en-kwi 






(4 a) 


Yam 




... 


Eki-ra 


I-tuku 


... 


Eki-ra. Ki-rai 
(4 a) 


Year 


Mvv-aga ; emi- 
aka 


Omw-aka ; emi 


Omw-aka 


Omw-aka. 
E-wcoga 


... 


Omw-aka 


Yesterday... 


Nyeki-lco 


N-egoroj 


Nye-igorca. 
Ny-edzilw. 
I-dyoa 


I-djorco 


Edzcolco. Eru 


J" 


Zebra 


E-ndorca 


... 


En-tulege 




... 


En^tulege 


One 


■mwe 


■mu, -mu 


-mwe, -moi 


-mwe 


•mwe, •mco 


-mwe, -mu. 

N-dala (4 b) 


Two 


•bili, -wili 


-bili 


-bili, -biri 


-biri, -bili,-wiri, 
-byili 


•bili, -wili 


-biri 


Three 


-satu 


-satu 


•patu 


-tatu or -patu 


•datu, -tatu, 
•satu 
-nne, -na 


•satu 


Four 


■nne 


-na 


-na, -ne, -nei 


•nne, -nye 


-nya, -ne (4 a), 














-na (4 b) 


Five 


-tanu 


•tanu 


-tanu, -^ancd 


•tanco, -sano) 


-tanu 


-tanu, -tanu 


Six 


Mu-kaga 


Mu-kaga 


Om-kaga. 


-tandatu, 


Mu-kaga, 


Mu-kaga ; 








Mu-kage 


-pepatu 


-tandatu 


(-kaga in cotn- 
■position) 


Seven 


Mu-sanzu 


Mu-sanzu 


Om-panyu, 
Mu-panju. 
M-pamvoj 


-lindwi, -ndwi 


Mu-sanzu. 
Mu-samvM. 
Ndtii 


Mu-samba, 
Mu-samvu 
(-samvu in 












composition) 


Eight 


Mu-nana 


Mu-nana 


M-nana, 
Mu-nane 


U mu-nane 


I-nane, 

Mu-nane. 
•na-na (4-f4) 


Mu-nane. 
Mu-nana, 
-nane 


Nine 


Mw-enda 


Mw-enda 


Mw-enda, 
Mu-endai 


Iki-enda 


Ic-enda 


Mw-ende or 
Mw-enda, 
-enda 



^ Also the word Oimu-la.guzi from Wku-lagula ' to prophesy', which again is derived from OOku-laga ' to show ', 
'point out '. 



68 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Ten 

Eleven 
Twenty .. 

Thirty 

Forty... . 
Fifty ... . 

Hundred . 
Thousand . 



2e. 
Uru-karagwe 



2f. 

Uru-kerebe 



2g. 

Lu-ziba 

(Lu-sinja) 

Ru-nyambu 



Urunya-ruanda 

and ■^ a 
Ki-rundi (R.) 



3 b. 

Ru-ha or 

Ru-tutsi, 

(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 



Lu-ganda, 

Lu-sese4a,rt«(/ 
Lu-scoga 4 b 



I-kumi 



I-kumi 



I-kumi 



I-cumi. 



I-kumi ne-mwe 
(I-kumi ne-bili 

= twelve) 
Ma-kumi 
a-wili 



I-kumi nco-mu 
(I-kumi ne-bili 

= twelve) 
Ma-kumi a-bili 



OOmu-rongtij 
I-kumi na-mwe I-cumi na-mwe 



Ma-kumi 
a-satu 



Ma-kumi 
a-satu 



Ma-kumi 
ga-bili 

Ma-kumi 
ga-satu 



Ama-kumi 

a-bili. 

Imi-rongci3 

i-wiri. 
Imi-rongco 

i-tatu. Ama- 

cumi a-tatu 



Ma-kumi a-nne Ma-kumi a-nne Ma-kumi ga-ne Imi-rongo> i-ne 



Ma-kumi 
a-tanco 

I-gana 



Ma-kumi 
a-tanco 

I-gana ; pi. ma- 
gana 

Ki-humbi. 
(Bi-humbi bi- 
liili = 2,ooo. 
Ki-sira = 
lo,ooo. Bi-sira 
bi-bili = 20,ooo, 
Ki-tabarwa 
= 100,000) 



Ma-kumi ga- Imi-rongco 

tanco. (60 = i-tanco 

En-kagai) 
I-gana, I-^ana I-jana, I-gana I-gana 

or Ki-kumi 
Lu-kumi Iki-humbi. 

(En-kumii-biri (Nzcovu = 

= 2,000. 10,000) 

Ka-kumi = 

10,000. 

Ka-umpi 

= 100,000) 



I-jumi, I-cumi, 

I-kumi. 

Mu-longco 
I-cumi na-mwe 



Ama-kumi 

awili. 

Imi-loiagco 

mi-wili 
Ama-kumi 

a-tatu 

Ama-kumi 

a-nne 
Ama-kumi 

a-tanco 



I, me, my ... 



Inye. N-, Ni-. Ine, Nene. N-. Inye, Anye. 
-n-,-ni-. -a-nge -ni-,-n-. -a-nge N-. 

-n-. -a-nze, 
-a-nje, -a-nge 



Jewe. N-, Ndi-. Nzewe. N-. 
-ze, -nje. -n-, -n-. -a-nze 
■ny-. -a-nje 



Thou, thee, thy Iwe. Wu-, 0)-. Iwe. CO-, W-. Iwe. O)-. 

•ku-. -a-Twe -ku-. -a-we -ku-. -a-we 



He, him, his Uwe. Ncoliya. We.OOgu.CjOnu. Wgu. We. 
A-. OOliha. A-. Ye. A-. 

-mu-. -we -mu-. -e -mu-. -e 



We, us, our Itwe. Tu-. 
-tu-. -etu 



Itwe. Tu- 
-tu-. -etu 



Icwe, Ifwe. 
Tu-. 
-tu-. -etu 



Ye, you, your Imwe. Mu-. Imwe. Mu-. Inywe, Ime. 
-wa-. -a-nyu -ba-. -a-nu Mu-. 

-wa-. -enyu 

They, them, Awco. Wa-. Abco. Ba-. Abco, Awco. 

their -wa-. -a-wco -ba-. -a-bco Wa-. 

-wa-. -a-wco 



Wcowe, Wewe. 

U-. 

■ku-. -we. 

-a-we 
We. Uyu. 

Uwco. A-. 

-iwe. -mu-. 

-a-ge, -a-e 
Twebwe, 

Tw^ese. Tu-. 

-twese. -tu-. 

-a-cu 
Mwebwe, 

Mwewe. Mu-. 

■ba-. -mu, 

-a-nyu 
Abco, Awco. 

Ba-, Wa-. 

-bco, -wco. -ba-. 

■w^a, -a-bco, 

-a-Tvco 



Wewe. U-. 
-ku-. -a.vre 



I-kumi 



Kumi na-mu. 
„ na n-dala 

(4 a, 4 b) 
Ama-kumi 

a-wiri 



Ama-kumi 
a-satu 

Ama-kumi a-na 

Ama-kumi 
a-tanu 

Eki-kumi. 
Ki-tufu 

OOlu-kumi. 
(Aka-sirivu 
= loo,oco. 
Aka-kadde 
= 1,000,000) 



Nze, Nde (4 a). 

N-, Nj-, Ny. 

■iige, ■nze, 

-ndi. -n(m)-. 

-a-nge 
Gwe, Iwe 

(4a,b).CjO-,U-. 

-ku-. -we, -co 



Uyu. We. Ya-, 

Yi-, A-. 

-we, -mu-, 

-a-ge 
Twewe. Tu-. 

-tu-. -a-itu or 

-a-ju 

Mwewe. Mu-. 
-iirnwe. -wa-. 
-a-nyu 

Aw^co. Wadia. 
Wa-. 
-wa-. -a-wco 



A-, 



•e 
Fwe, 



Fe. 



lye. Ye. 
Ya-. 
-m-, -mu 

•ye, 

Ifwe 

Tu-. 

-tu-. -fwe, 

-a-fwe 
Imwe, Mwe. 

Mu-. 

-ba-. -mwe, 

-a-mwe 
Bco, Babco, Ibco. 

Ba-. 

-ba-. -bto, 

-a-bwe 



All 



-na(ena); -cona ■cona 



-cona. -co^e 

(Nyambfi) 



■se, -ese, -cose -coze, -cose 







GROUP A 


NYANZA L. 


\NGUAGES 






69 




2 6. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 


b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 








(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese4a,a«</ 








Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, 


Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


This, these 


-nu 


-nu (co-nu, ba- 


-nu (gu-nu; di-'f.) 


-nco {with 


•nco 




-nco (co-neo. 






nu ; gu-nu, zi- 


o)-gu, a-ba 


concord prefix) 






ba-nco ; gu-nco; 




Ha- (he-, ho-), 


nu ; li-nu, ga- 


(a-wa); co-gu, 


u-yu, a-ba 






gi-nco ; li-nco, 




Heo-gu,Ha-ba; 


nu ; ki-nu, bi- 


e-dzi or e-gi ; 


(a-wa) ; u-yu. 






ga-no3 ; ki-nco, 




Hto-gu, He-gi 


nu; e-nu,zi-nu; 


e-li or e-ri. 


iyi; i-li, a-ya; 






bi-nco ; e-no or 




(He-zi) ; Ha-li, 


ru-nu ; tu-nu ; 


a-ga ; e-ci. 


i-ki, i-bi ; i-yi, 






i-nco, zi-nco ; 




Ha-ge; &•(. 


ka-nu ; bu-nu ; 


e-vi ;e-yi, e-zi; 


i-zi; u-ru; u-tu; 






lu-nco ; tu-nco ; 






ku-nu ; ha-nu) 


o-ru; S^c. 


a-ka ; u-bu ; 
u-ku ; u-mu 






ka-nco; bu-nco; 
ku-nco; wa-nco; 
mu-nco; gu-nco, 
ga-nco). 


That, those 


-a)-gu, -a-wa ; 


od-gu, a-ba ; 


cogu-co, aw-co ; 


u-liya, ba-liya ; 


lia 




-li, -le (co-li or 




-fo-gu, -e-gi ; 


co-gu, e-zi; e-li, 


(ogu-(o, eji-«o ; 


u-liya, i-liya ; 






yco-le, ba-li ; 




-e-li, -a-ga ; 


a-ga; e-ki, e-bi; 


elica, ag-co ; 


6-=c. {also -ria. 






gu-li, gi-li; 




-e-ki, -e-vi ; 


e-gi, e-zi; o-ru; 


eci-eo; d^c. 


-eya) 






6^0.) 




-e-gi, -e-zi ; 


co-tu ; a-ka ; 




u-wco, a-bcj 






(o-gu, a-ba or 




-o-ru ; -co-tu ; 


(o-bu ; (o-ku. 




(a-weo) ; Q^c. 






a-wa; u-gu, 




-a-ka ; -co-vu ; 


a-ha. 










e-gi; e-li, a-ga; 




-(o-ku ; -a-ha ; 












e-ki, e-bi ; S^c. 




-co-mu 












in 4 a 




-o)-li, -wa-lia ; 


-liha (co-liha. 


co-linya or 


N-guyu,n-gaba 






(JOy-co, ab-co ; 




-gu-lia, gi-lia ; 


ba-liha ; gu- 


-rinya, 


(n-gawa) ; 






cogw-co, egi-co 




-e-li; &-£. 


liha ; &=(.) 


aba-linya, 


n-gu-, fi-gi; 






or ej-co ; ely-co. 






cogw-w, ab-eo ; 


gu-linya ; <S-»ir. 


fi-ga ; b^c. 






ag-co ; eki-co, 






(ogw-eo, ezi-w ; 


co-li or gu-ri, 


{according to 






ebi-co ; ey-co. 






ely-co ; &'c. 


ba-ri ; 6^1:. 
N-gu, ? m-ba ; 
n-gu,n-gi ; 6^1:. 
(Mzj form is 
absent in some 
dialects) 


vowel of con- 
cord, with n 
'directive ' pre- 
posed) 






ez-ico ; tolw-co ; 
ot)tw-co ; ak-co ; 
cobw-co,cokw-co; 
aw-co ; &'c. 


Bad 


-vi 


-bi 


-vi, -bi 


-bi 


bi 




-bi 


Black 


-na-ligula 


-iragura, -ira- 
guzu. sina 


•yilagula 


-irabula 


•• 




•duga (-la, -vu) 


Female 


-kazi 


-kazi. -zigiza 

{cows) 


•kazi 
-ipiki 


•kazi, -jigiya 


gcole. 


-kcowa 


-kazi. -wala 

{humans). 














-pala. -dusi 
















{cattle), -nsen- 
















yi {birds) 


Fierce, sharp. 


-lila. -sala 


... 


-codzi. -uki 


-rura 


kali 




-kali. 


bitter 














-kambwe. 
-kanu. 
-kanga. -cogi 


Good 


-rungi 


-nuzi. -zima 


-lungi. -zima 


-iza. -zima 


idza 




-lungi, -rungi 



nina. -kuru -nini 



{healthy), -ru 

ngi {'salted', 

' seasoned '). 

•ncoga {tender, 

gentle) 
Great •hangco -kuru. -haiigco. -haiigco 

•gazi. (Kcotco 

= complete) 
Little ke -tco. -ke. -norco. -ki, -nki, -ke. -toya, -tco 

-scole -ntco 

Long -laingwa -leha {verbal), -la. -rere. -rai -le. -ririre 

(Ku-leha = to 

be long) 



-lele. -la 



-kulu. -nene 



-tconco. -tco. 

-tiritu 
-wamvu, 

-wanvu 



70 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





2 6. 


2f. 


2g- 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 


English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya-ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu^ganda, 








(Lu^sinja) 


and^d. 


Ru-tutsi, 


Lu-sese i,?i,and 








Ru^nyambvi 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu-scoga 4 b 


Male 


-saidza 


■seza (men). 


-seja, ■saija, 


•rume. In-fizi 


-lume. -masa, 


-lume, ■nume. 






•ti>zu>{children) 
■nume and 


. -paija 




Ki-masa 


■sadja, -saja. 
■bandwa. 






■masa [cattle). 








■lenzi. 






•rumi (birds) 








■mpanga 

(birds) 


Old 


■gulusu. 
■keikulu 


■lame, -gurusi 
-kekuru 


. ■gulusi. .kuru 


-kuru, -kecuru. 
■saza 


... 


■kade 


Red 


■tukula 


■tuku 


■tukura 


■ ■tukura 




■myu^ (myu.fu). 
-twa^vu 


Rotten 


-sunza 


■zunzi (-zunda) -nafu 


■bora 


... 


-vundu. -bcovu 


Short 


-gufu 


■gufu 


-guvu, ■gufi 


gufi 




■mpi 


Sick 


-luaile 


-rwere (■rwara -dwara 


•rwara 




-Iwade 






verb) 










White 


■dzela, -gera 


■era. ■katale 


•era, -eru. 
Kitare 


■era 


... 


-eru. -tuku 


Above, up, on 


Aha-igxdu 


Ha)-ruguru. 


He-igulu, 


He^djuru. 


I-julu 


Wa-gulu. 


top 




I^gulu 


I-guru, E-gulu Ku-ruguru 




E-ngulu 


Before 


Ew-iso 


OObu-syto. 
Mbere {'the 
first ', ' in 
front') 


Mbele, 
Ha-mbele 


I-mbere 


I-mbere 


Mberi, 
Wa-mberi. 

Muma^sco ga 


Behind 


Eny-uma 


En-uma 


Ny-uma 


Iny-uma 


Kuny-uma 


Ny^uma 


Below, down 


Aha-si 


Lfwoj. Ha-nsi Ha-si, Aan^si 


He-pfto. Ha-si, 


Ha-si 


Wa-nsi 










Ha-nsi 






Far 


Ha-le 


Ha^ra 


Ha-ii, Ha^rai 


Ku-re 


Ku-le 


Wa^la 


Here 


Aha 


Ha-nco. Ku-ni 


1. Aha, Haha. 


Ha-nco. 


Ha-nco. Aha 


Wa^nco 






Ha-hco.H(o-ku Kunu 


Aha-nyene. 














Aha. Inco. 














N-gaha 






In, inside ... 


Omu, tOmunzu Mu. Munda. 


(jOmu-, Mu. 


Mco, -mco. Mu- 


Mu 


Mu. Munda. 






Mu^nu 


Nda. -mco 






Mu^nco 


Middle 


Aha-gati 


Ha-gati 


... 


Ha-gati 


Ha-gati 


Wa^kati. 
Mu.kati 


Near 


■ikale, -ikeile 


H-ehi 




Ha-fi, Ku-fi. 
Bu-gufi. He-fco 


... 


Ku^mpi, 
Wa^mpi 


Outside ... 


Ah-er&3 


Ha-bw^eru. 
Ha-nza. 
H^esazi 


En-dya. 
Ah'eru 


Ha-nze 


• .> 


Bw^eru 


Plenty, many 


E-ngto 


-ingi. Mu^noj 


•ngi. Munco. I-nki, -i-npi 
Efi-kunduguru 


... 


-ngi. Enyi-ngi. 
Kamara (4 b) 


There 


Ha-liya 


OO-kwoj. 


Kuli. Hwku 


Ha-riya. A-hco Ha-dia. Ahco 


Wa-li. Eri. 






Ha.liha 








Ey-co 


Where? ... 


N-kahi ? 


Ha^i? 


N-ka? 


He-he ? 


He-he? 


Wa? Oye? 


No! 


Nga! 


Pai! 


Ceke! Cei! 
Ta-li-k« ! 
Na^moi!( = 

?tot one !) 


Oya ! Hasui ! 
Leka! 
N-takico ! 
N-tahco ! 
Mambu ! 


N-tawe ! 


Nedda ! pi- 


1Ao\.{withverb, 


Ti- 


Nangu. 


Ta-hcj ; Ta^, ti 


- Si., -ti-, -ta- 


Ti, ta- 


Si.. Te-, t, 


as prefix, in- 




Ti. -ta^ 


'Na^ (with sub 


- 




-ta- 


fix or suffix) 






stantives and 












numerals) 








To 


OOku- 


COku- 


(jOku- 


Uku- 


Uku- 


a)ku-, Eri- 


., beat ... 




-tera 


-tera 


-kubita. 


-kuwita 


■kuba. 


,, v^^wvv 








-kcoma 




■komaga 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



71 







2 6. 


2f. 


2g. 


3- 


3 b. 


4- 




English 


Uru-karagwe 


Uru-kerebe 


Lu-ziba 


Urunya^ruanda 


Ru-ha or 


Lu-ganda, 










(Lu-sinja) 


and 3 a 


Ru^tutsi, 


Lu^sese4a,a«i/ 










Ru-nyambu 


Ki-rundi (R.) 


(Tusi, Ki-jiji) 


Lu^suga 4 b 


To 





COku- 


(jOku- 


OOku- 


Uku- 


Uku- 


OOku-, Eri- 


» 


buy, sell 


•gula 


-gula. -tunda 


-gula, -gura 


■suma (3 a), 
■gura 


•gula 


•gula. -tunda 


)) 


come ... 


-idza 


-iza 


-hika (arrive). 
■iza., -ija 


•za 


•za 


■ja 


)j 


cut 


-zala 


•tema 


■tema. ■sara 


■ca. -tema 


-tema 


•sala. •tema 


J) 


dance ... 


-Sana, -zana 


-zina 


... 


■byina. kina 

(to sport, a- 
muse oneself) 


■vina. -kina 

(to hop about) 


•zina 


)) 


die ... 


•kaba 


-fwa 


-zaha 


•pfa 


■fa 


•fa 


)) 


eat 


-dia 


-lya 


■la or -ria 


■lya 


■lia 


■lya 


)j 


give ... 


-m-pa 


-ha(-pa),.gaba 


-ha (m-pa) 


■ha 


■ha (■pa) 


■wa (-pa), 
■gaba 


)j 


go 


-genda 


-genda. -za. 
■ruku 


-genda. -ta 


■genda. -ja 


■genda 


■genda. ■ita, 
■ta (tambula 

= walk) 


)j 


kill ... 


-ita 


-ita. -nega 


■ita 


■ica 


... 


■tta 


5J 


know ... 


-manya 


•manya 


■manya 


■menya. .zi 


■menya 


■manya 


JJ 


laugh ... 


-seka 


-seka 


■peka 


■seka 




■seka 


?? 


leave off, 
cease 


-leka 


-leka, -siga 


-reka 


■reka 


•leka" 


■leka. ■sigala 

(to be left) 


J) 


love, want 


-enda 


-enda 


■enda. .gonza 


■kunda. .sima 


•kunda. 


■agala. 












■gomba 


■yagala. 
















■enda. 
















■yenda 
















(copulate). 
















■eraka 


JJ 


see 


•dewa, -lewa 


-buna. -leba. 


■lula. .reba. 


■buna. ■rora. 


•wunya. -lula 


■laba. ■lula 








■dora, -rora 


■buna 


■raba 




(■bun^eka=/5«- 

come visible) 


» 


sit.remain, 


-ikala 


•ikara 


■ikala. 


■ipala ? 


■idzala 


■tula, ■talama 




abide 






■pitame 






)» 


sleep ... 


-liama 


■nagira. -lala. 


■viyama. 


■sinzira. 


■liama 


■ebaka. -lala 








-mama 


■nyama 


■rara. ■gona 

(snore) 




(to settle down, 
becotne quiet) 


JJ 


stand,stop, 
be erect 


-jemelela 


-im-uka, .ime- 
rera, -ime- 

reza {all from 
a root -ima) 




■hagarika 


■hagalala 


■ima, ■imi^rira, 
■im-uka 


)J 


steal ... 


■iba 


-iba. -suma 


■iba 


■iba 


■iba 


■iba, ■ba. 
■kuna 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN URU^KARAGWE AND LU-ZIBA 
Preprefixes are present. 

Much as in OOru^hima, but prefix No. 2 is Aba^ and Awa-, No. 8 is Ebi- or Evi., No. 14 is Ubu-, 
(x)bu- and OOvu^, No. 15 is sometimes tOgu-. The ist and 3rd prefixes are sometimes abbreviated to 
OOm^ and the 4th to £m^. The loth prefix is sometimes Ne^, sometimes Inz^. Concord of No. 6 is 
ma-, ya-, a-, or ga- ; of 4 mi-, gi- ji-, and zi- ; of 9 ni-, i-, e-, and gi-. 

The honorific Na^ or Nya^ prefix is present ; its plural is Na^wa-, Na^ma-. 



72 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES, &C., IN URU-KEREBE OR KI-KEREBE 

Preprefixes are present but not so much used as in preceding languages. 

Class I. OOmu- (concord, mu-, co-, u-, gu-, a-) ; 2. Aba- (ba-) ; 3. COmu- (mu-, gu-) ; 4. Emi- (mi-, 
zi-, zy-) ; 5. I-, Eli- (li-) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, a-, ga-) ; 7- Eki- (ki-, ky-) ; 8. Ebi- (bi-) ; 9. En- (Em-), E- 
(n-, i-, e-, gi-) ; 10. En-, E- (n-, zi-) ; 11. Oru-, OOlu- (ru-, rw-) ; 12. Wtu- (tu-) ; 13. Aka- (ka-) ; 
14. (jObu- (bu-) ; 15. OOku- (ku-) ; 16. Aha- (ha-, (owa-) ; 17. Mu- {only as preposition). 

The honorific prefix Na- is present. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN URUNYA-RUANDA AND IKI-RUNDI 
Preprefixes present. 
Class I. OOmu- cirUmu-' (mu-, n-, yu-, gu-) ; 2. Aba- or Awa- (ba-, wa-) ; 3. tOmu- or Umu- 
(mu-, U-, gu-) ; 4. Emi- or Imi- (mi-, i-, yi-) ; 5. I-, Hi-, Iri-, Eli- (li-); 6. Ama- (ma-, a-, ya-) ; 7- Eki-, 
Iki-, Ici- (ki-, ci-) ; 8. Ebi-, Ibi-, Ivi- (bi-, vi-) ; 9. En-, In- (n-, i-, yi-) ; 10. En-, In-, Ing-, Ni- (n-, i-, zi-) ; 
li.Uru-, Ulu- (ru-); 12. Utu- (tu-) ; 13. Aka- (ka-) ; 14. Ubu-, Ubv, Uwu- (bu-. wu-)^; 15. Uku- 
(ku-) ; 16. Aha- (ha-) ; 17. Mu- {as preposition). 

The Nya- (Nya-ka) feminine or honorific prefix is present. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN RU-HA (RU-TUTSI) 
Much like Ruanda-Rundi. Preprefixes U-, I-, A-. There is, perhaps, a trace of the original loth 
prefix (Zi-) in the form of Idzi-. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN LU-GANDA 
Preprefixes are present ; perhaps less used in Lu-suga. 

Class I. COmu-, OOwa-? (mu-, u-, wai-, yco-, gu-) ; 2. Aba- (ba-); 3. COmu- (mu-, gu-): 4. Emi- 
(mi-, gi-, gy-) ; 5. Eri-,' Eli-, Ej-, E-, I-, Di- (li-) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, a-, ga-) ; 7. Eki (ki-) ; 8. Ebi- (bi-) ; 
9. En-, En- (n-, e-, i-, yi-) ; 10. En- (Em-), En-, Enj-, Enzi-, Zi- (n-, e-, zi-) ; 11. OOlu- (lu-) ; 12. OOtu- 
{little tise'd) (tu-) ; 13. Aka- (ka-) ; 14. OObu- (bu-) ; 15. OOku- (ku-) ; 16. Awa-, ? OOwa- (wa-); 17. 
(jOmu-?,Mu- (? concord absent) ; 18. Ugu- (gu-) ; 19. Aga- (ga-) pi. to No. 18. 

Also honorific sex prefixes, with the concords of Classes i and 2 : Se-, Sa- ('father', 'male '), plural 
Ba-, Se- ; and Nya-, Na- (' mother ', ' female '). The plural of Na- is sometimes Zi-na- ; more often, 
Ba-na-. 

2 e. Urukaragwe is spoken in the western coast-lands of the Victoria Nyanza south and east of the 
Kagera river, and north of Emin Pasha Gulf. 

2f. Urukerebe is spoken on the large island of Bukerebe (Ukerewe) and the adjacent islands, and 
Bukerebe peninsula of the southern Victoria Nyanza, north of Speke Gulf. 

2 g. Luziba is spoken in the Businja country on the south and south-west coasts of the Victoria 
Nyanza, round Emin Pasha Gulf. 

3. Urunyaruanda and 3 a Kirundi are spoken west of the Kagera and Lukoki rivers, east of the Rusizi 
and Lake Kivu and south of the Virunga volcanoes, and along the north-west coast of Lake Tanganyika, 
north of the Malagarazi river-mouth. 

3 b. Ruha is spoken south of Karagwe and Businja and west of the Malagarazi-Nikohga river, to the 
eastward and southward of Kirundi. 

4. Luganda, Lusese 4 a, and Luscoga 4 b are spoken in the kingdom or province of Buganda and the 
adjoining district of Buscoga, to the north and north-west of the Victoria Nyanza, as well as in the Sese 
archipelago. The south-western limit is the lower Kagera river, the north-eastern the lower Sico river. 

^ Ruanda mainly differs from Rundi in the preprefixes, preferring the vowels (O and K to V and I. 
' The preprefix to 14 in Rundi is often I- = Iwu. 

' In Lu-ganda this Eri- prefix has also the force of a preposition meaning ^ to\ ' from\ '■before' 
{Rev. G. R. Black ledge). 



GROUP A 



THE NYANZA LANGUAGES {continued) 



Sub-group A 5 Masaba 

5. Lu-nyara 

5 a. Lu-waiiga (Lu-kabarasl, Lu-rimi, ' Kavi- 

rondco ') and 5 b Lu-singa ' 

6. Lu-masaba ^ (Lu-seokwia, Lu-gesu, Lu-gipu) 

6 a. Lu-konde of N. W. Elgon ' 



Sub-group A 6 East Victoria Nyanza 

7. Ki-guzii (Igi-zii, Ki-sifigiri) or Ki-suba 

(Kw-scova) 
7 a. Ki-koria * (Ki-suna, Ki-tende) 





5- 


i^- 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kuria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gipu, &=€. 


of N.W. Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 






' Koj-swva ') 


Ki-tende 






a«(/5bLu-singa 










Adze 






I-wayiia 








AnimaljWild 


• •• 


I-scolu 


Isin-tsui. 








beast 






? I-sani 








Ant 


01u-asi;am-asi. 


Li-afu. 


Li-afti. Namu- 


... 


Ki-nsanaku ; 






^-ndangwe 


Ulu-nawe. 
In-dukusi 


kurondco ? 




bi-. Ki-mconyco 




Ant, white 


I-swa ; tsi-swa. 


I-swa ; tsi-swa. 


I-swa ; tsi-swa 


I-gwa or 


Cin-ccoke {pi.). 


Eri-ge 


(termite) 


Si-swa or 
Ki-swa ; 
bi-swa 


I-ce ; ama-ce 




N-gwa ; pi. 
ti-swa or 
tin-swa 


I-sinzi 


Eri-geki 


Ape (chim- 


Bim ; yi-bim 


• ■• 


.. . 








panzi or 


{Sudanese ?) 












gorilla) 














Arm 


(jOmu-kunco ; 


COmu-xconco 


Kumu-ktonco ; 


Gumu-xconto ; 


(Dmco-ktonoj ; 


(jOkw-bcoku 




emi- 




pi. kimi- and 
kama- 


//. gama- 


ama- 




Arrow 


Es-esere. 


OOmu-wanto. 


Kumu-banco ; 


Gumu-wanco. 


Umu-gwe, 


OOmco-gii ; 




Um-banoj 


Li-sungu (5 b) 


kimi-. 
(jOlu-kingto 


Kumu-; gama-. 
tOlu-sala ; eti- 
sala. Isi-sala; 
ibi- 


(jOmto-gu ; 
pi. eme- 


eme-gii 


Axe 


Yi-mbaci. 


Y-aiyua ; 


Im-basa. 


E-waiyuwa, 


Igi-zire ; ibi- 


Ege-zire ; evi- 




H-aiwa or 


tsi-aiwa 


I-waiyua ; 


E-yaiyfia 








Y-aiyua ; pi. 




tsi-aiyiia 










tsi-aiwa 












Baboon 


Bim. Li-pene 


Di-pene. 
In-guci. 
Li-wungwi ; 
ama-. I-tiakco 


Ifi-keobe 


Li-xuru. 
? Eii-kcobe 


Eri-ncij. 
Li-core. 
Li-nyani 


En-gcoge 


Back 


Oi)mu-goiig<o, 
OOm-gongco ; 
fl. emi- 


Mu-kongca. 

Ny-uma 


Kumu-gongoj 


Gumu-gongoj ; 
gama- 


OOmco-gongco 


(JL)ma)-gongo> 


Banana 


Li-temwa;ama- 


Li-remwa. 


[-tore or 


Li-dcote ; gama- 


Ri-gcomia ; 


Eri-teoke; ama- 






Li-tcoki (5 b) 


Li-tore ; 
kama-tore 


dcote. I-dcoti, 
E-dcoti ; pi. 
iti-dcoti 


ama-. 
Eri-teoki ; 

ama- 




Beard 


(JObu-nyasi (.'). 


(jL)bw-oya. 


OObu-nwanwa. 


OObu-nwanwa. 


OObo-ya. (jQrco- 


OOrco-kaya, 




Bi-revu 


Bi-revu, 
Fi-revu 


Bi-sala {hair). 
Ki-lefu {chin) 


Ci-refu 


reru;cin-deru. 
Kanye-nytobeo 


<JOrco-ka ; ciii- 



' Lu-singa or Cula, Ihe language of the large islands off the south entrance to Kavirondu Gulf is a dialect 
of Lu-wanga much mixed with Lu-ganda and Ku-kerebe words. ^ The ' Ketosh ' of Hobley (1902). 

' 7%e 'Muhasa' o/ZfoWo' (1899). * The ^^2.-')i.\A\s,' of German writers. 



74 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





5- 


5 a. 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-ktoria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gijsu, &•€. 


ofN. W. Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 




' Kco-SMVa') 


Ki-tende 






a«(^5bLu-singa 










Bee 


In-juki ; 


In-dzuxi, 


In-zuki ; 


En-juki or 


En-juki or 


En-Cuke ; cin- 




cin-juki 


In-zixe, 
In-zupi 


tin-zuki 


En-dzuci 


En-c'eoke ; ph. 
cin-juki, cin- 












ccoke 




BeUy 


In-da 


Yin-da 


Yin-da 


In-da 


In-da, En-da ; 
cin-da 


En-da ; cin-da 


Bird 


Li-yojni ; ama- 


Ri-nconi ; 


Iny-coni. 


Iny-tonyi; tin-. 


Eciny-coni, 


Ekiny-conyi ; 






ama-. 


Iny-enye ; zin- 


Gi-siriri ; bi- 


Ekiny-conyi ; 


evi- 






En-tinyi (5 b) 






pi. evi- 




Blood 


Ama-wanga 


Ama-lasiri 


Kama-lasiri 


Gama-lasiri 

ipl.) 


Amany-inga or 
Amainy-inga 


Ama-sere. 
Amainy-inga 


Body 


OOmu-biri 


Umu-biri 


Kumu-biri 


Gumu-biri ; 

gimi- 


OOmu-biri or 
COmai-vere ; 
emi- 


(jOmeo-viri; emi- 


Bone 


Li-gumba, 
Li-kumba ; 
ama- 


Ifi-kumba 


Li-gumba or 
I-gumba 


Li-gumba 


Eri-gwa; ama- 
7wa. Eri-guha 
or Eri-uga. Li- 
uga ; ma-uga 


Eri-guha ; ama- 


Borassus palm 


Axa-tugu 


... 




... 




... 


Bow 


OOw-ingu 


Ubw-ingoj. 
Bu-rra (R.). 
Wu-ta (5 b) 


OObu-ingu ; 
kim-. OOlu- 
ingco; ts-ing(o 


Bubu-ingu ; 
pi. gim-ingu 


Ubu-ta; ama-ta 


OObco-ta ; ama- 


Bowels 


Ama-la 


Ama-la 


Kama-la 


Gama-la 


... 




Brains 


OObw-ongco 


ODw-ongco 


Bub-ongco. 
OObw-ongoj 


Bubw-ongto 


OOw-ongeo 


(jOb-ong£o 


Breast (man's) 






Ki-fuba,Si-fuba Ci-fuba 


Eki-kuba ; evi- 


Ege-kuba ; eve-. 
Eii-kuba ; cin- 


Breast 


(jOlu-were 


Li-duru ; ama-. 


Li-bele. Li-bele Li-bere 


OOlu-bere ; cim- 


... 


(woman's) 




OL)du-were(R.) 










Brother ... 


Omw-ana 


W-an'ta-ye. 


W-an'da-ye. 


W-an'da-ye 


N-dugi-ani. 


OOm-ura 




wa-ina. 


OOmu-terwa ; 


W-an'-di-asi 




Omw-ana 


tomwetu 




Omw-ana 


aba-. 






mintu. 






wefu. 


Mw-ane-fu 






OOmco-mura 






W-an'dae 








comintu 






(? Omw-ana 














dae = child of 










Buffalo 


JallieT] 
Yim-bcogco ; 
cim- 


Im-bcokco, 
Im-bcogco 


Im-bcogco 


Yem-beogco ; 
tim-bcogoj 


En-era ; cin-era 


En-era; cifL-era 


Bull 


Igi-ruxi 


Iri(5b), 
Tangana(5 b). 
I-surusi 


E-iinwa 


.. . 


Eri ; pi. ici-eri 


... 


Buttocks ... 


Li-dako3 ; ama- 


Li-daxco ; ama- 


Kama-taxco ; 
sing. Li-taxoj 


Gama-takco 


Eny-uma 


Ege-tunduru ; 
evi- 


Canoe 


OObw-arco 


Ri-alco or Di- 
arroj ; am-alto. 
Bw-atu (5 b) 


In-debe. 
Li-konkcdlco 


In-debe 


OObw-atca 


Eri-atto ; 
am-atco. 
OObw-atco 


Cat 


Yi-mondco. 
Li-simba 


Li-simba 


In-jusi. 

Mu-yaga 


En-zusi 


Igi-simba; ivi-. 
E-kworco ; 
ci-kworto. 
Igi-cugu 


Ege-tangco; evi- 


Charcoal ... 




Am-anda {pi.) 


... 


... 






Chief 


Omw-ami 


Omw-ami ; 


Omw-ami. 


OOmw-ami 


Omw-ami ; av-. 


(jOmco-kama ; 






aw-ami 


OOmu-kuru 




COmu-nda; 
ava-nda. 
Umw-isia, 
Umw-isiki 


ava- 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



75 





5- 


5.^- 


6. 


6 a. 


'7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kcoria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gipu, &^c. 


ofN.W.Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 






' Kto-scova ') 


Ki-tende 






a«rf5bLu-singa 










Child 


Omw-ana. 


Omw-ana. 


Omw-eti. 


(jOmw-ana ; 


Omw-ana ; 


Omw-ana 




Ax-ana 


Mu-siani $. 
Mu-xana ^ 


Omw-ana ; 
bab-ana. 


bab-ana. 
COmu-cece 


av-ana 








Mu-kexe 








Cloth 


Yiny-anga 


In-anga. 
Yin-gubeo 


In-gubco. 
In-anga. 
(jOmu-gaire 

(bark) 


Eii-gubco 


En-gcobco; cin- 


Eii-gibco ; cin- 


Cold 


• • • 


... 


. . . 


. .. 


... 


... 


Country ... 


Esi-alco 


Esi-alco (R.). 


I-rcoba. 


Ci-arco ; 


Eki-bala^ 


Eki-bara; evi- 




Itsi-aleo 


Epi-bala, 
Esi-wala ; 
pl.fi- 


Sisi-areo or 
Kiky-alco 


bibi-arco 


Orco-gongco. 
Ri-rcowa 




Cow ... ... 


In-ombe ; 


En-ombe ; 


Si-songa. 


Ifi-kafu 


En-ombe ; cin-. 


En-ombe 




cifi-ombe 


tsifi-ombe. 
E-diiasi (5 b). 


In-kafu. 
I-xafu 




En-kombe, 
C-ombe 




Crocodile ... 


I-gwena ; ci- 


I-gwena ; tsi-. 
I-gwina(5b) 


I-gconya 


I-gcona or 
Ci-gcona 


E-gugbwie. 
Eii-oina ; 
cin-oina 


Eii-oina ; ciii- 


Day 


Lu-lalco ; 


In-daloj ; tsi-. 


Kumu-tixinyi. 


Gumu-tixini 


Oabu-tukco. 


Orco-siku ; cin- 




cin-daloj 


Mu-wasa3(5b). 
Iny-ang<o (R.) 


Ki-fuku. 
(Kumw-eosi = 
daylight) 




E-gorco; ama-. 
(E-tera = rfay- 
light) 




Devil, evil 


OOmu-sambwa 


(Omu-sambwa; 


Kumu-sambwa 


Gumu-sambwa 


Uru-swa ; cin- 


... 


spirit 




emi-. U-sewi 
(Sb) 
Umu-fumco 


kimi- 


gimi- 


swa 




Doctor (medi- 


. . . 


Umu-sanje 


... 


... 




cine man) 














Dog 


Yim-bwa 


Im-bwa 


Im-bwa. 
Gu-bwa, 
Gugu-bwa ( = 
big dog) 


Im-bwa ; 
tim-bwa 


E-sese ; ci-sese 


E-sese; ci-sese 


Donkey 




E-sikiri, 
E-sikidi, 
E-tikiri(5b). 
Sipiri (R.) 


Li-tegere. 
I-sigiha. 
E-sigiria 


I-sigiha; ti- 


Eri-tegere 




Door 


OOIu-iki ; 


(jOlu-igi. 


Lulu-tsi. 


Gumu-riangco. 


Ege-sie, 


Ege-saku; evi- 




cin-jiki 


OOmu-riarigu) 


Kumu-riangeo 


Lulu-tsi 


Ege-sieri. 
Eki-ge ; evi-ge 




Dream 


N-d«ta 


Li-lorco. 
N-dorre (R.) 


Kumu-rcola. 
CO-rcora 


Bubu-lcota 


Kcomera 


... 


Drum 


Ifi-coma 


In-coma 


En-coma, 
lii-gcoma 


Efi-coma 


Eii-kconu. 
Eii-coma 


Eke-gcoma. 
Em-begete 


Ear 


OOku-twi ; 


COku-rui, 


Kuku-tu, 


Kuku-tu ; 


00-utco, 


(x)gco-tui ; 




amaku-twi 


OOxu-rui 


Kuku-ru, or 
Uxu-ru ; pi. 
kama-ru 


Gama-tu 


OOg-utu, 
OOg-cotco ; 

ama-teo 


ama-tui 


Egg 


Li-ki ; ama-ki 


Li-buyu ; ama-. 


Iny-inga. 


Iny-ingu 


Eri-ge or 


Eri-ige ; 






E-gi (5 b) ; 


Li-gi ; karoa-gi 




Eri-gina ; 


ama-ige 






ama-gi 






ama-gina 




Elephant ... 


In-jtofu 


In-dzcofu, 


In-dcofu, 


Ifi-gicofu. 


En-jcobu 


En-jcogu, 






In-jtofu ; tsin- 


I-tscofu 


In-dzcofu 




En-c'ugu 


Excrement 


Ama-fwi 


Ama-fwi or 
Ama-fl 


Kama-fwi 


Gama-fwi 


Ama-bi, 
Ama-vi 


Ama-vi 


Eye 


I-mooni ; ci- 


I-mconi; tsi-. 
Er-isco (S b) 


I-mconi ; 
tsi-mconi 


D-isco ; gam- 
esco. I-mconi ; 
ti-mconi 


Ir-isco ; ama- 


Ir-isco ; ama- 



76 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



5- 
Lu-nyara 



Lu-wanga, Lu- 

kabarasi, and 

Lu-rimi (R.), 

a«(/5bLu-singa 



Lu-masaba or 
Lu-gipu, &'c. 



6 a. 
Lu-konde 

ofN.W.Elgon 



Ki-guzii 

(Ki-suba or 
' Kco-stova ') 



7 a. 

Ki-kuria; or 

Ki-suna and 

Ki-tende 



Face, fore- 
head 
Fat, oU ... 



Father 
Fear .. 



Finger 
Fire .. 
Fish .. 



Mu-muni 
Ama-futa 



Baba 
COmu-ti? 



OOlu-ala ; 
cin-dala 

OOmu-lilco 



In-geke 



Mu-muni 
Ama-furra 



Baba 
OOmu-rri. 

Bu-ruma. 

Di-eri (R.) 
OOlu-terre ; 

tsin-. <Ji)lu-ala tsints-ala 



Mu-muni 

Kimi-nawa 

[pi.). 

Kama-futa 
Papa 
Bu-rri, 

Umu-rri. 

Kuria 
Udu-v?ala ; 



COmu-rirto 



Iny-eni. 
E-mvua (5 b) 



Kumu-riro) 



In-eni, 
Iny-enye, 
In-yeni 



Bubu-scij ; 

gimi-sioa 

Gama-futa 



Papa 

Bubu-ti 



Lulu-wala ; pi. 

inz-ala or 

tyin-jala 
Gumu-liroj 



Ki-neni {//. 
same) 



CObu-sieo 

Ege-tinia. 
Ama-guta 



OOmu-ti. 
I-ruka 

Eki-ara ; evi- 
or ebi- 

(iimu-rirto, 

OOmco-reroj ; 

emi- 
Eki-nswe, 

E-nswe ; 

ebi-nswe, 

eci-nswe 



OObu-sico 
Ege-tinia ; evi- 



Eki-ara ; evi-. 

Ek-era ; 

evi-ara 
(jDmco-rerco or 

(JOmo-reroj; 

eme- 
E-nswe ; 

ci-nswe 



Foot 


OL)xu-kulu ; 


Ci-renge ; fi-. 


Si-kire; bi-kire. 


Ci-gere; bibi- 


Eke-renge. 


Eke-sanyi. 




ama- 


U-gulu (5 b) 


Ki-tanda girco 




Eke-sanyi 


Eke-renge 


Forest 


OOvu-mali 


COmu-tsurru 


Kumu-rofigcoloj 


. Gumu-tongcolco Egi-saka ; ebi-. 


Eke-saka ; eve 








I-sali 




En-nani; ama- 




Fowl 


Ift-gojxco 


In-goxoj. 
N-guhco (5 b) 
Si-menyui 

{dim.) 


In-gwXM, 
lii-guku 


En-gcokco 


Efi-kcokcij. 
Acin-gukco ^ 


Efi-gtokco 


Frog 


Li-pere 


... 


... 


... 




... 


Ghost 


Epi-xienu. 
OOmu-sambwa 


COmu-fwa. 
Epi-zienu, 
Epi-xienu ; efi- 


Li-lalu ; kama- 




OOmu-kira. 
Eki-riri 


Eki-riri 


Giraffe 




Aburu (5 b). 
In-zaya- 
mi-rumba (R.) 


Cangewa 


... 


... 


... 


Girl 


OOmu-xana 


OOmu-xana. 
Mu-hala (5 b). 


Umu-xana 




Omn-iseke. 
OOmcj-subati 


OOmu-subati 


Goat 


Im-buzi 


Im-buzi, 


Im-buzi, 


Em-buzi, 


Em-bori, 


Em-bori ; cim 






Yim-buzi. 


Im-buri 


Em-busi ; 


Em-buri ; cim- 




„ (he) ... 
God 




Im-buri (R.) 




tim-busi 


or acim-, 




OOlu-mbe 


Eri-uwa, 


I-kuru, Uere 


Mumu 


Eri-uba. 


Eri-coba 






Edi-uba 






Ivi-rica. Eny- 
asai ; ciny- 




Grandparent 






Kuka; ba + 


Kuka; ba-kuka 




... 


Grass 


OObu-nyasi 


OObu-nyasi. 

U-sui(5b) 


Bu-nyasi 


Bubu-nyasi 


OObu-nyanzi. 
Eke-nyanse 


Eke-nyafike ; 

pi. ama- 


Ground 


Li-luba 


Ri-rcoba 


Li-lcoba 


Ri-r<oba. I-doi 


Eri-zcoba. 
Ege-tie; eve- 


Ege-kongu ; 
eve- 


Ground-nut 


In-jugu. Im- 
bande ; cim- 


Im-bande ; 

tsim + 


Ma-yitu 




Im-bande; cim- 




Guinea-fowl 


Li-xanga 


Ri-xanga. 
Li-khanga 


Li-xanga. 
N-kanga 


Li-kanga 


Eri-kanga ; 
ama-. Efi- 
kanga ; cifi- 


Efi-kanga ; cin- 


Gun 


OOmu-rondca 


OOmu-rondu 


Mundu. 
Kumu-rundu 


Gumu-londu 


OOmu-rondco. 
Umu-gungeo 


... 



> Hobley. 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



77 





5- 


5 a. 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-ktoria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gisu, &=€. 


ofN.W.Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 






' Kco-soava ') 


Ki-tende 






fl:»</5bLu-singa 










Hair 


Li-fwiri ; ama- 


Di-swi;ama-su. 
Li-siii (R.) 


Li-cune, 
Li-tsune 


I-zune,Li-cuni, 
Li-swui 


E-tukia ; ci- 


E-tukia ; ci- 


Hand 


Esi-kala; ebi- 


E^i-galtd ; efi-. 


Ki-kojfu, 


Gi-gcofu ; bi- 


Egi-sanyi. 


Eke-sanyi. 






U-kconw (s b) 


Si-kcofu. 

Ki-kyaba. 

Si-amberi 




CiOmco-kconco 


OOmto-kwnca 


Head 


COmu-twe; emi- 


COmu-rwe ; 
eme-rwe. 
C0mu-twe(5b) 


Kumu-twe 


Gumu-twe 


(jOmu-twe; emi- 


OOmco-tui, 
OOmco-tu 


Heart 


I-xulco 


Umw-oyeo 


Kum-oy«o, 
Gum-oyco 


Gum-oyoj 


En-teme. 
En-kora> 


Eii-koroo 


Heel 


Esi-sirw; ebi- 


Ki-sisiroo ; 


Exu-gunyu. 


Efiku-gunyu 


Ye-tingirco. 


Ege-tingireo. 






bi-(?). Ki- 


Ngoj.gunyu 




Iki-taleiigi 


Eke-sugurco 






sisoreo (R.) 










Hide 


Li-seru 




Li-hafu 


Ri-hafu^ 






Hill 




pi-kuiu 


Lu-kingi ; 
tsin-gingi 


Lulu-gingi ; tifi- 


... 


... 


Hippopotamus 


I-fubu ; ci- 


I-fubu; tsi-. 


I-fubu. 


D i-fubu or 


I-fubu or 


Eii-gubco 






I-fuco (R.) 


Ifi-gidi 


M-fubu ; ph. 
gama-, tsim- 


En-gub<o 




Hoe 


Im-bagu 


Im-baxco 


Im-bagoj 


Em-bagco 


... 




Honey 


CObu-pi 


OObu-pi 


Bu-xi 


Ka-mana. 

Bubu-ci 


OObu-sie. tObcu- 
ke. Ama-na 


CObco-ke 


Horn 


(Olu-ika ; 


Olu-ika ; 


Ulu-ika or 


Lulu-iga ; pi. 


OOru-gu-cala ; 


Wrco-gu-cara ; 




cinj-ika 


tsinz-ika. 


Lulu-iga ; pi. 


tin-jiga or 


//. cin-gu-in- 


ciii-gu-cara. 






Ylm-bega ; 


tsin-jiga 


tsin-tsiga 


jala 


(jOru-tera; cin- 






tsim- 










House 


Iny-umba ; cin- 


In-zu ; tsin-zu 


In-zu (7r I-tsu 


In-tsu, In-jii. 
Iny-umba^ 


Eny-umba; cin- 


Eny-umba 


Hunger 


In-jala 


In-zala 


In-jara, In-zala In-jara,In-tsala In-jala, en-jara 


En-cara 


Husband ... 


... 


Um-satscjwe 

(R.) 




... 






Hyena 


Yi-nu ; ci-nu 


E-fusi, I-fisi 


Namu-nyu 


Namu-nyu 


liiy-anaeij, 
Eny-anau 


E-niti 


Iron 


Esi-uma 


Exi-bia, 
Efi-bia, 
Evi-wia. 
E-cuma (5 b) 


Isi-ijma, 
Iki-uma. 
Ki-bia 


Eci-uma, 
Kiki-uma 


Eki-uma 


Eki-ojma 


Island 


Li-singa 


Di-cinga 


Lu-singa 


Lulu-siiiga 


Eri-wunju. 
Eki-nyorci) 


Eri- or 
Eke-ginga 


Ivory 


E-linco lye 


Ir-inco de 


Kumu-sanga 


Gumu-sanga 


Ir-into 


Er-inoj 




n-jcofu 


n-dz<ofu. 
OOlu-ika (R.). 
Eri-inw 


gwe n-dzcofu 


gwe n-dzo>fu. 
I-pcokoj 






Knee 


Esi-xumba 


Di-sikamoj 


Isi-sigamco or 
Iki-sigamco 


Di-sikamco. 
Iki-sikamu> 


Eri-ru 


Eri-iu 


Knife 


Li-xande 


pi-rcodwa. 


Kumu-banto ; 


Gumu-banco ; 


Umw-eyu 


OOm-oyu. 






Yim-baloj. 


pi. kimi- 


pi. gimi- 




Eke-gesu. 






Mw-embe (5 b) 








Eke-kebi 


Lake 


Eny-anja 


Iny-anza. 
Li-enga 


Iny-anza. 
Li-tiwa 


Iny-anja 


Eny-anja 


... 


Leg 


(JL)xu-gulu 


COku-gulu. 


In-dumbu. 


In-dumbu. 


(jOku-guru. 


OOkco-goroj ; 






In-guco. 


Ki-gere 


Ki-gulu. 


Ekeny-ama 


ama- 






gi-gulu (R.). 




Ki-genderto 










pi-rengi (R.) 











Hobley in his Muhasa Vocabulary. 



78 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





5- 


i- 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-gtizii 


Ki-kcoria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gipu, d^c. 


ofN.W.Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 




' Kco-seova ') 


Ki-tende 






andi\i Lu-singa 










Leopard ... 


Yifi-gwe 


In-gwe 


In-gwe ; 
tsin-gwe 


In-gwe ; 
tifi-gwe, 
tyin-gwe 


Eke-iri. Eii-gto 


Eii-gwe 


Lion 


Li-nani 


Li-nani. 
En-dui (5 b) 


I-talanyi. 
I-tcolani 


Li-nu 






Lips 


(JOrau-nwa ; 


OOmu-nwa ; 


Kimi-nwa {pi) 


Gimi-nwa {pi) 


Emi-nua {pi). 


Eke-nenevu 




emi-nwa 


emi- 


(Kumij-nwa) 




Ege-ktoba ; 
eve— 




Magic 


Li-lcokco. 


Li-lugu, 


Li-rcogco. 


Ri-rcogu 


Eri-rcijgeo. 


Eri-rcogco 




(jL)lu-mutana. 


Di-lcokco. 


Bu-lcosi 




OObu-kanga 






OOlu-muwei 


Sirxanga 










Maize 


Ama-dumwa 


Ama-duma. 
Ka-duma (5 b) 


Nabu-kuboj 


Gama-ganda 


E-bandco ; ci-. 
Ama-dumco 


Erinya-mcodcoma 
Eri-tumwa 


Man 


(jOmu-ndu ; 


OL)mu-ndu. 


Umu-ndu ; 


Umu-ndu ; 


ODmu-ntu; aba-, 


OOmu-ntu ; ava- 




awa-ndu 


Awa-ntu ; 
aba-ndu 


wawa-ndu, 
baba-ndu 


baba-ndu 


ava- 




Man, vir. ... 


OOmu-saca 


Mu-saza (5 b) 


M-seja 


... 




... 


Meat 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Eny-ama 


Medicine . . . 




Um-sala 


Kama-lesi 


Gama-lesi 


... 




Milk 




Ma-weri 


Kama-beri 


Gama-beri 


Ama-vere 


Ama-vere 


Monkey ... 


E-xembco ; 


I-pima 


E-xima 


E-kima, 


Egi-kondo3, 


Ege-kembco. 




ci-embco 




En-kima 


Li-nyani 


Eke-kondto 


Moon 


(Orn-usi ; 
emi-usi 


Omw-ezi. 
Umw-ezi (R.) 


Kumw-ezi 


Gumw-ezi 


OOmu-tienyi 


(jOmu-eri 


Mother .... 




Mama 


Mayi ; ba-f 


Mayi 




... 


Mountain ... 


OOlu-gulu ; 


OOlu-gulu, 


Li-kulu 


Ri-kulu ; gama- 


Egi-tunwa. 


Eii-guku 




cin-gulu 


Ipi-gulu 




kulu 


Iki-lima 




Mouth 




Umu-nwa 






Ama-ntba 


Ama-ncoa 


Nail (of finger 


Li-dete ; ama- 


Exi-tere ; efi-. 


Si-tere or 


Eci-tere, 


Eki-cara or 


OOrco-kcomto ; 


or toe) 




Li-tere ; ama-. 
Di-tera (R.) 


Ki-tere ; bi- 
tere 


Iki-tere ; ebi-, 
bibi-. Ki-teta 


Oru-cara 


ciii-kcomoj 


Name 


Eri-ta 


Iri-ra ; am-era 


Li-sina and 


E-sina or 


Eri-ema. 


Eri-ta. 








Li-lina 


Ri-sina 


Eri-eta. 
M-barenga 


Eri-na 


Navel 




Li-khcofi 




... 


... 




Neck 


Li-ktosi 


Li-kcosi, 
Li-xcosi. 

GwsKsb) 


Di-kcosi 


Di-kcosi, 
Ri-ktijsi 


Ebi-gosti, 
Eri-gcoti 


Eri-gcoti 


Night 


Es-iroj; eb-irto 


Mup-iro>. Isi-co, 
Ef-ireo. 
(Ci-rima = 
darkness) 


Musi-rci), 
Muki-roo. 
(Kiki-rima = 
darkness) 


Ci-rco 


OObu-tukto. 
(Eki-rima = 

darkness) 


OObw-tiku; ama- 


Nose 


Am-colw {pi). 
(Ebi.ulu(//.) 


Am-calco ( pi) 


Kam-orco 


Gam-colco 


Emi-coloj 


... 


Oil palm . . . 
Ox 


= nostrils) 












In-ombe 


In-ombe. 


N-ombe 


N-ombe, 


N-ombe e-eri. 


E-gaini ; ci- 




i-ginixi 


E-hei is-urusi 


e-iinwa. 
I-huma. 
I -same. Kuhe 


En-ombe ? 
I-nasu. In-ti ' 


N-tangana 




Paddle 




In-gasi 






... 




Palm wine, 


Omw-enge 


Omw-enge. 


Kama-rwa 


Gama-rwa 


Ama-rwa 


... 


beer 




Ama-lua 










Parrot 


In-gusco 


lii-gusu. 
Ka-suku 


Kumu-lusi 


Kwasiii 


J 





Hobley in his Muhasa Vocabulary. 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



79 





5- 


5 a. 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-mg,saba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kcoria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gipu, ^'c. 


of N.W.Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 




' Kco-scova ') 


Ki-tende 






andtj bLu-siiiga 










Penis 


Im-bulco 


in-dine 


In-dine 


In-dine 


Em-borco 


Em-borco 


Pig 


Im-bici 


Im-bidzi 


Isi-kese. 
Im-bidzi 


Isi-kese or Iki- 


En-kuru. 
Em-beci 


... 


Pigeon 


Li-gugu 


Di-wiizi 


Li-tizi. Na-hutu Ri-iazi 


Eri-ruma 


En-guti 


Place 


Esi-fco. Alia 


A-handu 


Handu 


A-ndu. Ha- 


A-halia 




Rain 


I.fula 


I-fula 


I-fula 


I-fula 


Em-bura 


Em-bura 


Rat 


Im-beba 


Im-beba 


Im-beba 


Im-beba 


Im-beba 


Em-beba 


Rhinoceros 




Ki-weoj 






... 




River 


Omw-alco 


(Omu-cara ; 
imi-. 
Omw-alto 


Lu-luci 


Lu-luci 


(jOr-coci, 
Or-coeci ; cin- 
dcoci 


Ege-saka; eve- 
OOm-orca ; 
emi-orco ' 


Road 


In-gira 


Iri-gira, In-jira 


I-tsira 


lii-gira 


lii-gira, En-cira 


En-cira 


Salt 




Umu-nyu 


... 




... 




Shame 




Tsi-sconi 


In-sconi ; tsi- 
sconi 








Sheep 


Ri-konde 


Li-gese. 
Li-konde, 
Di-xande. 
Gonde (5 b) 


I-xese or 
In-kese 


Li-kondi. 
Li-hesi 


Eii-ondi 


Eriii-ondi 


Shield 


In-gabco 


Ki-kumbi (5 b). 
In-gabco. 
I-humba 


N-gab«, 
In-gubco. 
Ki-tubi 


In-gabco 


Eii-guba 




Shoulder ... 


... 


E-wexa 


... 




Eri-gega ; 
ama-gega 




Sister 


M-booC<a 


Mw-ana wefu. 


Mu-kana wasi. 




Nya-ruxa. 


COmosubati ; 






M-b(otsco (R.). 


W-an'dai 




Omw-iseke. 


ava- 






M-bcoswa. 


umu-xana. 




OOmcD-subati 








OOrau-xana 


OOmu-gcogco 








Skin 


Lisi-xcoba 


Li-xtoba 


Si-xcoba. 
Li-hafu 


Ki-kcoba 


Eri-kcoba. 
Eri-co 


Eri-serco. 
Eri-hoi 


Sky 


Li-kulu 


Di-gulu 


Li-kuru or 
I-gulu 


Ri-kuru 


Eri-guru. 
Eri-coba 


Eri-coba 


Slave 


... 


Umu-sumba 


,,, 


. . . 






Sleep 


Cin-dulu 


Tsin-dcalco 


Li-rco 




Eci-torco 


Eci-torco 


Smoke 


OL)m-cosi 


Li-tosi, Eli-eosi, 
Omw-cosi 


Li-risi. Li-susi 


Ri-susi 


Eri-coki 


Eri-coki 


Snake 


In-juxa 


In-dzuxa, 
In-dzcoxa, 
U-j«ka {5 b) 


In-jcoxa. 
In-demu 


In-jcoka 


In-jcoka 


En-ceoka 


Son, boy ... 


Omw-ana 


Omw-ana 


Omw-ana ; 
bab-ana. 
Om-soriri 


Umw-ana ; 
bab-ana 


Omw-ana. 
Omw-ana 
como-isia 


OOmm-risia 


Song 


OOIu-embco 


Olu-imbco ; 


Lu-emba or 


Lulu-imbco ; 


Oru-embco ; 


Eri-vina ; ama 






tsiny-imbco 


Lulu-imbco ; 
tsiny-imbco 


tiny-imbco 


ciny-embco 




Spear 


Li-fumco 


Di-fumco. 
I-fumco (5 b) 


Li-fumco; kama- 


Ri-fumco; gama- 


Eri-tumco 


Eri-timco 


Spirit, soul 




^e-hembexco. 
Umw-oyu 




... 






Star 


I-nininini 


I-nininini. 
I-sului 

{planet) 


In-yenyesi 


In-yenyezi 


Ec'i-nenenene, 

Etci- 


E-nenanene. 
E-ninyone ; 
ci- 


Stick 


In-dabco-yi 


In-dawupi. 


I-simbco or 


Im-pimbco, 


Eny-imbco 


OOmoj-nangi. 






In-dabu7i. 


Im-pimbco 


Im-bimbco 




En-imbco 






I-pimbco 











' Cf. Swahili M-tco. 



G 2 



8o 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





5- 


i^- 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kcoria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gipu, &=€. 


ofN.W.Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 




' K(u-scova ') 


Ki-tende 






a«(/5bLu-singa 










Stone 


Li-kina 


Ri-gina, 
Axa-cina 


Li-bale 


Di-bale, 
Li-wari 


Eri-ena or 
Eri-gina 


Eri-gina 


Stool 


Esi-sala 


Ici-sala, 
Ki-sala 


... 






... 


Sun 


Eli-uwa 


Om-basa or 
Mu-basu, 
Mu-wasoj. 
Eri-uba 


Iny-anga 


Iny-anga. 
(iCu-munco = 

sunlight) 


OOmu-basu 


OOmco-basco 


Tail 




Umu-pinga 


... 


... 


... 




Tear 


Li-sika 


Ri-sika 


Li-sika ; 
kama-sika 


Ri-sika 


Eri-riga 


Eri-isori 


Testicles ... 


Ama-neke 


Ama-nege 


Kama-nege 


Gama-nege 


Cin-getia. 
Eki-mbia or 

Em-bia 


Eri-nege ; ama- 


Thief 


Omw-ibi 


Omw-ifi ; ave-fi Omw-ifwi ; 


Umw-ifwi ; 


Omw-ibi 


O0mo)-ivi ; 








aba-fw^i 


baba-fwi 




ava-ivi 


Thigh 


... 


Di-rangoj 


Di-rangco or 
Li-tangco 


Di-rangco 


Ekeny-ama. 
Iki-gwatu ; 




Thing 


Esi-ndu ; 


Efi-ndu, 


Isi-ndu or 


Iki-ndu ; 


IVl- 

Ege-ntu ; 


Ege-ntu ; 




ebi-ndu 


Exi-ndu ; 
efi-ndu 


Kiki-ndu ; 
bibi-ndu 


bibi-ndu 


ebi-ntu 


evi-ntu 


Thorn 


Li-wwa 


Li-wwa 


Li-wwa ; 
kama-wa. 
Lulu-ala 


... 


Eri-gwa 


Eri-gwa, 
Eri-hua 


Tobacco ... 


In-daba 


In-daba 


I-raba 


... 


Tumbatco 


Eri-kumbati 


To-day 


Lerco 


Lerco. Bw-iri 
wa lerco (5 b) 


Lerco 

(Kia-lerco). 
Lunco 


Lerco, 
Rerco. 
Lunco 


Rerco 


Rerco 


Toe 


OOlu-ala 


Efi-tere. 
Oiilu-ala 


Si-tere or 
Ki-tete 


Iki-tere 


Eki-ara ; ebi- 


Eki-ara, 
Ek-era 


To-morrow 


... 


In-kico (5 b) 


Kumu-gamba 


Gumu-gamba. 
L-itse 


Ancco 


N-kico. Icco 


Tongue 


Oaiu-limi 


COlu-limi 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi, 
Lu-limu 


OOlu-meme ; ci- 


Orco-reme ; 
cin-deme 


Tooth 


Er-into ; am- 


Ir-inco ; am-inco 


Ir-inco ; 


Ir-inco, Il-inco ; 


Ir-inco ; 


... 




enco 




kam-enco 


gam-enco 


gam-enco 




Town 


Li-dala 


Ri-dala, 
Di-tala. 
Mu-gidzi (5 b) 


Mw-itcoxco. 
Ki-rimba. 
Lu-kala 


. . . 


(j5mu-ji ; emi- 


(Omco-ji, 
OOmu-gi 


Tree 


(JOmu-sala 


OOmu-sala. 


OOmu-sala. 


Gumu-ti ; 


Umu-ti ; imi-ti. 


(jOmai-ti ; emi-ti 






Umu-ti(5b) 


Ki-sala. 
Kumwi-ti ; 
kimi-ti. Kumu- 
rongcoleo 


gimi-ti 


Eri-tumbe or 
Eli-tumbe ; 
ama- 




Twins 


Ama-xana 


Ama-xwana. 
Ama-basa 


Ba-xwana 


Baba-kwana 


Eki-sare ; ebi- 


E-sare, 
Eri-sare ; 
(ci-, ama-) 


Urine 


Ama-nyi 


Mi-nyale. 


M-enyari-re. 


Gam-enye ? 


Am-enyali. 


Amasi-nyorco, 






Ama-nyi 


Am-enye 




Usi-nyora 


Esi-nyorco 


Vein 


... 










... 


War 


Li-ye 


Li-Yie, Di-ye, 


Li-ye. 


Li-he, 


Ese-gi. 


Eri-hi; ama-. 






Li-he, I-ye 


Bu-scolb> 


Ri-ye 


(Ku-rua-na = 

tofighf) 


(Ku-tema-na 
= to fight] 


Water 


Ama-dzi, 
Ama-ci 


Ama-dzi, 
Ama-zi 


Kam-edzi 


Gam-edzi 


Ama-ji 


Ama-ci, 
Ama-nci 


Well, sotirce 


... 


Ipe-weri 


... 




... 


... 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 





5- 


i^- 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu-masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki-guzii 


Ki-kcoria ; or 






kabarasi, anti 


Lu-gisu, dr'c. 


0/ N. IV. Elgon 


(Ki-suba or 


Ki-suna until 






Lu-rimi (R.), 






' Kcu-sojva ') 


Ki-tende 






and shhu-sihga. 










White man 


ODmu-suiigu ; 
aba- 


OOmu-sungu ; 
awa-, aba-. 
Umw-eru (5 b) 


Umu-zungu 


Umu-zurigu 


OOmu-suiagu 


OOmco-cung^u 


Wife 


OOmu-xasi; aba- 


OL)mu-xasi ; 
awa- 


(jOmu-xasi 


Umu-kazi 


OOmco-ke. 
OOmu-kungu. 
OOmu-ka 


OOmto-kare 


Wind 


Im-behu 


I-bcohco, 


Im-beco. 


Im-behco 


Em-behco. 


Em-beheo. 






Im-beh<o. 


Li-yaga 




Omw-aga 


OOmco-kama ; 






Omw-ieka 








eme- 


Witch 


OL)mu-lcosi 


(jOmu-lcdsi 
U-fira 


Oi)mu-lcosi;aba-. 


Umu-lcozi 


OOmu-rcoki 


OOmco-rcogi 


Witchcraft 




CObu-lcosi 


... 






Woman . . . 


OOmu-xana. 


OOmu-xasi. 


OOmu-xana ; 


Umu-kana ; 


OOmco-ke ; ava-. 


OOmco-kare; 




OOmu-xasi 


Umu-xanoj 


aba-. 


aba-. 


OOmco-kungu; 


ava- 






(R.) 


OOmu-xasi 


Umu-kazi 


ava- 




Wood 


Ci-x5i 


Tsi-xui 


Tsi-xiii. 
Ki-sala 


Tin-ku, 
Tsiii-kii ? 


OOru-kco; cin-kco 


OOrco-kco, 
OOroD-kwe ; 
cin-kwe 


Yam 




I-fukwa 


Ki-kwa or 
Si-kwa 


Ki-kwa 




... 


Year 


Omw-ika 


Omw-aka. 
(jOmw-ika 


I-fula. 

Kumu-higco 


Gumu-higco ? 


Omw-aka 


OOmo-ka ; 
eme-ka 


Yesterday... 


E-kulco 


E-kulu 


Hi-ngcolcobe. 
I-kcolcoa 




I-gorco 


Mu-gcorcoba 


Zebra 


A-pcotco. 
Ki-p<ot<o 


Sirgwi, 
I-sirkcoi. 
Si-pia- 
ma-kondco 


I-sorco 


I-sigiria ? 


En-jage ; cin- 




One 


-lala, -dala 


-n-dala, -dala, 
■lala 


twera or 
-terwa. -lala 


-mwe. -dwera 


-mu, -mco 


-mco, -mwe 


Two 


-viri 


-wiri 


biri 


-wiri 


beri, -viri 


-viri 


Three 


-datu 


■tarru 


taru 


■datu, -ratu 


satu, -tatu 


-tatu 


Four 


•nne 


-nne 


nne 


-nna 


nye, -nne 


-nne 


Five 


■tanco 


-rranco 


ranco 


-tanco 


sanco, -tanco 


-tanco 


Six 


■tanu na 


Sasaba. 


Sesaba. 


VTu-kaga 


saneo (-tanco) 


-sansaba 




(si-)lala 


M-kaga (5 b) 


I -sasaba 




na i-mco 




Seven 


-tanca na 
(bi-)wiri 


N-safu. 
M-samvu(5b) 


Vlu-safu 


Mu-safu 


sanco {-tanco) 
na i-were 

(i-viri) 


Mu-hungati 


Eight 


-tanu na 


Mu-nane 


ji-nane or 
Ki-nane 


rCi-nane 


sanco na i-satu 


Mfo-nane 




(bi-)datu 






(i-tatu) 




Nine 


-tanco na 


Xi-enda or 


Si -en da or 


Ki-enda 


iCi-anda 


Ki-anda. 




(bi-)nne 


gi-enda 


Ki-enda 






K-enda 


Ten 


Li-xumi 


E-xumi 


E-xumi or 


E-kumi or 


!-kumi 


I-kumi 








Ki-kumi or 


Ki-kumi, (7r 


OOmu-rongco 


OOmu-rongco 








Kumu-rundu 


Gumu-rongco ? 
Gumu-rundu? 






Eleven 


Li-xumi na 


E-xumi na 


Ci-kumi na 


E-kumi na 


I-kumi na i-mco 


I-kumi na 




n-dala 


n-dala 


-lala (or na 
-twera) 


-dwera 




(o-mco. 

Noji-kumi na 
o-mwe 


Twenty ... 


A.ma-kumi 


Ama-xumi 


Kama-gumi 


Gama-kumi 


A.ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




ka-wiri 


ka-wiri 


ka-bili. 


ga-bili. 


a-were or 


i-biri.^ 








Kimi-rundu 


Gimi-rundu(or 


Emi-rongco 


Mi-rongco 








ki-biri 


Gimi-rongco ?) 
gi-biri 


i-viri 


ni i-viri 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Thirty 
Forty... 

Fifty ... 
Hundred 



Lu-nyara 



Ama-kumi 
ka-datii 

Ama-kumi 
ka-nne 



Ama-kumi 
ka-tanoj 

Li-kana 



Thousand . . . Si-xumi 



Sa. 

Lu-wanga, Lu- 

kabarasi, and 

Lu-rimi (R.), 

andi b Lu-singa 



6. 
Lu-masaba or 
Lu-gisu, 6^c. 



6 a. 
Lu-konde 

ofN.W.Elgon 



Ki-guzii 
(Ki-suba or 

'Kco-scova') 



7 a. 

Ki-kcoria; or 

Ki-suna and 

Ki-tende 



Ama-kumi 
ka-tarru 

Ama-kumi 
ka-nne 



Kama-gumi 
ka-taru 

Kama-gumi 
ka-nne 



Ama-kumi 
ka-rraneo 

Li-kana or 
E-pa kumira 
o?-E-gana(5b) 



Ama-kana 
ma-xumi 



Kama-gumi 
ka-ranco 

Li-tondti> or 
Kimi-rongco 
ki-kumi or 
Kama-kumi 
ki-kumi 

Kama-tondto 
ki-kumi 



Gama-kumi 
ga-datu 

Gama-kumi 
ga-nna 

Gama-kumi 
ga-ranco 

Ri-tondco .' 
Gimi-roiigoj 
gi-kumi ? 



Ama-kumi {or 
Emi-rongco) 
a-tatu (i-tatu) 

Ama-kumi 
a-nye or 
ga-nye. Emi- 
roiigco i-nye 

Ama-kumi 
a-tanco. Emi- 
rongco i-sanu 

Emi-rongco 
i-kumi 



Mi-rongco 
i-tatu 

Mi-rongco i-nne 



Mi-rongco 
i-tanco 



Eri-gana 



I, me, my ... Ni-sie, E-sie. Nyeni (R.), 

Na-, N-. Ni-sie, E-sie. 

■n-. -a-iige N-, Ny-. 
-sie. -n-. 
-a-ngi, -a-nje 
Thou,thee,thy E-we. U-. I-we, E-we. U- 

-XU-, -XCO-. 00-. 

-a-co -XCO-. -yco 

He, him, his Ye. U-yu. Yi-, lye, Ye, Nij 

A-. OO-yu. A-, 

-mu-, -mco-. Ye-. 

-a-e- 



I-se. N-. 
-sese. -n-. 
■ase 



(jO-scoyu ? N- 



I-we. U-. E-we-we. U- 

-ku-. -(o-wco. 

-co 
Ye. Ni-ye. Yco-. Ye ? Wco-yu. 

Ye-. A-, U-. A-, U- 

•mu-. -e-we, -e 



We, us, our E-fwe. Xco-. 
-XU-. -e-fu, 
-e-fwe 

Ye, you, your E-nwe. Mu-. 



-mu-, -mco-. 

-ye 
I-fwe, E-fwe. 

Ku-, Xu-. 

-ku-. -e-ru or 

-e-fu 
I-nyue. Mu- 



-ba- ?. -e-nwe -wa- ?. -e-nyu 



They, them, A-ba. Ba-, 
their Wa-. 

-ba-. -a-co 



A-bco. M-babco. 
Ba-. 

-ba-, -wa-. 
-a-co, -a-bco 



Nje, Inje,Ncoxi. 
Na-, N-. 
•n-. -ane 



I-we, Uwe. U-. 
-ku-. -a-co 

Ye? Ere. A-, 
-mu-. -a-ye, 
-a-ke 



I-fwefwe. Ku- 



N-twe. Tu-. 
-tu-. -e-tu 



I-fwe, Fwe. 
Ku-. 
-ku- 

I-nywe, Mwe. I-yenyue, Mu- I-nyiie, Nwe- 

Mu-. Mu- ?. 

-mu-, -ba-. -.'-. -e-nu 

-e-nyfie 

A-bco, Bco, A-bcobco. Ba- A-bco, A-ba. 

Ni-bco. Ba-. Ba-. 

-ba-. -a-we -ba-. -a-bco 



Inci. Uni. N-. 
•n-. -ane 



A-iye,Uwe. U?. 

-ku-. -e-yco, 

-a-co 
U-yu, A-. 

-mu-. -a-ye, -e 



I-tu. Tu-. 
-tu-. -e-tu 



I-nu. Mu-?. 
-?-. -e-nu 



M-baiyu. A-bco. 
Ba-. 

-ba-. -a-bco, 
-a-co 



All 



This, these 



-cosi, -cose 



-nco (u-nco, 
ba-nco; ku-nco, 
ki-neo, li-nco, 
ka-nco ; si-nco, 
bi-nco ; yi-nco, 



■nco (wu-nco, 
ba-nco(\va-nco); 
gu-nco, gi-nco; 

&=€., mtich as 
in Lu-nyara). 



■esi( for persons -esi, -cosi 

down to ■znd 

pers. plural) 
-cosi (for ' them ' 

and for all 

other things) 
-nco (u-nco, 

ba-nco; ku-nco, 

ki-nco; li-nco, 

ka-nco ; ki-nco, 

bi-nco ; i-nco. 



nco (cou-nco, 
ba-nco, (Sj^c, 
similar to 
Lu-masaba, 

•with the slight 



-nco (co-nco, ava- 
nco ; cDgco-nco, 
ge-nco ; ri-no), 
ga-nco ; ke-n«, 
vi-nco ; e-no>, 



GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 



83 





5- 


5 a. 


6. 


6 a. 


7- 


7 a. 


English 


Lu-nyara 


Lu-wanga, Lu- 


Lu^masaba or 


Lu-konde 


Ki^guzii 


Ki^kcoria ; or 






kabarasi, and 


Lu-gipu, ^-c. 


ofN.W.Elgon 


(Ki^suba or 


Ki^suna and 






Lu-rimi (R.), 






' Koi^scova ') 


Ki^tende 






««(/5bLu-singa 










This, these 


ci-noo ; u-nco ; 


For the leth 


tsi^nco ; lu^nco;. 


differences of 




ci-nco ; rw-nco ; 


(continued) 


? tu-nw; xa-nu; 


class it is 


?ru^nco;xa^n<a; 


concord forms) 




?, kenco ; 




bu-nto ; xu-nco; 


Ha-nco. Also: 


bianco; xu-nco; 






boj-nco;ku)-nco; 




wa-neoora-nco; 


ngungu-nco, 


ha-nco; mu^nco; 






ha-nco) 




mu-nco) 


mbaba-nco ; 


gu^nco. Yoj.nco, 
bcoba-nco ; 
kwcoku-nco ; 
ki(oki-nco, byco- 
bi-nco ; tstotsi- 
nco ; &■€.) 










Uyu,aba; uku. 


Oyu or Uyu, 


... 




(JOyu,ava; uyu, 


Uyu, ava, ^fc. 




eki ; eli, aka ; 


aba (awa) ; 






eye; eri,aya; 






esi, ebi; eyi, 


ugu, egi; eli; 






eke, eve ; eye, 






eci ; ulu ; uru ; 


aga ; epi ; efi ; 






eci ; urco ; .', 






axa ; ubu ; 


eyi, etsi ; ulu ; 






eke ; cobco ; 






uxu; awa or 


uru; axa; ubu; 






cokco, ? 






aa ; umu 


uxu; aha; umu 










That, those 


-lia (ngu-lia,ba- 


-lia (u-ria, 


Uy^co, ab^co ; 




■ria ((d-ria, ava- 


•ria (u-ria, ava- 




lia (;rmba-lia ; 


ngu-lia, ^'c.) 


(okco^co, eki^co ; 




ria; u-ria, 


ria ; gu-ria, 




ngu-Iia,nki-lia, 




iry-co, ak-eo ; 




e-ria ; ri-ria, 


gi-ria; ri-ria, 




ndi-lia, nka- 




iky-co ; &^c. 




a-ria ; ke-ria. 


ga-ria; ke-ria, 




lia ; nsi-lia, 




Yco^yco, bco^bco ; 




ve-ria ; e-ria. 


vi-ria; 6^ir.) or 




mbi-lia ; nyi- 




kwa)kw-co,kia)- 




ci-ria ; ru-ria ; 


-ra(u^ra,ava-ra; 




lia, nci-lia ; 




kico ; (Sr'f. 




?, ke-ria; 


gu-ra ; b^c) 




ndu-lia ; ntu- 




-la or -ra (u^la, 




cobo-ria ; 






lia ? ; nxa-lia 




ba^la, ku-la, 




(oko-ria; a-ria) 






mbu-lia ; nxu- 




li-ra, fy^c.) 










lia; &'c) 












Bad 


-bi 


•bi 


-bi 




-be 


•be 


Black 


-mari. Ra-tenyi 


-imari 


-mali 




-mwamu 


■mwam' 


Female 


-xasi, -duasi, 
■iduasi 


■xassi 


■xasi 




En-kari, -kari 


•kari 


Fierce, sharp 




■lulu 


. . . 








Good 


-lai 


■lai 


■lahi 




-uya, -ya 


•ia 


Great 


-kali 


-kulu, -kali 


-gali. -tscohe 




-kuru. -nene 


•nene 


Little 


■dudu 


■dutu, -dudu, 
-tutu 


■kexe, -kekke, 
-kece 




-ke, -ki 


•ke 


Long 


-rambi, -Iambi 


•rambi 


-lehi 








Male 


-sulire. -i-saca. 
y(t-^<sAR(adult), 
-yojle 


-sadza. -xcole 


-setsa. -sinde 




■saja. ■gore, 
-isia (children) 


•saca ?. -gore, 
-risia (chil- 
dren) 


Old 




■xcofu 


•gore 


. . . 






Red 


. . . 


Inzoj^kanyco 


-w-esemu 








Rotten 


-bcola 

(kwa-bcola) 


■bcala 


■bcola (verbal) 




-mumu 




Short 




-i^bikiti 


■futyu. -mbi 








Sick 




■luwala 


... 








White 


Racari 


-marira. -lafu 


■wanga 




-dabu, ■rabu. 
■lafu 


-rabco 


Above, up, on 




I ■kulu 


In^gagi (hafi- 




I-gorco 


Ke-riu.Ki-gorco 


top 






gagi, kun- 
gagi) 
Mu-mconi 








Before • ... 




I-mberi 




• 




Behind ... 


Eny-uma 


Eny^uma 


Iny-uma 


Eny^uma 







84 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



5- 
Lu-nyara 



5 a. 

Lu-wanga, Lu- 
kabarasi, and 
Lu-rimi (R.), 

a«(i?5bLu-smga 



6. 
Lu-masaba or 
Lu-gisu, 6^f. 



6 a. 
Lu-konde 

of N. W. Elgon 



Ki-g^zii 

(Ki-suba or 
' Kco-scova ') 



7 a. 

Ki-kuria ; or 

Ki-suna and 

Ki-tende 



Below, down 

Far 

Here A-nto 

In, inside ... Mu 

Middle 
Near 

Outside 

Plenty, many -ingi 
There E-ria 



Where ? ... 

No! 

Not (with verb, 
as prefix, in- 
fix, or suffix) 



E-na ? 



Aa! 



A-si 

Aa-1e 

Ha-nci3 

Mu. Mu-kari 

A-kare 
Ha-mbi 

Ul-uka. 

Lu-anyi 
•ngi 
E-ria, li-ria. 

OOxu-ria 
He-na ? 

Tawi! 



I-mwalco 

Ha-leyi 

Ha-nco. Ku-nco. Ha-nca 

Mu-nco 
Mu. Mu-gari. 

Mu-nda 
■gari. Ha-gari 
Ha-mbi 



Ha-tsie. 

I-bulafu 
-ngi 
A-hto. Ha-la. 

Ku-la. Itai 
He-na ? 



Ta ! Aa ! 



Ha-la 



Dawe ! 



Tawe ! -busa ! 
-tawe. Si- (Si-, -tawi. -ta. Si- Hi-, Ha-, 
Sco-, Sa-,Sixu-, (Si-, Scj-, Sa-, -ka, -ta, 
Simu-, Siba-, Siku-, Simu-, Bu-, Bula, 
with the differ- Siba-) Kula 

ent pronojais) 



Anse 


Hanse 


Ai-ga? 




Ime 


Muse 


A-ne na 


Ne hane, 




I-hani 


I -siku 


Ki-bara 


■ngi 
A-lia 




E-raii ? 


Na-iare ? 


Yaya! Tindi ! 
Inci ! ? 


A-iyare ? 
Aa! 


Ti- 


Ti- 



To (jOxu- 

,, beat ... 
„ buy, sell -kula 
„ come ... -vece?. 
-ija 



„ cut 

„ dance ... 

„ die 

„ eat 

„ give ... 

„ go 

„ kill ... 
„ know ... 
„ laugh ... 
„ leave off, 

cease 
,, love,want 



-eja. 



-xalace 

-xina 

•fwa 
-dia, -lia 
-wa (-ba) 
-aco.' 

-ita 
-manya 



-enya 



„ see ... -Icola 

„ sit,remain, 

abide 
„ sleep ... -kcona 
,, stand, stop, 

be erect 
,, steal ... -iba 



OOxu- 
-xuya 

-kula, -kura 
-nzie, 

-ndzidza, 

-widza 
•xalace, 

-kalaxa 
-pina 
-fwa 
-dia 

-ha (-ba, -be) 
■dzia, -dza h 

•cenda 
-irra 
-manya 
-tsexa 
-leka 



OOku- 
-kupa 
-gula 
•tsa 



-kala 

-kina 

-fwa 

-lya 

-ha (-ba) 
-tsya. -genda 

-ira 

-manya 
-zeka 
-leka 



OOku- 



a)ku- 



OOku-, Ku- 



-enya. -cama -gana 



-kwa 



-genda 

-ira, -ita 
-manya 
-zeka 



-gana 



lula (-dcala). bcona. -lula -buna 

-linga 
-ikala -ikala 



'-kuna,-xuna -guna 
-ema 



-guna 



-iba -iba 

' ' Sleeping-place ' is Awu-liri. 



•gura 
•ja, -ca 




•ja 


-butura. 
? tema 
-tenga 
-kwa, -gu 
■lia 


•kwa 


-vitora. -keba 

•vina 

-gu^kwa 


•wa 
•genda. 


-icia 


•genda 


-ita 




-ita 


-manya 




■manya 


-e-tera. 




-hanca-na 


-mwanca, 
-hanca-na 




-rura 




... 


-lala 






-iba 







GROUP A: NYANZA LANGUAGES 85 

PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN LU-NYARA 

Preprefixes present. 

Class I. (Omu- (mu, u-, yu-, figu-) ; 2. Aba- or Awa- (ba) ; 3. Wmu- (mu-, ku-, ngu-, u) ; 4. Emi-, 

Imi- (mi-, ki-, ngi-, i-) ; 5. Eri-, Eli-, Li- (li-) ; 6. Ama- (ma- ?, ka-, figa- ?) ; 7. Esi- (si-) ; 8. Ebi- (bi-) ; 

[8 a. Ebi- used in singular or collective, and slightly diminutive sense] ; 9. Yi-, I-, In- (e-, yi-) ; 10. Eci-, 

Ezi-, Ti- (ci) ; 11. OOlu- (lu-) ; 12. Uru- (ru-) plural to 13; 13. Axa- (xa-) ; 14. <X)bu- (bu-, mbu-) ; 

15. (JOxu- (xu-) ; 16. ? Aa-, Wa- (a-) ; 17. Mu- {as preposition). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN LU-WANGA, &c. 
Much as in Lu-nyara ; except that concord of Class i is sometimes wu- and gu-, that of 3 ku- or 
gu-, of 4 ki-. Class 5 is sometimes Edi-, Di-, Ri-. Class 7 is Eci-, Ki-, Epi-, Ipe, and in Lu-singa Iki- ; 
8 is Efl-, Ifl-, but occasionally Eb!-, Bi-. 10 is Tsi-, and 16 is Ha-. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN LU-MASABA AND LU-KONDE 
Preprefixes are present. 
Class I. OOmu-, Umu-, Namu- (umu-, U-, yco-) ; 2. Baba-, Bana- (ba-) ; 3. Kumu- (?r Gumu- (kumu- 
or gumu-, ku- or gu-) ; 4. Kimi- or Gimi- (kimi- or gimi-, ki- or gi-) ; 5. Li-, Ki-, or Di-, Iri- (li-, ri-) ; 
6. Kama- or Gama- (kama- or gama-, ka- or ga-) ; 7. Si-, Ki-, Ci-, Iki-, Eki-, Eci-, Kiki- {%\- or ki-, 
kiki-) ; 8. Evi-, Ibi-, Ebi-, Bi-, Bibi- (bi-, bibi-) ; [8 a. The same in a singular sense] ; 9. E-, I-, Yi- 
or Ye-, In-, In-, Iny- (a-, i-, yi-) ; 10. Tsi-, Ci-, Ti-, Iti-, Eti-, Etsi- (tsi- or ti-) ; 1 1. Udu-, Ulu-, Lulu- 
(lu-) ; 12. ?Ru-; 13. Aka- orAxa- (ka-) ; 14. (JOwu-, (JObu-, Bubu- (bu-) ; 15. (jOxu-, Uku-, Kuku- (ku-) ; 

16. Aha-, Ha- (ha-, hto-) ; 17. OOmu- (mu-, -mu) ; 18. Gugu- (gu-) {pi. Gimi-). 
There would seem to be superimposed honorific prefix : Na- ; pi. Bana-. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN KI-GUZII AND KI-KORIA 
Preprefixes are present. 
Class I . OOmu-, OOmco- (comu-, co-, yu-, ni-) ; 2. Aba-, Ava- (ba-, va-, aba-) ; 3. OOmu-, OOmoa- (comu-, 
yu-, U-) ; 4. Emi-, Erne- (emi-, i-, e-, ye-) ; 5. Eri-, Eli- (ri-) ; 6. Ama- (ama-, a-, ga-, ya- ?) ; 7. Iki-, 
Eki-, Egi-, Eci-, Eke-, Ege- (ki-, ke-) ; 8. Ebi-, Evi- (bi-, vi-, ve-) ; 8 a ? ; 9. Yi-, Ye-, I-, E-, En-, En-, 
Eny- (n-, ny'-, e-, ye-) ; 10. Ci-, Cin-, Cifi- (ny'-, ci-) ; 11. Oru-, OOrco- (ru-) ; 12. missing; 13. Eke- 
(ke-); 14. OObtt-, OOw-, OObu- (bu-) ; 15. OOku-, OOgu- (ku-, gu-) ; 16. Aa-, Aha- ; 17. .? Mu-, M&3-, M'- ? ; 
i8? 



5. Lunyara is spoken round Port Victoria and Berkeley Bay, immediately east of Buscoga and the 
Sitt) river, on the coasts and islands of the north-north-east shores of the Victoria Nyanza, and in the 
Samia hills and the lower course of the Nzoia river. 

5 a. Luwanga is spoken in Bantu Kavirondco, the basin of the Nzoia river, southwards nearly to the 
Yala river. The Lusinga dialect (5 b), is the language of Lusinga Island, near the entrance to Kavironduj 
Bay. It is much mixed with Luganda. 

6. Lumasaba is spoken in the region north of Kavirondco and immediately west and to some extent 
south of Mount Elgon; in the Masaba country of small extent, bounded on the west by theElgumi and on 
the north and east by the Elgonyi-Nandi. 

6 a. Lukonde is spoken in the northern part of the Masaba country, to the west-north-west of Mount 
Elgon. 

7. Kiguzii is spoken south of Kavirondco Bay, in the Kcoscj va region east of the Victoria Nyanza, from 
the coast belt, as far east as the ascent to the Lumbwa-Mau plateau. 

7 a. Kikoria is spoken in the east coast region of the Victoria Nyanza south of Kcoscova and (approxi- 
mately) the 1st degree of South latitude, as far as the northern limits of the Unyamwezi group and the 
eastern range of Rukerebe ; and as far east as the steppe country of the Tatcoga and Doriobco. 



GROUP B 



THE WUNYAMWEZI LANGUAGES 



8. Ki-papi ' and Ki-rori 

9. North and North-east Nyamwezi (Ki-sukuma, 

Ki-rwana) 
9 a. North-west Nyamwezi (^i-sumbwa) 
9 b. West Nyamwezi (Ki-galaganza, Ki-vinza, 

Ki-bende, Ki-gala) 



9 c. South, Central, and East Nyamwezi (Ki 

■nyanyembe, Ki-kconongco/ Xi-ximbu, 
Ki-nankwila ^) 

10 Ki-nyaturu or Ki-limi 



(termite) 
Ape (chim- 

panzi or 

gorilla) 
Arm 

Arrow 



Axe ... 

Baboon 
Back ... 



Banana 



Beard. 
Bee 





8. 


9- 


9 a. 


9 b. 


9c. 


10. 


English 


Ki-papi and 


North and 


North-west 


West 


South, Central, 


Ki-nyaturu 




Ki-rori 


North-east 
Nyamwezi 
(Ki-sukuma) 


Nyamwezi 
(pi-sumbwa) 


Nyamwezi 


and East 
Nyamwezi 


(Ki-limi) 


Adze 










? I-sembe 


Ki-hendoj ; i- 


Animal, wild 






N-dimu ; ma- 




... 


... 


beast 






dimu 








Ant 




Pisu 






I-sangwa; ma-. 
Ka-pipi ; 
tu-pipi. 
gi-lamba. 
I-tini ; ma- 




Ant, white 




Swa 


Lu-swa 


... 


M-swa; mi-swa 





M-kconco 




Ku-wcokco. 
Lu-gtonco 


Ku-wcokco 


Mu-kconco or 
Ku-kconco 


Mu-kconco 


I-songa 








Mto-ambi; mi-. 
I-songa ; ma-. 
N-geove. 
N-Scomco. 
Mu-geta 




M-pasa 




M-pasa 




M-basa. 
I-sembe 




Kuku, lii 


kuku N-keobe 


... 


I-guku. I-kcove 




Gongco 




M-gongco 


M-gongco. 
Kum-suna 


Mu-gongco, 
M-gongco. 
Ma-ungco 


M-gongco 


I-tcoki ; ma- 


Lu-tcoke. 




I-dcoke ; ma-. 








Gonza 




(Mu-gomba, 
N-sambala = 

plant) 




N-tesu 




Lu-saku 




Ka-lezu 




N-suki 




Lu-zcoki. 
L-caki 




N-zuki ; 
ma-yuki 




N-ta 




N-da 


N-da 


N-dA; man-d^. 
Ki-pii;maki-pu 


N-da 


N-coni 




N-eoni 


Kany-uni ; tu- 


I-nconi ; ma-. 
Ka-nconi ; tun- 


N-nconi 


Mi-ninga 


(//.) 


Ma-gazi 


... 


Ma- gazi 


Zagami 



Belly,stomach, 

abdomen 
Bird 

Blood 

^ Both so far quite unrepresented by published vocabularies, but presumed to be Bdntu and intermediate between 
the Nyamwezi and Nyanza groups. See Bernhard Struck' s tnap accompanying his dissertation on the speech of the 
Tatcoga and Iraku peoples in Dr. Fritz Jaeger's ' Sonderabdruck aus das Hochland der Riesenkrater '. Berlin, 1 9 1 1 . 

'^ Stern^s and Meinhof's Ki-kconongco. ^ Steere's ' Nyamwezi ' and Ki-nyanyembe. 







GROUP B: WUNYAMWEZI 


LANGUAGES 


87 




8. 




9- 


9 a. 


9 b. 


9 c. 


lO. 


English 


Ki-papi 


and 


North and 


North-west 


West 


South, Central, 


Ki-nyaturu 




Ki-rori 


North-east 


Nyamwezi 


Nyamwezi 


and East 


(Ki-limi) 








Nyamwezi 


(^i-sumbwa) 




Nyamwezi 










(Ki-sukuma) 










Body 




M-edi 


Bu-gondco 




Mu-wili 




Bone 




I-kuha 




... 


I-guha 




Borassus palm 




Mu-hama 


... 


... 




... 


Bow 




Bu-ta 


Bu-ta ; ma-ta 




Mu-hetco. 
Wu-ta 


U-ta '" 


Bowels 




Mu-la ipL) 


Bu-la 




U-Ia. 
I-gombelco. 
Lu-ze ; u-ze 


... 


Brains 


... 


B-ongci3 


Bw-ongM 




V-ongeo, 
W-ongco 


W-angwe 


Breast (man's) 


... 


Ki-kuwa 


N-kuku 


... 


Ki-kuwa 




Breast 




I-wele ; ma- 


I-wele ; ma- 




I-wele ; ma- 


... 


(woman's) 














Brother ... 




Mu-zuna 


Mu-zuna. 
(B-ine = com- 
panions : see 
p. 46) 


I-lumbu 


Mu-suna. 
Mu-diigu, 
N-dugu. 
(Ki-lumbu = 

brotherhood. 
Wu-dugu = 
brotherhood) 


I-lumbu (?) 


Buffalo 


... 


Bcokco 


M-bcoko) ? 


M-bcogco 


I-bugco ; ma-. 
M-bwgco 


... 


Bull 




Jeku ;ma-yeku 


N-zagamba 




N-zagamba. 
N-ombe 


N-ombe 
n-g<apia 


Buttocks ... 




Ma-takto 


Mu-hende 


... 


m-gojpi 
Lu-findco ; 
ma-lu-. I-gcona 




Canoe 


... 


W-atoa ; m-atoj N-galawa. 


... 


N-galawa. 


... 








W-atw, 




Vw-atco 










Bw-atco 




M-gcoma 




Cat 




C-aungu. 
Li-zafigu 


Ny-aww 


Kany-aco ; tu- 


N-yawa 


Ny-au 


Charcoal ... 


. . . 


I-kala; ma-kala I-kala 


I-kala 


I-kala; ma- 




Chief 




Mu-fumu; ba- 


Mu-na. 
Mw-ami. 
Mu-ndeva;ba- 


... 


M-temi. 
Mu-hanya ; 
wa- 


M-temi 


Child 




M w-ana ; 


Mvv-ana. 


Mtw-ana (S). 


Mw-ana 


M w-ana; ana. 






b-ana. K-ana; 


Mu-na. 


M w-ana ; pi. 




Ka-ninya ; 


• 




tu-ana 


Mu-yanda 


v-ana or 
w-ana. 
K-ana. 
Ka-keke 




pi-ninya. 
K-ana; pi. 
pi -ana or 
tu-ana ' 


Cloth 




Mw-enda 


Mw-enda 


... 


Mw-enda. 
M-gutoj. Bugu 


I-saa ; ma-saa 


Cold 




M-behco 


Lu-pehoj pehu 


... 


M-behca 


M-pepco 


Country ... 




C-alto ; pi-alu 


^i-alu ; vy-alco. 
Li-pialco ; 
ma-vyalco 




C-alto ; fi-alco 




Cow 




N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 








fi-kima. 


n-kima 


n-kima 


fi-kima. 








N-ombe 




N-ombe 


M-bwgtoma. 








n-peki 




n-kojt&j 


N-dugcosa 




Crocodile ... 




N-wena 


N-gwina 




N-gwina 


* . . 


Day 




Lu-siku 


Lu-siku 




Lu-ipi ; n-ipi. 
Lu-siku. (Limi 


U-tiku; ma- 
























= daylight) 








' There are seemingly two phirals to i^ 


[Kn-)—both pi- and tu-. 





ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Ki-papi and 
Ki-rori 



Devil, evil 
spirit 



Doctor (medi- 
cine man) 

Dog 

Donkey 

Door .doorway 

Dream 

Drum 

Ear 

Egg 

Elephant ... 

Excrement 
Eye 

Face, forehead 
Fat 

Father 

Fear 

Fire 

Fish 

Foot 

Forest 



Fowl .. 
Frog .. 
Ghost.. 



Giraffe 
Girl .. 



Goat 



9- 

North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. 

North-west 

Nyamwezi 

(^i-sumbwa) 



9b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



9c. 

South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



Ki-nyaturu 
(Ki-limi) 



(he) .. 



Kuwe. I-behto M-sambwa ; 


M-gaweo ; mi 


-. Lim-dimi. 


M-sambwa (?) 




mi- 


I-pasa. 

Mu-zimu. 

M-sambwa 


Li-tunga 




... 


Mu-fumto 


... 


Mu-lagiizi. 
Mu-fumu 




M-fwa, M-bwa M-bwa 


M-bwa 


M-bwa 


M-bwa 


M-hunda. 


I-dcogcowe 


I-dcogcowe 


N-scove. 


N-dSywe 


I-dcogcowe 






N-dcogcowe 




Mu-liangw. 


Mu-zigco 


Mu-zigco. 


Li-gi. 




Mu-zigco 




Mu-vita 


Mu-zigco. 
Mu-vita 




Ki-rcotco ; pi- 


... 




Ifi-lcoti or 
^i-lcoti or 
Ki-lcoti ; fi-lcoti 


... 


N-coma 


I-gcoma {dance 


... 


N-coma, 
N-gcoma 


... 


Ku-tu ; ma-tu 


Ku-twe ; 
ma-twe 


I-twe ; ma-twe 
Ki-twe 


. Ku-twi. I-twi 


Ki-twe; ma-tWe 


I-ki ; ma-gi 






I-gi, Li-gi ; 

ma-gi 


I-yi ; ma-yi 


M-huli (.puli) 


N-zcovu 


... 


M-huli ; 
ma-puli. 
N-zcoVU 


... 


Ma-fwi 




.1. 


Ma-fi 




D-isco ; tn-iseo 


L-isco ; m-isco 


L-insco ; 


L-isco 


Li-hco ; mi-hco 






m-insco. Il-is(o 




U-su 


Bu-pico 




Vu-su, W-isu 
Ma'guta 




Ma-kuta 


Ma-futa. 








Ma-savu 








Bawa 


Baba. 1-sco. 


Tata, Tate. 


Vava, Wawa. 


Tata 




I-pie. I-sa- 


Baba 


Tata. Wa- 




B-cow^a 


B-eowa 




V-cova. 
1-timwa 




M-otco 


Mu-lireo 


Um-otco. 
Mu-lilco 


M-otco. 
Mu-lilco 


M-otco 


pi 


N-fwi 




N-somba 




Lu-pambala. 


Mu-gere. 




Lu-geri. 




Lu-geri 


N-gulu ; ma- 
gulu 




Lu-pambala 




M-ongca 






Fori. I-polu, 
I-pcolu. 
I-kungu 




Kukco 


N-kcokco 
K-cola, Li-cola 




N-gcokco 
Ic-ula 




Mu-zimu 


M-ana {pi.) 




Mu-sambwa. 
Mu-zimu. 
Hcolco. Lcozco 




N-twiga 


N-twiga 


... 


N-hwiga 




Mu-peki 


Mw-an'-ike. 


Ka-keke 


Mw-ani'-ke. 






Mu-hala. 


Ka-kcota 


M-hya. 






Mw-an'-ik'cowe 




Mu-di-ana. 
Mu-hala 




M-buli, Puri, 


M-buzi 


Buzi ; ma-l- 


M-buli. M-buzi 


M-biii 


Pudi 










I-gulati 


N-gulati 


M-buzi 
m-gcosia 


N-gulati 


N-gulati 



GROUP B: WUNYAMWEZI LANGUAGES 



89 





8. 


9- 


9 a. 


9 b. 


9c. 


10. 


English 


Ki-papi and 
Ki-rori 


North and 


North-west 


West 


South, Central, 


Ki-nyaturu 




North-east 


Nyamwezi 


Nyamwezi 


and East 


(Ki-limi) 






Nyamwezi 


(^i-sumbwa) 




Nyamwezi 








(Ki-stikuma) 










Goat (she)... 




M-buguma 








N-dcogcosa 


God 


• • • 


Lu-kubi. 


Li-nze. Nze. 


Li-walelco. 


Mu-lungu. 


Mu-iigu 






I-kulu^ 


Lu-kubi. 


I-dzuwa. 


Li-nguluwe. 








Mu-lungu (?) 


Li-walelco 


Mu-luiigu 


Li-uva. 

Li-kuve. 

Li-welelco 




Grandparent 


... 


Guku? 


Guku 




Guku $ ; wa -f . 

Mama? ; wa+ 

Li-swa. N-dima 




Grass 




I-scoa; ma-scoa 


I-sara 




... 


Ground 




Ma-salu 






N-si, N-ci 




Ground-nut 




M-hande 


Lu-kalanga 




Halanga ; 

mak -)- . 
M-hande \ 
map-. I-ycova 




Guinea-fowl 




• ■• 


N-kanga 


... 


Hanga; mak-)- 


• . ■ 


Gun 




Mu-nduCM 


... 


... 


Mu-nduzi 




Hair 




N-zwiri, 


Mu-sasi ; mi- 


Lu-nyele ; 


Lun-dwili ; 


Lun-dwile ; 






N-yuile, 




i-nyele 


n-dwili or 


n-dwili 






Zuile 






n-zuile. 
Mu-sasi ; mi- 




Hand 




Ki-kanza ; pi- 


Ku-bcdkco. 
I-ganza ? 


Ku-wcokco. 
I-kasa 


Ku-kconco. 
Ku-vcokco. 
I-ganza or 
I-ganda 


Mu-kconco (?) 


Head 




Mu-twe 


Mu-twe 


Mu-twe 


Mu-twe, M-twe 


Mu-twe (.?) 


Heart 




M-oyca 




M-oyco. (I-tima I-tima. M-oyco. 


... 










= liver) 


Mw-egco 




Heel 




I-pigina 




... 


I-^iginco Or 
Ki-pinsila 




Hide 




N-diri 


Lu-hu 


... 


I-kcova. Ka- 
gingi. Diri 


... 


Hill 




Ki-gongoj 




M-scosi 


Ki-gulu. 
I-tunda 




Hippopotamus 




N-g^wu 


N-gubu. 
N-tcomomb(i> 




N-dcomondco or 
I-tcomombco 


... 


Hoe 






N-fuka 


... 


I-suka. 
I-gembe 


I-gembe; ma- 


Honey 




B-<oki 


Eco-cijpi 




Vu-ki, Wu-ki 


... 


Horn ... ... 




M-hembe 


M-pembe 




M-hembe ; 
ma-pembe. 
Li-ega 


... 


House 




N-umba 


N-umba. 
Kaya 


Ny-umba. 
Ka-sumba ' 


N-umba. 

N-su ; man-su. 
I-vanza. I-zi; 
ma-zi 


Ny-umba 


Hunger 




In-zala 


Bu-tamca 








Husband . . . 


... 












Hyena 




Piti 


I-fisi '" 




M-biti; ma-viti. 
I-witi ; ma- 
witi 


••- 


Iron 




Ki-sinza. 
Ci-uma 


Si-coma 


pi-uma. 
(Ny-ondco 
= hammer) 


Ici-uma. 
Ki-sinza. 
Li-dini. 
Fi-scolco 


Ic-uma 


Island 




I-cinga 




Ki-pilwa , . 


Ki-silwa, 
Ka-mwimpi 


... 



Ki-bende. 



90 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





8. 


9- 


9 a. 


9 b. 


9 0. 


lo. 


English 


Ki-sasi and 
Ki-rori 


North and 


North-west 


West 


South, Central, 


Ki-nyaturu 




North-east 


Nyamwezi 


Nyamwezi 


and East 


(Ki-limi) 






Nyamwezi 


(pi-sumbwa) 




Nyamwezi 








(Ki-sukuma) 










Ivory ... Mi-ncoga. 


N-kumbi 




I-puli ; ma-puli. 




M-huli 






Li-nulia. 
M-huli 




Knee ... i-cwi 


Si-vwi ; vi- 


... 


I-swi ; wa-swi. 

I-zu 
K-ele: ma-f or 




Knife ... Lu-su 




K-ele 


Mu-ye ; mi-ye 






tw-ele. Lu-su. 
K-ambi 












Lake 


Ny-anza 


Ny-anza. 
I-tawa 


Ny-anza. 
Hawa. 
1-lambco 




Leg ... Ku-kulu 


Ku-gulu 


Ku-gulu 


Ku-g^ulu 




Leopard ... ... Suwi 


*.r 


• • • 


N-suwi 




Lion ... N-simba 


N-pimba 




N-simba 


... 


Lips ... Ncomca ; mi + 


Mi-lcom&j {pi.) 




Mi-lcomco (//.) 




Magic ... Bu-leozi. 


Bu-ltozi 


. . * 


Vu-vina. 




Bu-kanga 






Vu-fumu. 
Vu-lcogi. 
Vu-gaiiga ' 




Maize ... Dim-bukiri 




... 


Mu-dege 


. . . 


Man ... Mu-nhu; 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-nhu ; 


Mu-ntu; a-ntu 


ba-nhu 


ba-ntu. 


wa-ntu 


w-anhu 




Man, vir. ... 


Mu-gcopa 




Mu-lenzi. 
Mu-no>gu. 
Mu-sumba 


... 


Meat ... N-ama 


In-ama 


Ny-ama 


N-ama. 
I-manda 




Medicine ... ... Bu-kanga 


Bu-fumu 


*.. 


Vu-ganga. 




Milk ... Ma-bele 


Ma-wele 


... 


Ma-wele. 
Ma-fula 


... 


Monkey ... ... N-tumbiri 


N-kende 


... 


I-tumbiri. 
Kamy-anda. 
Ka-nkunga 


... 


Moon ... Mvv-eci. 


Kw-ezi. 


Mw-ezi or 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-edi 


Nw-ezi 


Mw-ezi 


Umw-edi 






Mother ... ... Maya 


Nina. 
Mwamayco. 
Mayco. Noj-k(o 


U-mai 


Maya. Noa-kco. 
Nina 


I-yco. Mama 


Mountain... ... Lu-kulu ; 


Lu-kulu 


M-scozi. 


Lu-gfulu 




n-kulu 




Mu-tanda ? 






Mouth ... ... Mu-lcomcj 


Mu-l«m<a 


Mu-dcomco 


Mka-nwa 


Un-dwmco (?) 


Nail (of finger ... I-nonga 


Li-ala 




N-zala 




or toe) 










Name ... D-ina 


I-gina 


1-sina 


L-ina or I-zina 
or L-inha 


... 


Navel 




... 


I-ntoku. 
I-kondw 


... 


Neck ... N-hingto 


Lu-kco^i 




N-hingco 




Night ... Bu-ciku, 


Bu-feku, 


... 


Vu-siku. (Gita 


U-tiku 


Wu-siku, 


Bu-fuku. 




or Li-zima = 




U-fuku. (Giti 


Bu-ire. 




darkness) 




= darkness) 


Giti 








Nose ••• N-indco 


N-indco 


Ny-indcD. 
Im-puna 


In-indca. 
M-pula 


M-pula 


Oil palm ... 


... 


... 


... 






... 



In Central and Eastern Nyamwezi the prefix of these words is pronounced Wu-. 



GROUP B: WUNYAMWEZI LANGUAGES 



91 





8. 


9- 


9 a. 


9 b. 


9c. 


10. 


English 


Ki-pasi and 
Ki-rori 


North and 


North-west 


West 


South, Central, 


Ki-nyaturu 




North-east 


Nyamwezi 


Nyamwezi 


and East 


(Ki-limi) 






Nyamwezi 


(^i-sumbwa) 




Nyamwezi 








(Ki-sukuma) 










Ox 

Paddle ... 


• .. 


N-ombe ii-cosa 
N-gyehi 


N-ombe. 

N-ziku 
I-gyefl. 

Lu-gahya 


N-ombe 


N-ombe. 

N-ziku 
Mu-dinhco. 

Mu-saha 


Ng-ombe 


Palm wine, 


• . • 


N-sanza 


... 




Vu-geme or 


N-turi, N-tiii 


beer 










Lu-agwa or 
I-tembco 




Parrot 


• . • 


I-kusu 








. . . 


Penis 


... 


Bcolco 




. . . 




... 


Pig 




Ka-pcodi ; ba -1- . 
N-guluwe 


N-gurube 




N-guluwe. 
I-tumba, 
I-humba, 
N-humba 


Ku-tupa;maku- 


Pigeon 




N-kundu 




... 




• •• 


Place 




Ha-nhu 






Ha-nse. 
Lu-andi 
Ha-findu 

[dimin) 




Rain ... ... 




Pula 


M-vula 


>*• 


M-bula 


M-vula 


Rat 




Kcosco 


N-kcosco. 

Ka-kusco 




M-beva. 
I -kcosco 


... 


Rhinoceros 




... 


I-pera ; ma- 




I-pela or 
M^hela 




River 




M-ongto 


Ka-bwiga 




M-ongco ; mi + . 
Mami-ongco 

{aug. plural) 


Lu-dyi ; 
n-dyidyi 


Road 


• •• 


Dzira 


N-zira. Lu-sese 


N-zila 


N-zila 




Salt 




Mu-niJ 


... 




Mu-nyu or 
Mw-enu. 
Lu-kele 


Mu-nyu 


Shame 


• . . 


. . . 


N-sconi 




N-sconi 




Sheep 


... 


N-hcolto 


N-tama. 
N-gondi 




N-ondi. 
N-hcolco 




Shield 




... 


N-gabco 


... 


N-gawa 


. . . 


Shoulder ... 


... 


... 






I-vega ; ma- 


... 


Sister 


... 


I-rumbu. 

M-vuna 


I-lumbu 




I-lumbu 


Mu-hanya ? 


Skin 


... 


N-kcolco 


Lu-hu ; m-pu 




N-gcowco 




Sky 




I-kulu 


I-runde 




I-lunde 


... 


Slave 




M-sese 


M-sere 




M-sese 


Mw-anda; 
a-anda 


Sleep 


. ■ . 


Tu-lco 


Tu-lco 


• . • 


Tu-lco 




Smoke 


. . . 


Y-toci. Li.&jci 


Li-onpi 




Li-cosi 
N-zcljka 




Snake 


... 


Tscoka or 










N-scoka 










Son, boy ... 


. .. 


M w-ana 


Mu-na. 


M w-ana 


Mw-ana. 








m-ka>sa 


M w-ana. 
Mw-ene. 
Mu.yanda 


mu-gtosya. 
K-ana ka- 
gcdsya. 
Mka-lumendu 


Mu-yanda 




Song 


... 


Lu-imbco 


Lw.imbco ; 
n-imbco 


Lu-imbci> 


Lu-imbco ; 
n-imbco 


... 


Spear 




I-cimu 






I-cimu 




Spirit, soul 


... 


Mw-engeji 




... 


Mw-egco. 
M-oyco 




Star 


... 


^onda 


ponda 


Sonda ; ma-. 


^onda 


N -sonda ; ma- 



I-tongwa 



92 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Ki-^^i and 
Ki-rori 



Stick 



Stone . 
Stool . 
Sun . 



Tail ... 

Tear ... 

Testicles 
Thief... 
Thigh... 
Thing... 



Thorn 

Tobacco . . . 
To-day 

Toe 

To-morrow 
Tongue 

Tooth 

Town 

Tree 



Twins 
Urine ... 
Vein ... 
War ... 



Water- ... 
Well, source 



White man 
Wife 



Wind ., 
Witch 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. 

North-west 

Nyamwezi 

(^i-sumbwa) 



9 b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



Nanga. 
Mu-langa 

I -we 



N-kojni 



I-bale 



Di-mi, Le-emi. I-dzcawa 
Ly-uba 



Kila, K hila 

Di-stoji ; mi-. 

Mu-s«oji : mi- 
JMa-bcolu 
Mw-ibi; b-ibi 
Si-tambco 



Mu-sira 
Li-nsuzi 

Si-beroj 



N-tebe 
L-erai. 

I-dzuwa. 

I-langala 

[Kibende] 



Ki-nhu ; pi-nhu pi-ntu ; vi-ntu 



Di-ihwa ; 


na- 






• 


I-tumbate 

Lelco 

Lu-ala 

I-keolco 

Lu-limi 




Lerco 

I-gorco 
Lu-limi 




Lu-lim 


D-ino3 
Kaya. M 

Mu-ti 

Ma-wasa 


puri 


L-inoj 

Mu-ti ; mi 
Limu-ti ; 
mi-ti 


-ti. 

ma- 


D-into 
Lugco 

Mu-ti 



Mi-ne 



Bu-luku 



Bu-lemco 



Mu-kondco ' 



Mi-nzi 
Lu-inzi 



Mu-kcota 



Mi-nzi Mi-nzi 

Lu-inzi I-ziba. 

Lu-inzi. 

Lu-scokco 
M-zungu; ba- Mu-zungu;ba' 
M-kima. Mu-geoli ; ba-. Mu-ke. 

Mu-ke Mu-kazi. 

Mu-ke 
Im-pehco Ka-fulco 

Mu-lcoki ; ba- Mu-lcozi ; ba- 

' Ki-bende. 



9 c. 

South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



Fimbco. 

M-langa. 

Mu-ranga 
I-vwe, I-gwe 
I-teve. I-sumbi 
L-imi. 

Li-uwa 



Mu-kila. 

Mu-pila 
Li-nscozi. 

Mu-nseozi 

Mw-ivi 

I-tangco. I-tege 
Ki-nhu ; fi-nhu 



Li-hwa. 

Mu-nhwa 
I-tumbate 
Lelco 
Ka-ala 
I-gcolco 
Lu-limi. 

I-yombeleo 
L-inco 
Kaya 
Mu-ti 



Ma-\asa or 

Ma-basa 
Ma-pu. 

Ma-tunzi 
Mw-anzi. 

I-timba 
Wu-lugu. 

Li-huya. 

Vu-lemco 
Mi-nzi 
Lu-inzi ; n-inzi. 

I-vimbi 

M-zungu 
M-gcoli 



Im-behco. 

I-gunhu. 

Mi-aga (//.) 
Mu-lcogi, -Icoji. 

Mu-swezi. 

Mu-kangco. 

Mu-simbia 



10. 
Ki-nyaturu 

(Ki-limi) 



Ka-ti ; pi-ti 



Di-yua 



Ki-ntu ; i-ntu 

(also means 
'bead'). Ki- 
ntu ; ma-ntu 
I-guya ; ma- 



Lu-limi; n-dimi 
L-inco ; m-inco 

Mu-ti ; mi-ti 



Ma-dyi 



GROUP B: WUNYAMWEZI LANGUAGES 



English 



Ki-^a^i and 
Ki-rori 



Witchcraft 
Woman . . , 



Womb 
Wood... . 
Yam ... . 

Year 

Yesterday., 
Zebra... ., 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. 

North-west 

Nyamwezi 

(pi-sumbwa) 



9 b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



Bu-lcoki 

M-kima ; 

I-seki 



M-hwi 
I-tuku 

Mw-aka 
Ma-zuli 
N-zcowe 



ba-. 



Bu-lcozi 
Mu-kima; 
Mu-kazi. 

Mu-jseki 



ba- 



M-kima. 
M-koata. 
I-niiiga ; 
ma-ninga ' 



Lu-kwe; n-kwe 



Mw-aka 



Mw-aka 
I-gcolco 



9c. 

South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



VVu-lcoji 
M-kema, 

Mu-kima. 

Mu-kazi. 

Mu-nhya. 

Mu-sieki 

Lu-kwi ; ij-hwi 
Li-wuliga. 

I-jaasi 
Mw-aka 
I-gcolco. Ma-zuli 
N-dulu 



93 



10. 



Ki-nyatum 
(Ki-limi) 



Mu-xema ; a- 



N-da 



One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 

Eleven 

Twenty 

Thirty 

Forty 

Fifty 

Hundred . . . 
Thousand . . . 

I, me, my . . . 
Thou, thee, thy 
He, him, his 



Scolco. -mco -mwine. Sorco. 

■mco 
-biri, -wili -bili 

-tatu. Yatu -satu. Yatu 
-nne -ne 

-tanco. N -banco -tanco 
Sati. -tandatu Mu-kaga 

M-pungati Mu-sanv<o 

I-nane or Mu-nana 

M-nane 

K-enda pi-enda 

I-kumi I-kumi 



Scolco. -mwe -mco. Scolco 



-vili, -wili 

-satu, -atu 

•nne 

-tanco. N -tanco 

Sati. 

M-kawaga 
Pungati. 

M-samvu 
Mu-nane 

K-enda 
I-kumi 



I-kumi na 

lu-mco 
Ma-kumi 

a-wiri or 

ya-wili 
Ma-kumi 

ya-tatu 

Ma-kumi 

ya-nne 
Ma-kumi 

ya-tanco 
I-gana 
Ki-humbi 

Nene. N-, Ni-. 
-n-. -a-ne 

Wewe. 

-a-keo 
U-yu. 

-a-kwe 



I-kumi na scolco 1-kumi na-mwe 



Bebe, 
U- 

■ku-. 
U-we, 
A-. 
-mu-. 



Ma-kumi 
ya-wili 

Ma-kumi 
y a- satu 

Ma-kumi y-ane 

Ma-kumi 
ya-tanco 
I-gana ; ma- 
Si-humbi 

(JO-ne. N-, Ni-. 
■n-. -a-ne 

OOwe, OObe, 

Wewe. U-. 

-ku-. a-kco 
Uwe, U-yu. 

A-, Ya-. 

-mu-. -mwe, 

-a-mwe 

^ Ki-bende. 



Ma-kumi 
ga-wili 

Ma-kumi 
ga-satu 

Ma-kumi 

ga-nne 
Ma-kumi 

ga-tanco 
I-gana 
Ki-humbi 

E-ne, U-nene. 
N-, Ni-. 

-n-. -a-ne, -ene 
Ewe. U-. 

-ku-. -a-kco 

A-we .' Uyu. 
Ya-, A-. 
-mu-. -a-mwe, 
-a-kwe 



-vili, -iiri 

-datu. Yatu 

-nne 

-tanu. N-hanu 

M-kaga. Sati. 

-tandatu 
M-pungati. 

M-samvu 
M-nane 

K-enda 
I-kumi or 

Humi 

I-kumi na-mco 

I-kumi na scolco 

Ma-kumi a-vili 

or ma-wili. 

Hum' i-vili 
Ma-kumi 

a-tatu or 

ma-tatu 
Ma-kumi a-nne 



Ma-kumi 
a-tanco 
I-gana 
Ki-humbi 

Nene. N-, Ni-. 
-n-. -a-ne 

Wewe. U-. 
-ku-. -a-kco 



Uwe. 
-mu- 



A-. 

, a-kwe 



•mwe 

■wili, -wl 

-tatu 

-nne 

-tanco 

Mu -tan datu 

Mu-pungati 

M-nana 

K-enda 
I-kumi 

I-kumi na'mwe 

Ma-kumi 
ma-wi 

Ma-kumi 
a-tatu 

Ma-kumi a-nne 



Ma-kumi 
a-tanco 
I-gana 
Ki-humbi 

Ne. N-, Ni-. 

-ne. -n-, -ni-. 

-a-ne 
We. U-. 

•kco. •ku^. 

-a^kco 
U-yu. U-. 

-kw^e. -mu-. 

-a-kwe 



H 



94 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





8. 


9- 


9 a. 


9 b. 


9c. 


lo. 


English 


Ki-papi and 


North and 


North-west 


West 


South, Central, 


Ki-nyaturu 




Ki-rori 


North-east 
Nyamwezi 
(Ki-sukuma) 


Nyamwezi 
(^i-sumbwa) 


Nyamwezi 


and East 
Nyamwezi 


(Ki-limi) 


We, us, our 


I-swe. Tu-. 


I-fwe. Tu-. 


E-fwe. Du-,Ku-. 


I-swe. Tu-. 


Se. Ku-. 




-tu-. -iswe, 


-tu-. -fwe 


-tu-. -itu, -etu 


-tu-. -iswe 


-se. -ku-, -tu-. 




-swe 








-itu 


Ye, you, your 


I-nwetjH-mwe. 


I-mwe. Mu-. 


E-mwe. Mu-. 


I-mwe«?ri-rLwe. 


Nye. Mu.. 




Mu-. 


-ba-. -enwe. 


-wa- ? -enyu 


Mu-. 


-a-nyu 




-ba-. -inwe 


■inu, -inyu 




-va-. -imwe, 
-inwe 




They, them, 


Ba-beo, Wawco. 


A-be. Ba-. 


A-wawco. Wa-. 


A-vco, A-va, 


A-wa. Wa-, 


their 


Ba-. 


■ba-. -a-beo 


-wa-. -a-wco 


A-wa. Va-, 


Wu-. 




-ba-. -a-boj 






Wa-. 

-va-, -wa-. 
-vco, -a-wawco 


-a-, -a-co 


AU 


-cose or -ose 
(w-ose, y-ose, 
k-ose, gi-ose, 
c-5se, h-ose, 

(S'C.) 


-cona, -conane 


-onsi 


-cojse, -cose, -ose 
(cope pie = 

all together, 
entirely) 


... 


This, these 


U-yu, ba-ba ; 


U-yu, a-ba; 


U-yu^r alu-yu; 


U-yu, a-wa 


W-asco, aseo ; 




u-gu, i-yi; i-di. 


u-gu, i-gi or 


a-wa(7r wa-wa 


(a-va); u-gu. 


w-asco, asco (?); 




a-ya; i-ki, i-pi; 


i-zi; i-li, a-ya; 


or ala-wa ; 


i-i ; i-li, a-ya ; 


i-si (5), a-sa; 




i-yi, i-ci; u-lu; 


i-si, i-vi ; i-yi, 


u-gu, i-yi; 


i-ki, i-fi; i-i. 


k-asco, y-asco ; 




u-tu ; a-ka ; 


i-zi; u-lu; u-tu; 


i-dyi, a-ga ; 


i-zi; u-lu; u-tu; 


i-si, y-asi ; 




u-bu ; u-ku ; 


a-ka ; u-bu ; 


Src. 


a-ka ; u-wu 


w-asco (ii) ; 




a-ha 


u-ku ; a-ha 




(u-vu) ; u-ku ; 
a-ha 


tw-asco; ka-sco; 
w-asco (14) ; 
kw-asco 

U-yu or u-yu-i, 
a-wa(7ra-wa-i; 
u-lu(?), i-yi ; 
i-li, a-ya ; i-ki, 
i-yi ; i-yi, i-yi; 
u-lw-i ; u-tu-i ; 
a-ka (?), u-pu-i 
(8) (u-tu-i); 
u-bu-i ; u-ku-i 


That, those 


U-yco, ba-bco ; 


U-yco, a-bco ; 


U-yco, a-wco ; 


U-yco, a-wco ; 


U-yco, a-wco; 




u-gco, i-yco; 


u-gco, i-zico ; 


u-gco, &=c. 


u-gco, i-co ; i-lco. 


u-lco, i-yco; 6^f. 




i-dico, a-hco ; 


i-lico, a-yco ; 


-dia (u-dia. 


a-yco ; i-cco. 


U-ya, a-ya; 




i-kyco, i-isico; 


i-pico, i-vyco ; 


wa-dia; gu-dia 


i-fco ; i-co, i-zco 


u-ya {or 




i-yco, i-cico ; 


i-yco, i-zico ; 


yi-dia ; di-dia, 


u-lco ; u-tco ; 


ilu-ya ?), miu- 




u-lwco; u-twco 


u-lwco; u-twco 


ga-dia; or'c.) 


a-kco ; u-w^co ; 


ya ; i-lyco. 




a-kco ; u-bwco 


a-kco ; dj^c. 




u-kco ; a-hco 


mu-ya ; ki-co 




u-kco ; a-hco 


U-yconco, 
a-bconco, 
u-gconco ; ^'c. 






or kiu-ya, 
i-yo-i or i-ya ; 
i-ya, i-ya; 
ulu-ya; utu-ya; 
aka-ya; mbu- 














ya ; uku-ya 



Bad 

Black 

Female 



Fierce, sharp 



-bi, -vi 



Ku-wika?. -bi? -bi 



-VI, -wi 
-ilawuza. -api -iru 
-nkima. -peki -nkima. -kima. -kcota or -kima or -kema 

or -seke -ikcowe. -kazi. -ngcota 

-ke. -siki 
-kali ... -kali, -daici 



GROUP B: WUNYAMWEZI LANGUAGES 



95 



English 



Ki-sasi and 
Ki-rori 



North and 
North-east 
Nyaimvezi 
(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. 

North-west 

Nyamwezi 

(^i-sumbwa) 



9 b. 

West 

Nyamwezi 



9 c. 

South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



Ki-nyaturu 
(Ki-limi) 



Good ... 



Great 

Little 

Long,high,tall 
Male 

Old 

Red 

Rotten 

Short 

Sick 

White 



Above,up,on 
top 

Before 
Behind 
Below, down 

Far 

Here 

In, inside ... 



Middle 

Near 

Outside 



Plenty, many 

There 

Where.? ... 
No! 

Not {with verb, 
as prefix, in- 
fix, or suffix) 

To 

„ beat ... 
„ buy, sell 
„ come . . . 
), cut 
„ dance ... 



■stoga 


•sojga 


•scoga, •ncoga 


•scoga. •fula. 
•ipa. •iza. 
■awela. 


-ija, -dya 
















■ancona 




• • • 


•kuru 


... 


-hanya. -kulu 


•ikuu, -kuu 




■dw {young). 


•ndco, •dco, •tco 


•dco. •keke 


. .. 




•ndco 








-le 


•lele 


-tali, •gulu ? 


•liku or •lihu 


•lipa (verb) 


■gusya 


-lume, •pelume 


•gcosia. •dume 


, •gcosya, •gcosi. 


... 




•goisia 


•lume 


N-gulati 






•kuru. •kcokwe 


... 


-a-kale. -hanya. 
•namhala 


... 


... 


•kuli 




I-seku. -laluku. 
-a za 
•vcozu or •weozu 




-guhi 


•hihi '" 
•Iwele 




•guhi 
-Iwile 


... 


•ape 


•elu 


•ape 


■elu. -ape 


■eru 


I-gulia, 


Ku^gulu 


I-lunde 


I-gulya. 




Kwi^g^lia. 






Hi-gulya 




Kwi^lunde 










Ku-mbele 


Ku-mbele 


Ku-mbele 


Ku-mbele 


-a mbele 


Kum^pirimu 


Kuny^uma 


Kuny^uma 


Kun-uma 


-a ny^uma 


Ha^si 


Ha^nsi 


Ha-nsi, 
Pa-nsi 


Ha-zi, Ha-si 


Ha^ngi 


Ku-le 


Ha^le 


Ku-tali 


Ha^li, Ki-kali. 
Ku^le 


Ha-li 


Ja^ha 


A-hco. H-enco. 
Ha^ha. Aha 


Hco 


Ha^ha. A-hco 
U-ku 




Mu^ 


Moj. Mu. 
0-mwco 


Mu- 


Mumu ; •mco. 
Mu^. M-gati, 

Mun-gati 


... 


Ha^kati 


Ha^kati 


Ha^kati 


Ha-gati 


... 


Gelagaha 




• •• 




Behe 


Ha^ndze 


H^eru 

-ingi. M-nw 

A-hi ? 


... 


•nse or -nze 

(Ha-nse, 

Ku-nse, &^c.) 
•ingi. Bu. 

Vu-yaga 
Ha-heo. Ku-nu, 

Hu-kco 
•he.', •kco? 




N(o ! '" 


Byco! 
Bycolcolco ! 


Aconanga ! 


Byco ! Nco ! Pii ! 
Yaya! 






-te-, -ta^, •ne 




-ha-, -ka-, -k'-, 
■iiu 


-ti^ Gtu-), ■( 
■t'^ 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


•tula 


•hula 


•kuba 


-tula. •tina 


■xua 


-gula 


-gula 


-gula 


■gula 


... 


•scoga. •iza 


•iza. -suba 


•iza 


•iza 




•kata 


•tema 




-tina 




■kina 


-tuma 


•vina .' 


-bina, -vina 


... 



ta-. 



H 2 



96 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Ki-pasi an 
Ki-rori 



North and 

North-east 

Nyamwezi 

(Ki-sukuma) 



9 a. 

North-west 

Nyamwrezi 

(^i-sumbwa) 




9c. 

South, Central, 

and East 

Nyamwezi 



10. 

Ki-nyaturu 

(Ki-limi) 



To 



die 
eat 
give ... 

go 

kUl ... 
know ... 



laugh . . . 
leave off, 
cease 
love, want 
see 

sit, remain, 

abide 
sleep . . . 
stand, stop, 

be erect 
steal . . . 



Ku- 




Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


-fwa (-fwa-ga) 


-fwa 


• • t 


•fwa, •fa, •ca 


•kuya 


•lia 




-lya 


•lia 


•lya 


•lya 


■ha 




•ha (-pa). 
-heledza 


•fumia (?) 


-pa, -pela 


•ha (•pa) 


■dya(dia-ga). 


-zia, -dya 


•iya. •yenda 


-ja, •zya. 


•ja^ •nji 


■ca or 


-ja 






•genda 


(Kw^inji) 


■haga 




-bcoha 


-vula-ga ? 


•wula^ga or 
•vula-ga 








•manya 




•manika, 
-manica, 
-manya. -na 


•iji (Kw^iji) 


■seka 




-seka 




•seka 


... 


-leka 




-leka 


-leka 


•leka 








-^ima, -enda 




-tcogwa 


-yanja 


■Unga 




-bona 




•wcona or 
•bcona 


-ona 


■igesa. 


•ikala 


-ikara, -ekala 


■ikala 


-ikala 


■kala 


■lala 




•lala 


-lala 


•lala. •kconya 


-lala or -laa 


-ima (-ima-ga) 


•ima 


•ima 


•ima 


-ima, -imika 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN KI-^A^ AND KI^RORI 
(Not yet known.) 

PREFIXES, &C., IN THE NYAMWEZI GROUP 

No preprefixes, except slight traces in western dialects — Ki^galaganza, Ki^bende, &c. 

Class I. Mu^, M- (m-, mu-, u-, yu-) ; 2. Ba-, Va-, Wa^ (ba-, va-, wa-) ; 3. M^, Mu^ (m-, mu-, gu-) ; 
4. Mi^ (m-, mi-, i-) ; 5. I-, Di-, Li- (li-, di-) : 6. Ma- (ga-, ya-, a-) ; 7. Ki-, Ci-, ^i-, Xi^, Hi- (ki-, ci-, fi-) ; 
8. Vi-, Fi-, ^i- (vi-, fi-, fi-) ; [8 a. i. e. the plural prefix Fi- employed in a singular or collective sense, is 
dawning in Southern, Central, and Eastern Nyamwezi] ; 9. N- (n-, i-) : 10. N-, Ny^, Ng^, W^, !• i,n-, fi-, 
zi-, ci-) ; II. Lu- (lu-) ; 12. Tu- (tu-) ; 13. Ka^ (ka-) ; 14. Bu-, Vu-, Wu- (bu-, vu-, wu-) ,-15. Ku- (ku-, 
kco-) ; 16. Ha- (ha-, hco) ; 17. Mu- (mu-, -mco). Prefixes often superimposed — Limu-, Mami-, Hafi-, &c. 



PREFIXES, &c., IN KI-NYATURU (KLLIMI) 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu^ (mu-, u-, -yu) ; 2. A^ (a-, -wa) ; 3. Mu^ (mu-, u-) ; 4. Mi^ (mi-, i-) ; 5. I-, Li^ (li-, i-) ; 
6. Ma^ (ma-, a-) ; 7. Ki- (ki-) ; 8. I- (i-) ; 8 a. Pi-' (pi-, p'-) ; 9. N- (n-, nj-, i-) ; 10. N- (n-, nj-, i-) ; 1 1. 
Lu- (lu-) ; 12 ^. Tu- (tu-) ; 13. Ka- (ka-) ; 14. U^ (u-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. apparently missing ; 17 ?. 

• Used as plural to Ka-, and also in a collective, almost singular sense, with Tu- (12) as plural. 
^ Used occasionally as plural to Ka-. 



GROUP B: WUNYAMWEZI LANGUAGES 97 

8. Ki^api and Kirori are spoken in the south-east coast region of the Victoria Nyanza south of the 
Gaya (Ugeya) settlements and of Kulia (Bakoria), east of Bukerebe islands and peninsula, west of the 
Tatcoga and Dorcobo) steppes, and north of Speke Gulf and Busukuma. 

9. North and North-east Nyamwezi are spoken in the southern coast-lands of the Victoria Nyanza 
as far east as the extremity of Speke Gulf ; and as far south as the 5th degree of South latitude. 

9 a. North-west Nyamwezi is spoken in the western half of the south coast -lands of the Victoria 
Nyanza (away from the actual littoral which is occupied by Cizinja) and as far south as about 4° South 
latitude. 

9 b. West Nyamwezi is spoken in Western Wunyamwezi, east of the Buthindi and Malagarazi rivers 
and as far south as about 6° 30' South latitude. It extends to the east coast of Tafiganyika south of Ujiji 
and north of Kalema. 

9 c. South, Central, and East Nyamwezi are spoken in Southern, Central, and Eastern Wunyamwezi 
south of about 5° South latitude and north of the Katuma-Luiigwa-Mphiti rivers, approximately 7° 10' 
South latitude. (Does not extend to Ukimbu.) 

10. Kinyaturu is spoken in Turn or Nyaturu and perhaps also in the Iramba country to the north. 
Nyaturu lies to the east of Wunyamwezi, west of Ugtogco, Rafigi and Tatcoga. 



GROUP C 

THE BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 



II. Kikuyu dialects.' ii 


a. Meru 


13, Pcokoomco 


15. Taveita 




12. Kamba 






14. Taita 


16. Nika (Giryama-Duruma-Digco) 




II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu ' 


Kamba 


Pukcomco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcokumco 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digu) 


Adze 


TJiya. 1-tanda 












Animal, wild 


Ny-amco 


N-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


beast 














Ant 


Ki-gunyu ; 


N-jinji. 


Dzungu. 


Sambirco. 


Ma-cici (//.) 


Tsungu, 




pi. i-gunyu. 


N-duti. 


Zunde 


Safu, Salafu. 


Ma-karakara. 


Tsalafu. 




T5i-girriri. 


N-guugu. 




Ki-semberu ; 


Kcokimbirco. 


M-fuadzi. 




T5-araku or 


N-dcoagu 




vi-. Ki-tuku 


Safu 


Minyco. 




'Gi-raku. 










N-gtolconguloj 




TJambco. 












Ant, white 


U-kcij. Mu-bua. 


Um-uu. 


Mi-dzwa (//.) 


M-zagu. Soya. 


M-sau 


Lu-tswa 


(termite) 


N-guiya 


M-bubu. 
Mu-bwa 




J-etca. 

N-gumbi. 

Tlyeha 






Arm 


U-eokco;m-eokco. 
Ku-cokco or 
Gu-cokco ; 
m-cok« 


Mco-kconco. 
Ku-cokca 


Mu-kconco 


M-kconco 


Mu-ktonto 


M-kcono3, 
Mu-kconco 


Arrow 


Mco-gue ; pi. 


Mu-sie, Mu-ci, 


Dzahe. Vanca 


Ki-ria, 


M-wasa. 


Mu-vwi, 




me-gue. 


Mu-zyi, Mu-ji 




Ki-rawa. 


M-vwi ; 


Mu-fwi,Lu-wi. 




Mu-giii, 






I-wanco 


mi-vwi 


C-embe. 




Mu-gwe (il a) 










Gumba 


Axe 


I-danua, 
I-banwa, 
I-tsanua; ma-. 


I-bcoka ; ma-. 
E-angi. 
Ka-bcoka ; tu- 


Ki-berya 


I-zuka 


I-zcoka 


Tswka. 
Mundu, 
Temco 


Baboon 


Ncogco orNugu 


N-guli or 
N-gtila 


Fwe 


Sabao. Fwe, 
Fuwe 


I-regeh ; ma-. 
I-ragin ; ma- 


N-yani 


Back 


Mu-gongo 


Mu-ongo 


Mco-ongco 


Mu-gongto 


Mu-hongco; mi- 


M-ongeo 


Banana ... 


I-rigco ; ma- 


Ma-iyu pi. 


Dzana 


I-rugco. 
N-dembcij. 
I-vtinde ; ma- 


I-dia> ; ma- 


I-zu. 
Mu-gomba 

{tree) 


Beard 


Rco-teru ; pi. 


Ki-nge. Ki-aiu. 


Ki-evu 


Zombi. 


I-kcolco; ma- 


Ci-revu, 




n-deru. Ki- 


Ki-ngebwa 




N-gafwa or 




Ki-dzeru, 




reru ; i-reru 






Gafa 




Ci-reru 


Bee 


J-uki or Nj-uki N-zuki, Ki-nyu 


Ny-uci 


C-(oki or 


Ny-coki or 


N-uci. 










Ny-uki 


Nj-uki 


Ny-uci 


Belly 


N-daa. Ma-ra 


I-bu. I-vu 


Ma-humbco 


Ki-fu ; vi-fu 
In-da 


N-deu. Ki-nena 


B-imba." 
Ki-nena. 
Tumbco or 
Humbco. 
N-da-ni 


Bird 


Ny-coni 


Ny-uni 


Ny-uni 


Ny-eonyi 


N-dege or 
N-deye 


Ny-uni. 
Tsongco 


Blood 


Sakame. 


N-bakame. 


Mu-asi 


Paga, Baga. 


Sakame 


Mi-latsco or 




N-bakame 


N-dakami 




Bigati 




Mu-ladzco 


Body 


Mw-iri 


M-wi, M-wili 


Mu-ci 


Mu-mbi; 
mi-mbi. 
Mu-wi; mi-wi. 
Mu-li; mi-ili 


Mw-uri ; mi- 


Mw-iri 


Bone 


I-ende ; ma-. 


I-vindi ; 


Mu-fufa 


Indi or I-windi Ni-windi, 


M-scoza 




I-hindi : ma- 


ma-vindi 






I-windi ; ma- 





' This name is sometimes rendered DiMyn or Gikuyu. For specification of dialects, see geographical definition of 
Kikuyu at close of Vocabulary. Kif-imba is a dimin. ci/B-imba = little belly. 



GROUP C : BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 



99 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokumu or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcokcomco 


(Ki-dabida 




(Giryama- 










Ki-sagala) 




Duruma-Digco) 


Bow 


OO-ttd, U-ta, 
U-taa (li a) 


U-ta. I-tumco 


U-ha; ma-ha 


N-dana 


Wu-ta ; 
mawu-ta 


U-ha. Tana 


Bowels 


Ma-ra 


Ma-a 


Humbco 


Ki-nena. Vu-la 




Humbco ; ma + . 
Ki-deme. I-fu 


Borassus palm 








... 


Mo-rowai 


Mu-gumco 


Brains 


Tombco. 
Tji-kererioj ; 

ma + , 
Xi-kerrio 


Uco-ongco 




U-ongco or 
Ongto. 
M-boiigei>. 
Sukco 


W-ongco 


Ongco 


Breast (man's) 


N-gonco. 
I-ria ; ma- 


Kati 


Bagwi 


Lagaya 


M-bafu 


Laga. Fua 


Breast 


Ny-ondco 




Wee ; ma-wee 


Ny-codco. 


>•■ 


Hombco. 


(woman's) 








I-wele ; 
ma-wele 




Ere, ma-ere 


Brother ... 


Mu-ru. 


Nindu. 


N-dugu 


M-runa. 


M-dw-etu. 


Mw-ene-hu 




Wama-itco. 


Mvv-inai 




M-wan'-edu. 


M-du 


(also cousin). 




Mu-rata 






VV(okw-etu;//. 
ana-vvcokw-etu 




N-dugu. 
Mu-kulu 


Buflfalo 


M-bcijgco 


Ni-ai. M-boj 


Ny-ahi 


M-bcogco 


M-beoyco 


Ny-ahi. 
M-bcogco 


Bull 


N -Jamba, 
N-degwa 


N-dzaco 


Sanga [Gala, 
word) 


N-jaco 


... 


N-dzaco. 
(N-dzagamba 

= a monster 
bitll) 
Hakco ; ma- 


Buttocks ... 


Lcu-cuze or 


Ki-tiimba. 


Ji-hakcd ; 


Simba; ma + 
or I-cimba 


Ma-takco 




Rco-cuze. 


Ni-takco 


ma-hakco 




hakco. Takco; 




I-tina 










ma-takco 


Canoe 


Ka-harati ; tco- 


N-galawa 


M-zefe 


C-ombeo ; 
vy-ombco 


N-galawa 


Dalu ; ma- + . 
(N-galawa) 


Cat 


Ka-ihco ; c-ihco. 
Mo-ruaru. 
M-paka 


M-baka 


M-fuateni 


Mu-nyaco ; mi- 


Mu-nyawi 


Paka. Ny-au 


Charcoal ... 


I-kara ; ma- 
kara 


Ma-kaa 


Ma-sinzi 


Vla-aka 


Ma-kala 


Kala or Ni- 
kala; ma-kala 


Chief 


Mo-zamaki. 


M-tumia 


Hacu 


M-baa or 


Vt-fumwa. 


M-vieri. 




Mu-bamaki 






M-zuri. 
M-gcosi 


M-fumu. 
M-gcosi 


Mu-tumia. 

Mu-^ere 


Child 


Mw-ana;//. ci- 


K-ana, G-ana ; 


Mw-ana ; 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana 


Mu-hcohco ; 




ana or si-ana. 


tw-ana. 


wa-ana 


K-anake. 


(m-doiigco) ; 


a-hcohco 




K-ana;tw-ana. 


Kaci-ci ; 




Mw-anake 


wa-ana 






Ka-regco ; 


tuvi-ci 






(wa-dongco). 






tco- 5 








Kamw-ana 




Cloth 


N-guco. Tama N-gua 


N-guto 


N-guco or 


N-guco. Suke 


N-guco, 


Coco-nut palm 


... 


Mu-nabi 




N-guwco 
Mny-anzigi or 


M-site 


N-guwco 
Nazi 


Cold 


Hehco 
Beboj (l I a) 


M-pepo, 
M-beboj, 
M-bevoj 


Pebfco 


M-yarigi 
M-behco 


M-behco 


Pehco 


Country ... 


Sena. Ptorori. 


N-bi 


Dzi 


N-ci. 


I-sanga. 


Tsi. 




Lu-kongo. 






I-sanga 


N-tere 


L-alco 




Fururi 












Cow 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe. 


N-gombe -ke 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe -ce. 




Mori {heifer) 


M-oma ; 
mi-oma 




dyi-ke. 

N-ombe 

ya waka. Tagco 




N-ombe 

m-bice. 

Gcoma 


Crocodile ... 


Ki-ngangi 


Ki-nyangi 


N-guena 


Mamba. 
Ki-nganga 


Ki-nyane, 
Ki-nyan 


Mamba. 
M-kuena 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


.6. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokcomu or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Mem 




Pfoikcomco 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digco) 


Date palm... 


Mu-kindu 


I-kindu 


M-tende 


M-tende ; 
mi-tende 


M-cangara 


Mu-kindwi 


Day 


O-tuku. 


U-tuku. 


Dz-iku. 


I-tuku; ma-1-. 


Mu-si ; mi- 


Tsiku. 




(OOm-tozi = 


Mu-tsenia 


(M-sikahi = 


Lavu. I-jua ; 




(Mu-tsana = 




daylight. ) 




daylight) 


ma-jua. 




daylight) 




M-t>enia 






I-dime. 
I-ruba 






Devil 


N-gcoma or 


M-bebto. 


M-suka 


M-kinya. 


Lu-hungu 


Pepco. Ktoma. 




N-gcoma- 


A-imco 




M-behco 




M-bingu 




n-goru 












Doctor 




Mu-iti 


M-gangana 


M-ganga 


Mu-ganga 


Mu-laguzi. 
Mu-gaiiga 


Dog 


Hui, Gwii, 


Stohi. N-giti 


M-bwa 


Cucu. Kojci, 


N-gurco. 


M-bwa. Ka- 




or Kui, or 






Kupi 


I-guro ; ma-. 


lubu. Kura. 




N-giti 






Ki-baru 


Kurco. Dia 














{Digoo) 


Donkey . . . 


N-digiri 


In-goi. 

Mu-goi 


Harre 


M-cungu 


N-jcoe 


N-zcoeya. 

N-dzcowe 


Door 


Rigi ; ma + . , 
Mo-romoine 
or Mu-rcomoj. 
Xcome 


Mw-wraco. 
M-cobia 


Mu-jangto 


M-jangco. 
M-nyango3 ; 

mi- 


M-benge 


Mu-riangco 


Dream 


I-rota. OO-rcoti. 


Ku-cota. 


N-dcohco 


Ku-Iojtesco;raa-. 


N-dcotco 


N-dcohco. 




Ke-reoti ; //. i- 


N-deotco 




N-dcodco 




Ku-leoha 


Drum 


Ke-hembi. 
Ru-imbco 


N-geoma. 
Ki-fcembt 


N-gcoma 


Gonda. 
N-gcoma 


N-gcoma 


N-gcoma 


Ear 


ru-tu; Ma-tu. 
Gm-tco ; ma-tco 


Ku-tu or Gu-tu 


Sikiu 


Ku-du ; ma-du. 
Ki-sikilco ; 

ma- 


I-sikico 


Si-kirco 


Egg 


I-tumbi : ma- 


I-tumbi, 
E-vaa 


I-ji ; ma-ji 


I-gi; ma-gi 


I-gi 


I-gi. I-ji, I-di 


Elephant ... 


N-jcogu 


Un-zeooj 


N-dzcofu 


Ccovu. 
N-jeovu 


N-zcowu, 
N-zcobu 


N-dzcovu 


Excrement 


Ma-i. Rco-rua 


Ma-ii 


Ma-fi 


Ma-vi. Saru 


Ma-vi 


Ma-vi 


Eye 


Di-zcoorRi-feco; 
ma-. (Ki-mcone 

= eyelid) 


I-bco 


Dz-idzoj 


Ir-iscj ; m-eseo. 
Iz-izco ; m-esco 


J-isco 


Dz-itseo, 
Dzi-dzco ; 
ma-dzeo. 
(M-beoni = 
pupil) 


Face, forehead 


U-ziojorU-bio. 


U-tiiu 


U-sco 


U-pu or Wu-pu 


U-upco 


Usco 




Ru-eri 










Fat 


Ma-futa or 
Ma-guta. 
Ngorconco 


Ma-iita 


Ma-fuha 


Ma-vuta or 
Ma-vuda 


Ma-futa 


Ma-fuha 


Father 


Baba (viy — ). 


Nau. Nu. 


Baba. I-si 


Aba. N-deyco. 


Apa. M-papa. 


Baba, Aba-, 




Nu. Xco-guo) 


Atsa. Baba 




N-dee 


(Wawe-co = 


Abe-, Bi- 




{thy —). I-tii 








thy—. Wawe-e 






{his — , father 








= his —) 






in general) ; 














pi. ma-it>i 












Fear 


I-korora. 
Gu-oya. 
Kw-itigirra 


Ku-binye. 

Ku-kea 


(Oga 


W-cowa. 
W-coga. 
Ki-ture ; vi- 


Fcole 


(jOga 


Finger 


Ki-ara ; pi. 
ci-ara 


Ki-a ; pi. t>i-a 


Dcowe 


C-ala; v-ala 


Ki-caa, Bi-, Vi- 


C-ala ; pi. 
vi-ala and 
m-ala 


Fire 


M(o-aki 


I-kto. Mw-adji. 
J-uki 


M-cohco 


Mo-dco; me-dco 


M6-teo 


Mo-heo; mi-ohco 



GROUP C: BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15. 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokcomco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Mem 




Pfcokcomco 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digco) 


Fish 


Ki-unguyo> ; 
ci-. I-kuyu ; 
ma-. 
N-guluma 


I-kuyu ; ma- 


Dswi 


I-kumba. 
M-kunga. 
N-guIuma 


N-guluma 


Swi or Dzui. 
Kumba 


Foot 


Gco-nyarere. 


KQ.u or Gu-u. 


Ku-guu. 


I-panzi. Ku-gil. 


Ku-YU, W-atu 


Gulu. Gu. 




Ru-nyarire. 


U-nyai 


Cwacco [pi.) 


Su-aiyco 




Lu-ayco 




I-kinya. 














Ku-gurru, 














Kco-guru ; ma- 












Forest 


I-zakaine. 


Mi-tco. E-ebu. 


Mw-ihu 


M-sidu ; mi- 


Ki-titco 


Tsaka. 




Ki.feaka. 


Ki-beka 




sidu. I-saka. 




Mu-sihu 




Mu-titco 






Ki-lemba 






Fowl 


N-giiku 


N-guku 


Khuku 


N-guku. 
Ka-nguku ; 
du-iiguku 


N-guku 


Kuku 


Frog 


Ky-ura; ci-. 
Ke.figere 


Mu-ndalali. 
C-ua 


Cuya 


Kic-ula 


Ic-ura 


C-ulwa.Dz-ulco. 
G-ula 


Ghost 


00-kua 


Mu-nyi. 
N-gco 


Kcoma 


Ki-suka. Pepco. 
N-gcolco 


Ki-vuri 


Kcoma, 
Mu -kcoma 


Giraffe 


N-dwiga 


N-dia. N-duya 


• .. 


N-diga 


N-dea 


Tiya, Tia 


Girl 


Ka-regeo, 
Ki-regoa. 
M-wir-etu 




Ci-ke 


Mw-ana-ke 




Ki-dzana 


Goat 


M-buri, 


M-bui 


M-buI. 


M-buzi or 


M-buji 


M-buzi. Pee. 




M-bori 




Pee 


M-buri 




M-buzi 
ya-pee 


„ (he) ... 


N-fcengi 


N-tiengi 




Si-tima. J-igau. 
Oreo, Horco. 
Fwandi 


Zenge 


N-denge 


„ (she) ... 


Mu.gtoma ; 
a-gcoma. 
Ka-harika ; 
teo-harika. 
(K-ori = kid) 


M-baika 




Si-beni. Mu- 
gcoma gwa 
m-buzi. Mu- 
gcoma ; mi-. 
(Kam-buri = 
kid) 


Mu-ycoma 




God 


N-gai; ma- 
kai 


N-gai. 
Mu-lungu 


Mu-ungu 


Mu-lungu 


[ -zuwa 


Mu-lungu 


Grandparent 


GukaS. 


Ume. Tsutsa 


Bibi.'S.Yayej. 


Ake*. 


... 


Tsawe $. 




Ctoccoj 




Zabuaje. 
Cauje 


Wawaj 




Wawe 5. 
Hawe J 


Grass 


N-yeki,N-yaki, 
N-yagi(D.). 
Rco-kengi. 
Mi-rari 


Ny-eki, Ny-igi. 
Ma-bangu 


M-ani 


Ny-asi 


Ny-asi. M-ani 


Ny-asi. M-ani 


Ground 


Teri. Di. N-isi 


I-beco. Pa-nti. 
Ndi 


Dzi 


Ki-lambco. 
I-sanga. 


Si. N-tere 


Tsi 



Ground-nut 
Guinea-fowl 
Gun 

Hair 



N-jug^ 

N-kanga 

Mwi-cinja. 
M-cinga ; mi- 



N-jtiere. 
Rco-cueri. 
En-juri 



N-zu 

N-ganga 



N-jugu 
Kcoco 



Bunduci 



M-ciiiga. 

I-vuti. 

Mu-siiaga. 

E-buuti 
N-diku. N-zwi Uny-wii 



N-dcoe, N-dcoto 

N-dzugu, ... N-dzugu 

N-jugu 

N-ganga N-gelele. N-ganga. 

N-ganga Kanga 

Bunduki Ki-pcolcopcolco Bundukui 



Sisiri. I-ridia Ny-ui, Nj-ui N-dzui. Ny-ere 



102 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


IS- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokcomco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcokcomco 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digco) 


Hand 


Lu.he or Ru.hi; 


Ku-cok<o. N-ba Mu-kconu 


Mu-kconco. 


M-kconco 


M.kconco. 




pi. he. 






L-ui ; //. c.ui 




Gandza 




Gw-ukto 






or many-ui. 
Ki-kcotco 






Head 


Mu-tue 


Mu-tue 


Ki-jwa 


C-ongco, 
v-ongco 


M-twi 


Ki-tswa 


Heart 


N.gorco 


N-dei. E-baiyu. 
N.gto 


M-tocco 


N-gcolco 


N-gorco 


M-oyco 


Heel 


Ny.ariri. 
Sonua. 
Ki-tugigco 


E-jimbe. 
Ki-tinyco. 
Ki-dinyco 


Ki-sikinco 


Gimbe 


Ki-siginco 


J.imbe. 
Ki-sikinco 


Hide 


R.cowa; nj.cowa 


I-kcole 


Ci-ngco 


M-rongco ; mi- 


N-gingco 


Tingco, 
Ki-tingco 


Hill 


Ki.rima; i-rima 


Ki-ima, 
K-ima 


Guba 


Ki-lima. 
Ki.fumvu 


N-duwi 


Ki-rima 


Hippopotamus 


N-giico 


N-guco. 
Bakora 


Ufi-guu 


N.goluma. 
Vuco. N.guco 


N-gerere 


Ki.bcokoj. 
Wiiu. M.fu 


Hoe 


I-banwa. 
Li-gembe (D.) 


Embe 


... 


I.gembe 




J-embe 


Honey 


<x)-coki <)r(jO-ke U-ki \va n-zuki U-ci 


U-ki or Wu.ki 


Wu-ki 


U-ci 


Horn 


Lu-hia or 
Ru-heha 


M-bia 


Pembe 


Lu.embe ; 
m-bembe 


I-hembe, 
Lu-hembe 


Phembe 


House 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umba, 


Ny-umba 


N-umba. 




Ka.fcunco 


Ka-bunco 




Kany-umba. 
Ki.garo. 

{C-3LTi6.a.=kut) 


(square). 
haada.{round) 


Ka-banda 


Hunger 


Jfaragu 


N-zaa (?) 


N-dza 


N-jala, Ki.taba 


N-zaa 


N-dzala 


Hyena 


Hiti 


M.biti 


Fisi 


M-bisi. Fisi 


N-gojine. Baco 


Fisi 


Iron 


Mu-sanga. 
Mu-renga. 
Ki-kama. 
Ki-gera 


Ki-co 


K-era 


C-uma. Ki-zia; 
vi-zia. Ki-ria 


C-uma. M.enya 


C.uma 


Island 


Ke-cunga 


Ki-biwa 


Ki-lulu 


Ki.tiwa 


Ki-dara 


Ci.siwa. 
Ki-siwa 


Ivory 


Lu-hia la 
n-jcogu. 
Mu-oiiga>. 
Mu.grwoiiga) 


U.vea 


Pembe 


Lu-embe ; 
pembe Iwa 
n.dzcofu 


I-jegu 


Phembe ya 
n.dzcovu 


Knee 


I-rii or I-ru 


I-yu. U-yi 


Ku-hi 


N-gcokorco 


I-kungurco 


Vu.indi 


Knife 


Lco-hicd or 
Ka-hiyu. 
Re-jiu(ll a) 


Ka-biu, Ka-viu 


Ki.su 


N-dagala. 
Ka-handi ; vi- 


Ka-handi ; vi- 


Ci-fiu. Ki-pu 


Lake, sea ... 


I.ria or Ka-ria 


I-ia. Ki-tsiwa 


U-kanga. 
Rco-kanga 


Ziwa. Ki-suwa 




Ci-swa. Ziya 

* 


Leg 


Mco.zimco. 
Ku-huru or 
Kco-guru 


Mu-biimco 


Ku.guu 


Ku-gii. Ki-gulu 


Ku-gu, Ku-YU 


Gulu, Ki-gulu. 
Rondco ; 
ma-rondco. 
Mu-lundi 


Leopard . . . 


N-gare 


N-gcoco. En-gco. 
Iii-gco 


Na.dcoze 


In-ge, In-gwi, 
In-gwa 


Lu-keri 


Tsui 


Lion 


Mo-rcozi or 


Mu-nyembco. 


Dzimba 


Pimba. 


Simba 


Tsimba. 




Mu-rcobi 


TSimba 




Mu-nyambco 




Mu-nyamboj 


Lips 


Ki-rcomco ; //. 


Ki-lcomco. I-lco- 


Mi-ycomco 


M.comco. 


M-comco ; mi- 


Mi-lcomco. 




i-rcomco 


mco. Mco-comco 




Ki-pinikeo ; vi- 




Dcomco 


Magic 


OJ.rcogi 


Uw-oi 


Dzawi 


U-cawi, 
Wu-sawi. 
Wu-ganga. 
U-sai 


U-sawi. 
Un-ganga 


U-tsai. (-lojga 
= io bewitch) 





GROUP C : BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 


103 




II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokumco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pf<oko3mu 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digco) 


Maize 


M-bemba 


M-bemba 


Ma-pemba 


I-bemba. 
N-dembe 


I-hemba 


Ma-tsere 


Man 


Mu-ndu ; pi. 


Mu-ndu ; a-ndu Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ndu ; 


Mu-ndu ; 


Mu-tu; a-tu, 




a-ndu 




wa-ntu 


wa-ndu 


wa-ndu 


also M-thu 
and Mu-thu"- 


Man, vir. ... 


Mu-rume 


Mu-rume. 
M-umiu 


Ci-umbe 


M-dogume 




Mu-lume 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama. 
N-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


N-ama, 
Ny-ama 


Medicine ... 


Mu-baiga 


Mu-di 


Dawa {Arab.) 


Mvvi-di 




Mu-hasco 


Milk ... ... 


I-ria. 


I-ya. 


Ziwa 


Ma-zia, 


Ma-vee. 


Ma-zia, Vi-zia. 




(Ku-kama 


(Ku-kama, 




Ma-ziwa 


Ma-were 


(Kama = to 




= to milk) 


Ku-buma = to 

milk) 








milk) 


Monkey ... 


N-gema, 


N-benga. 


Cima 


N-gima. 


N-gima 


T'umbiri. 




N-gima 


N-beo. 
N-gima. 

N-deu 




Sawau. 
Mw-andaru 




Khima. 
Tshalu 


Moon 


Mw-eri 


Mw-ei, M-bui 


Mw-ezi 


Mo-ri or 
Mw-ori ; //. 
me-ri, also 
Mw-ezi ; 
m-ezi 


Mw-eji 


Mw-ezi 


Motlier ... 


Mai-itu. 


Mwai-ittt) 


Mama. 


Mau or Mawe. 


lya. Mama. 


Mayco. Maye, 




Nana. 




Nyco-km. 


Mayu.. Mae 


Me. Waya 


Ame-. 




Nyu-kwa. 




Nina 






Hmama. 




Nyina 










(Nine = his 
mother) 


Mountain ... 


Ki-rima; i-rima 


Ki-ima 


Yu-gongo. 
Mu-rima; mi-. 
Guba 


Ki-fumbu; vi-. 
Lu-gongco ; 
cu-gongco or 
nyu-gonga> 


N-duwi 


M-rima. 
Mu-rima 


Mouth 


Mu-rcomco; mi-, 
orKa-nwa;tco- 


Mu)-comto 


Ka-nwa 


M-lcomco ; mi-. 
M-comu ; 
m-emu 


I-tumbu ; ma-. 
Mcomu 


Ka-nwa 


Nail (of finger 


Lu-ara ; ci-ara 


N-gwa. Waa. 


Jvv-aa ; ny-aa 


Lu-kombe ; 


Lu-kombwe. 


Lu-kombe 


or toe) 


or ndu-ara 


U-gunyu 




n-gombe. 
Lco-ala ; nyw-. 
Lu-akule ; 
cw-akule 


N-gombwe 




Name 


Retwa; ma + 


Sietua, Dzitwa Sari 


I-zina or 


I-zina 


Dzina 










I-rina 






Navel 


Mu-kconyco. 


Mu-k<onyto 


Ci-kcofu, 


Mu-kuvu. 


M-kuju. 


Tcovu. Ki-tcovu 




Lu-lila. 




Ci-kwvu 


M-dcocwa 


M-kudu 






Ki-kconya 












Neck 


N-gingco 


Ngingco, 
Njingto 


OOti. Tsinto 


Singco or 
Cingco 


Singco. Gcopi 


Tsingco 


Night 


0-tukk«. 


U-tuku. 


Siku 


Ki-co or Ki-rco ; 


Ki-co. Wi-ii. 


U-siku. (Kiza 




(N-duma = 


Tu-manna. 




vi-co 


Heki-u 


= darkness) 




darkness) 


(Ki-vindu or 
Ki-biindu = 

darkness) 










Nose 


Ny-ureo, 
Iny-urw 


Iny-u. In-wiyu 


M-puya. 
(Ma-anzi = 
nostrils) 


M-bula or 
M-bua 


Fua. Fuco 


Pula, Phula 






' Ka-dzi-tu, dimin. = ' little person'. 







104 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





II. 


12. 


13. 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokumco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcokcomco 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digco) 


Ox 


N-degwa ; 
ma-teg w a 

V 


N-zao 


N-gombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-dzaco. 
N-dewa ya 
n-ombe, 
Ri-gombe, 
Ka-gombe, 
Ki-gombe 


Paddle ... 


■ .. 


Mu-iilwi ; mi- 


Pae ; ma + 


I-kasia; ma- 




Kafi 


Palm wine, 


N-jcohi 


. .. 


Temboj 


N-jcovi 


Mawa 


N-gemua. 


beer 












Dumbu. 
Pombe 


Parrot 






Ka-suku 


Ka-suku 




... 


Penis 


0-riioj. 

Mu-sita 


Kia 


Ciwa 


M-punga ; mi- 


N-jabca 


M-b«oleo. 
Ki-bcogoj. Ki- 
gande-gande. 
U-lume 


Pig 


N-gumwe. 


N-giie N-gee 


N-g^uyuwe, 


N-giiwe or 


N-guwe 


N-guluwe. 




N-geri 




Guyuwe 


N-guluwe 




Ki-amboj ; 
vi-ambco 


Pigeon 


Dutura, 

N-dutura 


Gia. E-biii, 
I-voi or I-wui 


Ci-kwe 


I-ringco 


I-beta 


Jia, Giya, 
N-;^iya 


Place 


Haha. 


Pa-andu. 


Bfa-ntu or 


Ha-ndu, A-ndu, 


Ha-ndu 


Va-tu. Ha-thu. 




Ha-ndu 


Va-ndu 


Fa-ntu 


Ku-ndu 




Ku-tu 


Rain 


M-bura 


M-biia 


M-vuya 


M-vua. M-vula M-vua 


M-vtila. Wula 


Rat 


M-bea 


M-bea 


M-panya. 
N-duru. 
N-dezi 


M-bewa. 
M-banya 


N-gcoswe 


Panya. 
Phanya. 

Mu-nyau 


Rhinoceros 


Huria 


M-bila. 
M-butsia 


Pea 


M-bela 


M-buria. 


Pera 


River 


Lu-hui or R-vii 


U-si, U-dzi, 


Dzana, Tsana M-coda, 


M-furco 


Mu-hoj 




n-jcoe, nj-ui, 


U-tsi 




Mw-eda, 








ci-hui 






Mw-eta 






Road 


N-jira 


N-sia. N-dt)ia 


N-cia, N-jia 


Cia. In-jila. 


N-zia 


N-jira 


Salt 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nyu 


Ki-sereri. 
Mu-nyu 




Mu-nyu. 
Cumvi. 


Shame 


Xconi 


N-deoni 


Yu-dzwa, 
Yu-tswa 


Waya 


Sconi 


Haya. Ma 


Sheep 


Nondu, 


I-londu. 


M-buzi. 


N-gonzi. OOsi 


ronji. N-onji 


N-gonzi. 
Durume 0. 




N-dcoromi, or 


Ng-condu 


(M-buzi 


Bauru. 






N-durume. 




ndume=/-flOT. 


N-gonde or 




M-buzi ya 




N -Jamba S 




also Re 


N-ondi (ram) 




gondzi 


Shield 


N-geoi??-Lo-ngco 
Ra-ngco(ll a) 


. N-gau 


N-ga<o.Gamba 
"Wante 


. N-gaco 


N-gawto 


N-gao 


Shoulder ... 


Ki-andi 


Ki-tuw 




Wega 


... 


Ki-turto. 
Dzudzuri 


Sister 


M-oi re-tu. 


Mu-tiaiya. 


I-mbu. N-dugu Umbu. 


Rumburia 


N-dugu 




Mco-ari wa 


Mw-edu 




Wcokw-etu 








mai-tco. 


wa-nya 




mbwaa. 








Mo-rua 






M-runa wa 








mwai-tu 






wa-ka, &=(. 






Skin 


Lu-ytia ; ci-yua 


. Ki-t>uma. 


Cingu. Kunu 


■ N-gcozi. 


Ki-konde 


KingM. Gtijvi 




R-iia ; nj-coa 


N-dawa. 
A-lula 


N-gcosi 


M-rongco. 
N-gingw 




Ganda. 
Ki-konde 


Sky 


I-tii or Ma-tu. 


I-tu, Mu-lungu Yu-wing^; 


Mu-lungu or 


Ma-jumbi 


Mu-lungu. 




I-rumbi 




//. wingu or 
m-bingu 


M-lungii-nyi 




M-bingu 


Slave 


N-gombco 


M-kombolwa. 


Mu-huma or 


M-sumye or 


M-zoreo. 


Mu-sunye 






N-dumba ; 


Mu-humwa 


Ki-sunyi. 


I-singa 








tu-dumba 




M-zumba 







GROUP C : BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 



105 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokcomco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcokcomco 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
'Duruma-Digco) 


Sleep 


To-rco 


To) -CO. 


U-sindzizi 


Di-lco. 


Lu-wcohe. 


U-singizi, 






Sinzizi 




Haringa 


Ku-pinjia 


U-sindzizL 
Ma-lalco 


Smoke 


N-dcogo) 


Dzi-iiki. Su-iki. 
Cuci. Japu 
En-jcoka 


M-cosi 


M-cosi 


M-copi 


M-copi 


Snake 


Mu-raru. 


Ny-coka 


Ny-coka or 


N-jcoka 


N-zcoka. 




Nyamu-yatji ; 






C-coka 




Ny-coka 




pi. Nyamuci- 














yabi 












Son 


Mw-ana ; pi. 


Mw-ana 


Mwana 


Mw-ana wa 


Mw-ana wa 


Mw.ana 




ci-ana 




mu-yume 


lume 


ki-ume 


mu-lume 


Song 


N-gcoCU. U-ineo. 


W-abi. Winco 


Mw-imbco.Wia L-umbco; ill. 


Ki-vinco ; vi- 


VV-ira. 




Li-umba. 






c-umbco or 




Ny-imbco 




Ki-suka 






ny-umbco 






Spear 


I-timu ; ma-. 
I-tumco (11 a). 
Ki-ronjco. 

Mu-rama(lia) 


I-timu. 
E-tumco 


Fumco ; ma -f 


I-cumu or 
I-fumu. Lu-fu; 
nyu-fu 


I-cumco 


Fumco 


Spirit, soul 


N-gorco. 
Mu-oyco. 
N-gcoma 


N-gcoa 


... 


N-gcolco 




Rcohco (Arabic). 
Gcoma 


Star 


N-jata 


N-data 


N-ycoha. 
Ny-ezi. 


N-donde. 
Ny-erinyeri 


N-dondco 


Ny-enyezi 


Stick 


Siyare ; pi. 


N-deta. N-data Dzimbco, 


N-data or 


Ka-muti.I-sibco 


N-data. 




raa-siare. 




Tsimbco 


M-zata. 




N-goiigco 




Ru-banju 






M-senge ; ml-. 
Caiigu 






Stone 


I-higa ; ma- 


I-bia ; ma-via 


I -we ; ma-we 


I -we. I-gco 


I-bwe 


Dzi-we. I-we 


Stool 


Ge-te ; pi. i-te 




... 






Ki-gcogco. Ki-hi 


Sun 


Li-yua, Ri-ua ; 
ma-. N-jua 


Sua, Tiua, Jua 


Dziia 


I -jua or I-ruwa 


I-zuwu 


D-zua 


Tail (of an 


Ge-bita, 


Ki-sibe. 


Mu-cia 


M-keoba or 


Ki-tize 


M-kira. 


animal) 


Ki-t,ita. 
Ki-tcomoi 


Mw-ibi. 




M-komba. 
Ki-rensi 




Mu-cira 


Tear 


Le-izcoli ; ma-. 
Re-ifeorri ; 
ma-it>orri 


Me-boyi 


M-dzcozi, 
Mu-tscozi 


M-bori or 
Lum-bori 


I-scoji 


Tscozi 


Testicles ... 


Hekke or 
Kekke 


Me-e 


Fumbu 


I-kende; 
ma-kende 


Ma-kedi 


Tende 


Thief 


Mw-i^i ; a-izi. 
Mw-ici ; a-ici 


Ki-iigii. 
Ki-ngeeu. 

Mu-yi. 
Mu-veni 


Mw-ivi 


Ki-toyi. 
Mw-ibi. 
M-scoki. 
Ki-tina 


Mu-hiwi 


Mco-ivi 


Thigh 


K-erco,Ki-eruor 


Ny-onga. 


Ki-weco 


Bara. N-dambi 


Ki-ya ; vi- 


Ki-ga ; vi-ga. 




pi. ci-eru 


U-tambi.Ku-u 




or N-dami 




Lu-agco 


Thing 


Ki-ndu or 
Ki-ndco //. 
i-ndu or i-ndco 


Ki-ndu 


Ki-ntu ; vi-ntu 


Ki-ndco or 
Ki-ndu ; 
vi-ndu 


Ki-ndu 


Ci-tu or Ki-tu ; 
vi-tu 


Thorn 


Mw-igiia; mi- 


Mw-iwa 


Mw-iwa; 
mi-iwa 


Mu-njwa. 

Mw-ia,Mw-iza 


M-pa 


Mw-iya. Kita. 
D-zala 
g-umba 


Tobacco ... 


M-bake 


Ba-aki 


Tumbakco 


Kumbaku or 
Kitnbaku 


M-batu 


Kumbaku 


To-day ... 


OOm-iizi, OOm- 
cobi. Reu. 


Mu-beny'iiu. 
U-munbi. 
E-ndimco. 
Ma)-conbU 


Yeco 


Leco 


Ycoco 


Rerco 



io6 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokumu or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfukcomcd 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama 
Duruma-Digco) 


Toe 


Lu-ara 


Ki-a ; pi. si-a or 
ci-a 


D-towe ja 
ku-guu. 
D-cowe la 
ci-guii 


I-nco, Ma-no) 


Ki-caa kya 
ku-^u 


C-ala 


To-morrow 


Ru-tsiu, Lu-cii! 


U-ni. (jO-ni. 
Ke-ukco 


Ma-gura. 
Kesco 


Labu or Lau. 
I-kepco 


Yawco 


Ma-cerco 


Tongue 


Lu-limi or 


W-imi. 


Cu-imi or 


Lumi ; pi. 


-lumi 


U-limi or 




R(u-rimi 


Ka-nyua. 


J w-imi ; pi. 


c-umi or 




Lu-rimi ; 






N-gumba 


ny-imi 


ny-umi 




n-dimi. Kcolco 


Tooth 


I-gegco or 
I -gey to;//, 
ma- 


lyoj. Ku-bekco 


Gegco ; rpa + 


I-gegco or 
I-jegco 


I-jeyco 


Dz-inco. Jegco 


Town 


Mu-jie, Mu-ciyi 


Mu-dzii 


Mu-dzi ; mi- 


Mu-zi. Kaia 


Ki-ongto 


Mu-dzi 


Tree 


Mu-ti ; mi-ti 


Mu-ti, M-ti 


Mu-hi ; mi- 


Mw-itiorMu-di 


Mu-ti 


Mu-hi 


Twins 


Ma-aza, 


Ma-baba 


Ma-padza, 


M-asa. 


M-aza 


Ma-phatsa or 




Ma-haba, or 




M-patsa 


Ma-hega 




Padza 




Ma-hasa 












Urine 


Ma-ziguma. 
Ma-fcugumu 


Ma-iimau 


Mi-kodzco 


M-kcocuco, 
U-gcoco, or 
Ma-gcocu 


M-kcozco 


Ma-kodzco 


Vein 


Mu-kiha 


Mu-kiba or 
Mu-kiwa 


Mu-sipfa 


C-uga 


... 


Mu-siha 


War 


I-ta. M-bara 


Ka-co 


Vi-ha. 
N-kondco 


Wu-da or U-ta, 
Kondco 


N-gondco 


Vi-ha. Khondto 


Water 


Ma-e. Roi-e, 
Ru-gi (iia) 


Ma-anzi 


Ma-dzi 


Ma-ji, Ma-ci, or 
Me-ji 


M-bombe 


Ma-dzi 


Well, source, 


Ki-bima 


Ki-bima 


Anga 


Ki-na ; vi- 




Ci-sima 


spring 














White man 


Mu-zungu 


Mu-zungu 


Mu-zungu 


Mu-zungu 


M-zungu 


Mu-zungu 


Wife 


Mu-ndu mu-ka 


Ki-beti. Mu-ke 


Mu-ke ; wa-ke 


Mu-ke. Mu-ka M-ce 


Mu-ce.M-kaza. 














M-cethu 














{Digoa) 


Wind 


Hehco. 


M-bebu 


Ru-vutco. 


M-behco 


N-gungu. 


Pehco,Lu-vehca, 




Lco-hugco. 




M-pefco 




M-behco 


Phevco. 




Ru-huhco 










Lavutco. 

Mu-nyefu 


Witch 


Mu-rcogi. 


Mu-gangfa ; a-. 


Mu-dzawi, 


M-sabi, 


M-sawi 


Mu-tsawi, 




Mu-ganga 


Mu-oii 


Mu-tsawi 


M-sawi,M-sai 




Mu-dzai. 
Mu-lcozi ' 


Witchcraft 


U-rcogi 


U-oii. V-oii 


Dzawi 


U-sabi 




U-tsai. 
U-ganga 


Woman ... 


Ka-regco ; tu- 


Mu-ndu mu-ka. 


Mu-ke 


Mu-ke, 


M-ce 


Mu-ce, 




(virgin). Mu- 


Mw-etu 




M-du-mu-ke, 




Dzi-ce, 




hiki. Mu-ndu 






Mu-ka 




Ki-ce. 




mu-ka. Ku- 










M-gcoma 




gurra. (I-hu 














= womb, preg- 














nant woman) 












Womb 


I-hu. Ma-la. 
Mu-pii. 
Ny-ungu 


Ma-a. Me-bi. 
Ki-nco. E-bu. 


Humbco 


Ki-fu 


N-da 


^-alco, Fi-al<o. 
Mimba, 




I-vuni 








Bimba 


Wood (fire- 


Lco-ku ;//. n-gu 


N-gii. E-kie. 


Yu-kumi ; pi. 


M-bande. 


N-gwi 


Lu-kuni. 


wood) 




I-kco 


fi-khumi 


N-guni 




Khuni 


Yam 


N-guaci. Ki- 
kera. Ki-koa. 
Ge-kwa ; i-koa 


Ki-kwa. I-kwa. 
Ma-kwatsi 

ipl.) 




I-kco. I-kajiba 


Ki-likwa 


Ki-razi. 
Ki-bcomu 




' Lit. 'the whistler', fro?n whist 


ling being associated with witchcn 


%ft. See Zulu. 





GROUP C: BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 



107 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


IS- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokcomco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Mem 




Pfcokcomco 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki-sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digco) 


Year 


Mw-aka ; 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Ki-mu. Mw-aka Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 




mi-aka. 














I-mera 












Yesterday... 


I-ra. I-co {the 


E-co. N-eo). 


Dzana. Dzuzi I-gwco, I-gulco. 


I-wuco 


Dzana 




day before) 


(Essco = the 
day before') 


(day before) 


I-juzi {day 
before) 






Zebra 


N-jage, N-jagi 


N-zai. M-buru 


M-puru 


Forco, Furco 


Lo-itikco 


Forco 


One 


E-mue 


Mondi. -mwe 


Mco-dza 


•mu, I-mu. 


M-cosi. -mwe ; 


Mwenga, 








-a dura 


Mcojeri or 
I-mweri. 
Mcoju or 
Mcosi 


mwezu 


-mwe. M-cosi 


Two 


I-hiri (-iri). 
I-giri, Eri 


He, -eri 


•wii 


-pili, -ili, -wi 


Eri, -eri 


H-iri, -iri 


Three 


I-zatu or 
I-babu 


-batu or -datu 


-hahu 


-datu or -tatu 


-tatu. N-datu 
and -tutu 


-hahu, -tahu 


Four 


I-nya, -nna 


-nna or -nya 


-ne 


-na, -nya, -ne 


-nne 


I -nne, -ne 


Five 


I-zanco. I-banu 


-tanu, -banu 


-tsanco 


-sanco 


-sanco 


Tsanco 


Six 


Sasatco. 
I-tandatu. 
■banbatu, 
•babatu 


Xanbatu, 
Tiandatu 


Handahu 


-tandatu or 
-zandadu 


Tandatu 


Handahu 


Seven 


N-guanja, 


Mco-anza, 


-fungahe 


M-fungati or 


Fungata. 


Fungahe 




Mu-guanja 


Mu-onza 




M-fungade 


M-fungate 




Eight 


Nyanya, -nana 


Nyanya 


-nane 


-nane or 
-nyanya 


Nane 


H-nane 


Nine 


K-enda 


K-enda 


K-enda 


K-enda, 
I-kenda 


K-enda 


C-enda 


Ten 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


Kumi 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


Kumi. 
Mu-rongco 


Eleven 


I-kumi ne mwe 


I-kumi na 


Kumi na 


I-kumi na 


I-kumi na 


Kumi na 






ki-mwe 


mcodza 


mcojeri. 
I-kumi na 
i-mweri 


mwe. I-kumi 
na-mwezco 


mwenga 


Twenty . . . 


Mi-rongco or 


Mi-ongo5 ele or 


Mi-yongo 


Mi-rongco 


Ma-kum'eeri 


Mi-rongco i-iri 




Me-rung(i> 


Mi-loiigcj iri 


mi-wii 


mi-ili. 








i-iri or Ma- 






Mi-rongco -iwi 








kumi a-iri 












Thirty 


Mi-rongco 


Mi-ongco or 


Mi-yoingco 


Mi-roiigo 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




(Me-rungci>) 


Mi-longto 


mi-hahu 


mi-tatu. 


ma-tutu 


mi-hahu 




i-tatco or 


i-tatu 




Mi-rongco 








Ma-kumi 






i-dadu or 








a-tatco 






Ma-kumi 
a-dadu 






Forty 


Ma-kumi a-nna 


Mi-ongco i-nya 


Mi-yongco 


Mi-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




or Me-rungca 




m-ine 


mi-ne (ori-na) 


ma-nne 


mi-ne. 




i-nna 






or Ma-kumi 
mi-ne or a-na 




Ma-kumi 
ma-ne 


Fifty 


Me-rungco 


Mi-oiagco 


Mi-yongco 


Mi-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




i-tanco 


i-banco • 


mi-tpanco 


mi-sanu, &=€. 


ma-sanco 


mi-tsanco 


Sixty 


Me-rungco 


Mi-ongco 


Mi-yongco 


Mi-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




i-tandatu 


bandatu 


mi-handahu 


i-randadu 


tandatu 


mi-handahu 




(i-feabatu) 












Seventy ... 


Me-rungco 


Mi-ongco 


Mi-yongco 


Mi-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




mu-gwanja 


monza 


mi-fungahe 


m- fun gate, (Sr'c. 


fungata 


mi-fungahe 



io8 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


IS- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokcomca or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




II a. Meru 




Pfukeomu 


(Ki-dabida- 
Ki^sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma^Digco) 


Eighty ... 


Me-rungeo 


Miongoj 


Mi^yongto 


Mi-rongco 


Ma-kumi nana 


Mi^rpiigco 




i-nana 


nyanya 


mi-nane 


wu^nyanya, 
Mi-rongco 




mi^nane 


Ninety 


Me-rung&3 


Mi-angto 


Mi^yongco 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-rongco 




k-enda 


k-enda 


k-enda 


ik-enda, &'c. 


k-enda 


cenda 


Hundred . . . 


I-gana 


I-yana ; pi. 
ma-yana or 
m-ana 


Gana ; ma- 


I-gana 


rana, I-yana 


Gana 


Thousand... 


Giri 


M-ana 
ma-kumi 


{Arabic) 


Ma-gana 
i^kumi 


Ma-yana 
ma-kumi. 
Ki^hinde ; 
vi-hindi 


Ma-gana kumi 


I, me, my ... 


Nie. N-, Ne-. 


Ni-nye. N-, Ni-. 


Ami, Mimi. 


Imi, Ini. N.. 


Mi. N: 


Mimi, Minco. 




-nd-, -nj-, -fig-. 


-nye. -ni-, -n-. 


Ni-, Ny. 


•n^. -a-ngu. 


•ni-. -a^ngu 


Ni-, N-. 




-a-kwa 


-a-kwa 


■ni^. -a-ngu 


-a-pco, -a-pwa 




■mi.- ni-. -a-ngu 


Thou, thee, 


Wee. U-, <jO-. 


We, Ni-we. 


Awe, Wewe. 


Uwe, OOhco, 


We, Uwe. U^, 


Uwe. U., CO^. 


thy 


-ku-. -a-ku 


U-. 


U^, Ku.. 


OOku. Ku-, U-. 


Wu^. 


-we-. -CO. 






-we. -ku-. -gto. 


•ku-. -a-kco 


•ku-. -kco,-a-kco 


•ku^. -a^kco 








•ko) 










He, him, his 


OO-ria, U-lia. 


Uya, Uu, Miya. 


Jeje, Cece. 


I -ye or Uco. 


Ye, lye. £•, 


lye. Yu-, U-, 




A-. 


Yeyai. Ya-, 


Ka-,A^. 


(M; \J; A: 


A^. 


A-. 




■nye. -mu-. 


A-. 


•mu^. -a-kwe 


•mu-. -a.ke 


•mi-, -mu-. 


-ye, •e(ze). 




-a-ke 


-m-, -mu-. 
-a-kwe 






-a-kwe 


•mu^. -a-kwe 


We, us, our 


I-zwe. I-tiui 


It.ie. Oibi. Tu-, 


Swiswi. Swi-. 


I -si. Di.,D-,Ti-, 


U-swi. Tu-. 


Siswi, Swiswi, 




Tco-,Tu.. 


Ti-, I-tu. 


Hu-. 


T-. 


■tu-. -etu 


Si-nco, Fwi. 




•tu-. -itu 


■ti. -tu^. -itu 


•hu-. .ehu 


-di-, -ti^. -edu, 
-du 




Wu-, U^, Hu^, 

Fw-. 

-swi. -hu-. -ehu 


Ye, you, your 


I-ngui, 


Lnyui. Mu.. 


Nywinywi. 


I-nyu. Mu.. 


U-nywi, 


Ninwi, 




I-nyuwe. Mu-. 


■mu^. ■inu 


Mu-. 


•m^, -mu-. 


U-nwi. Mu-. 


Mwinwi. Mu-, 




■mu- (.?). 




•mu^. -enu 


-enyu 


-m-, -mu-. 


Ny-. 




-a-nyu 








-enyu 


-nwi. -mu-, 
•m-. -enu 


They, them, 


Aria, Weu, 


Wa, Acco, 


Waco Wa- 


A-wa, A^wco. 


Waco. Wa-. 


Aeo, A-n(a, Ma^. 


their 


Wato. Maco-, 
Ma-. 
-wa-,-ma-. -a-co 


Andua. Asu. 

Ma-. 

■Ccj. ■a^. -coco 


•wa-. -a-eo 


Wa-, Wi-. 
•wa-, -wi-. 
-a-wco, -a^vwe 


-wa^. -a^wco 


•CO. -a.-, -a-eo 


All 


-ofce or -ose, 
ose (2), y-ose 


-onfee, -conde 


-onse, &^c. 
Pia 


•cose. Putu 


-ose 


-cosi, -cosini 



This, these 



(4), m-ose (6), 
y-ose (8), 
ci-ose (10), 
t-ose (12), 
w-ose (14), 
h-ose (i6j, 
k w-ose (15) 
Uyu, awa or 
aa ; uyu, ii ; 
riri, yaya or 
ama ; keki, 
ii ; ii, cici ; 
rcorco ; tcotco ; 
kaka ; uwu ; 
kcokco ; haha 



Uu or uyu, aa 
or aya ; uii, 
ii ; ii, gaa ; 
ki-ya, i-ya; 
i-ya, zi-ya or 
zizi; iiti; tw-ii; 
ki-i;iiii;kw-aa, 
wa-a, mw-aa 



Hu-yu, ha^vva ; 
Hii-u, hi^i ; 
Hi^di, ha-ya ; 
hi-ci, hi-vi ; 
hi^i, hi-zi ; 
hu-yu ; hu^u 
(12), ha^ka ; 
hu^u ; hu^ku ; 
ha-fa; hu-mu. 



U-ii, u-yu, u-hu; Uu, awa, 6^1:. 
a-wa ; u-gu, 
u-yU ; ii ; i-li ; 
a^ya ; i-ki ; 
i-vi ; &^c-. 



Yuyu, aa ; iiti, 
ii ; riri, gaga; 
kiki, vivi ; ii, 
zizi; lulu; uii; 
kaka ; uu ; 
kuku ; haha 
(vava) ; 
mumu. 



GROUP C : BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 



log 



English 


II. 

Kikuyu 

1 1 a. Meru 


12. 

Kamba 


13- 

Pcokumu or 

Pfcokcomco 


14- 

Taita 

(Ki-dabida- 

Ki-sagalaj 


Taveita 


1 6. 

Nika 

(Giryama- 

Duruma-Digco) 


This, these 

{continued) 




U-yu, a-wu, 
u-yu, i-yu.&^c. 




U-co or U-yco ; 
a-wto ; u-gco 
or u-yto ; i-yco; 


... 


I-ye, ato, uwco, 
iyco, rirw, 6^^. 
-nco (yu-nco, 












a-no5, u-nco. 


That, those 


U-ria orixi-ria.. 


Uu-ya, aa-ya, 


Huyu-de, hawa- 


U-lya or u-ja ; 




i-nco, Q^c.) 
Ye-, CO-, 




a-ria ; u-ria, 
i-ria; ri-ria, 
ma-ria; ki-ria, 
i-ria ; i-ria, 
ci-ria ; rco-ria; 
tco-ria; ka-ria; 
u-ria ; ku-ria ; 
ha-ria 


&'C. 


de (or huyu-le, 
hawa-le), huu- 
de, hii-de, o^t. 


wa-lya or 
wa-ja ; gu-ja 
or -yu-lya ; 6^c. 




yu.ya, 
yu-yathu, 
yu-yahu ; 
a-riafu, 
a-riahu ; 
u-riat'u, 
i-riahu ; &rc. 
Hi- (Hi-yu,Hi-a; 
hi-u,hi-i; hi-ri, 
hi-ga; hi-ki, 
hi-vi ; hi-i, 
hi-zi ; hi-lu; 
hi-voj ; o-'c. ; 
aho Hi-co, 
Hi-rco, &^c.) 



Bad ... 

Black... 
Female 



Fierce 

Good 

Great 

Little 

Long, high, 
tall 
Male 

Old 

Red 

Rotten ... 

Short 

Sick 



-ru, -uru. -buku -bugu. Tabisie, -suka or -zuka -lagelage. -wiw 

■vii -wasi 

-iru, -wiru -ziu, -wiu -euzi Ny-ilu ; -a c-ilu -jiru 

■l^a -ka -ke. -kcove -ke. -awaka -ce 



Ny-iru, -iru 
ce. -te. -aci 



-guruki. -cogi -buku 

(-ri = sharp) 
-ega, -wega. -zeco, -ceco 

-sima 

-nene -nene 

-nyinyi, -nini -nini, Kanini 
-raia 
-rume 



-wrasa, -atsa. 

■baiigau 
-ume, -umiu 



-kuru, -buri. -ku, -nu, -tene 
Ki-heti $ 

-tune, -tuni N-duune. 

M-weco 
-uru or -buba -kico. -kigu. 

-ccou, -cou 
■kuhi -kupi 

-ruaru, -dwari. Mu-wao 
■rimed. 

Mo-ruaru 



-kali 
-ema 

-kuu. Bora 
-cucu 
-yeya 
•yume 

■zee. -kuru 

■kundu 

-lafa. -wcowa 

■fufi 

■cwaa, ■jwaazi 



■abili or -birie. 

-fia 
Ki-rani, -rani. 

■l<oli. ■ica. 

■boie 
■mbwaha, 

■bwaha 
■cace. ■tini 

-lele. -laca 

-lume. 

-a wcomi, 

-vcomi 
-a kala or 

Kale. -fwie. 

N-keku. -gcosi. 

Ki-demca 
Ngundu, 

M-kundu 
•cala. -worie 

-fupi 

-koiikwa, 
-koiigco 



■ekahe 
-edi 

-baha 

-doiigto 

-eza or -weza 

-ume 



-a kae. 
-a-sakaa 



-n-kundu 
-a kuwcoa 
-fuhi 
•cwajua 



-bice 
(cat tie), -gcoma 
(cattle and hii- 
vians) 
-siru 

■dzu or -dzcj 



■btomu. -nene 

-tite, -dide. 
-tembe 
■re 

■lume, ■dume 



■kare. -kuru. 

■vedi o. 

-kongwe, 

-koiiga 
•tune, ■dune. 

-kundu 
-cola 

-fuhi or-futi. 

-ivi 
-gongco, 

■kongco 



no 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



White 



II. 
Kikuyu 

II a. Meru 



■eru 



13. 

Kamba 



13- 

Pcokcomu or 

Pfcokcomco 



14. 

Taita 

(Ki-dabida- 

Ki-sagala) 



IS- 
Taveita 



16. 

Nika 

(Giryama- 

Dunima-Digco) 



■au, -eu. -kundu (?) -nafige. 

Mw-au, Nz-au {-zem = holy, -ceokwa. 
pttre) Mny-ange 



■ewa. Dy-ewa -eruve, -aruhe 



Above, up, on 
top 
Before 


I -guru 


Ulu, yulu 


Dzuu 


I-gulu 


Wanga 


Dzulu 


M-bere. Tene 


M-bee 


Usojni. Mbee 


M-bele 




M-bere 


Behind 


TSuta 


Edina 


Mo-ongoni wa-. 
N-singco ya 


Ny-uma 


Ny-uma 
Nga-lukco 


Ny-uma 


Below, down 


Xini. TJi. 
Rungu. Cini 


Pa-anbi , 
N-bini 


Dzi or Tsini 


M-sange-ni. 
1-si 


Si 


Tsini 


Far 


Ko-raiya 


Ku-atsa 


Kuye 


Ku-lele, Kula 


Hae 


Kure 


Here 


Haha 


Vaa 


Habfa 


Aha 


Aha 


Hiva. Haha. 
Vava. Hancd 


In, inside ... 


-a beni. Tieni, 


N-janue. 


-ni. Ku-zimu 


-a n-denji. 


N-deni 


N-dani. Mu^, 




■ini 


N-dini ya 




Ko-mweni, 
A-mweni 




■mco 


Middle 


N-gatigati or 
Katikati 


Kati. 
Vco-kati 


Kahikahi 


Gati 




Kahikahi 


Near 


-a ha-kuhi 
(-kubi) 


Pa-kupi 


Ha-fufi 


Ka-vui 


... 


Yevi, Hehi 


Outside 


N-ja. Ku-uma. 
TSima 


N-dza 


Yawa. Nse 


?i-gati 


pi-gati. Scome 


Ndze. Ku-nze 


Plenty, many 


-ingi 


-ingi. M-wita 


-inji 


-engi, -ingi. 
Lulilcoli 


Fwanda 


-engi. Abau 


There 


Ku-ria. Ha-ria 


Way a. Ekiiii 


Hu-kude. 


Ahco. Alya. 


Hala 


Hariathu. •ku. 






Ku-ya 


Ha-bfade 


U-kco. Kulya 
Aja 




Vara. Hiku. 
Hahco. Vu. 
Kura 


Where? ... 


-ha?, -ka? . 

Me-ha ? 
Me-ku ? 


Na-ku ?, -iba ? 


Ku .?, kuni ? 


Hiyco ? Haco ? 


Hi? 


Lavi ?, •hi ? 
Hikco ? 


No! 


N-di-6ta ! Aca ! 
Kco-ti-ri ! 


Tiwco ! 


Si-oyo) ! 


lii ! Haiya ! 
Mbai! 


Hai! Si! 


Mbai! Ha;a! 
Dzi! 


Not {with vej-b 


Ti-, -di, -ti 


Ti- (di-), -ti-, 


Si-, Ku-, Ka-. 


Si, Si-, Su-, 




pi, Si^, Zi-. 


as ■prefix, in- 




•ta- or -da- 


Ta-hu-. Ta- 


Sa- 




Kha, Kh', 


fix, or suffix) 






mu-, Ta-wa. 

Tco-(Tau),Te- 

(Tai),Ta-,6-(r 






Tha^, •ba 


To 


Ko)-, Ku-, Gu- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


-guba. -hora 


■kuna. -vcoa. 
-kanya 


-biga 


-kwita 


•biga 


•piga 


„ buy, sell 


-gura 


•ua. -bcoa 


-guya 


-gula 


•ztora 


-gula 


„ come ... 


-coka, -ka 


•uka 


-dza 


•ja 


•za 


■dza 


„ cut 


-tema. -tinda 


-dila 


•huna 


-sinja. -dema 


-tema 


■tsinsa. 
-dema, -tema 


„ dance ... 


-fewiiba. -ina 
or -wina 


-songa. -inaor 
-taeoka. 
-kuina 


■vina 


-haka 


■torcoka 


•zaziga 


„ die ... 


-kua 


-kwa 


-fwa 


-fwa 


■fwa 


■fa 


„ eat 


-ria 


-ya.lika.-uma 


-ca, -ja 


-jiga 


•la 


-rya 


„ give ... 


-hee. -ruta 


-neiiga 


-bfa. -yavya 


-hawa 


■inga 


•va 


.> go 


•bie, -zie, 
-inuka. -cera 


-enda. -bi 


-enda 


-gala 


-tonga 


■enda. -hua. 
•enenda. 
•hamba, 
•tamba. •laa 



GROUP C : BRITISH EAST AFRICA LANGUAGES 





II. 


12. 


13- 


14. 


15- 


16. 


English 


Kikuyu 


Kamba 


Pcokcomco or 


Taita 


Taveita 


Nika 




1 1 a. Meru 




Pfcokcomco 


(Ki^dabida- 
Ki^sagala) 




(Giryama- 
Duruma-Digoj) 


To 


Koo-, Ku-, Gu- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ kill ... 


■uraga. -urra 


-aa. -dila 


■yaga 


•laga. -pinja 


■koima 


-ulaga. 
-tsindza 


„ know ... 


•menya. 
•igua. -oi 


•dzi. -manya. 
•ese 


•dzi. -manya. 
•hambuya 


•manya 


•tisiwa 


-manya 


„ laugh ... 


■beka 


-t>eka 


•dzeka 


■seka 


■seka 


•tseka 


„ leave oflf, 


-tiga. -lekia 


■eka, lekya 


•yadza 


■siga 


•fjiya 


-rica, -rega. 


cease 












■laca. •sia, 
•sika 


„ love,want 


■enda 


•kyenda, 
•enda 


■enda. •dzaka 


-saya 


•kunda, 
•kundie 


-hendza. 
-kunda 


„ see ... 


-5na. -rora 


-ona. -dzidza 


-wna 


•ona. •Icola 


•wcona. 

•iyuwa 


-ona. -Icola 


„ sit, remain. 


-ikara 


-ekala 


-kaa 


•kala, •kata 


-ikaa 


-sagala, -sala. 


abide 












-kala 


„ sleep ... 


■kuma. 


•mama. 


-sindzia. 


■tungfura 


■pinzia 


-lala 




-cunga 


•kcoma. 


-yala 










-likwa 










„ stand,stop, 


-rugama 


-mama, 


■sumama 


■kaa kimu-si 


? •suma 


-ima 


be erect 




•umama. 
■ungema, 
•ungama, 
•umana 










,, steal ... 


■iya 


-ya. nea. ngea 


-iwa 


-iva 


•iwa 


■ia, iya 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN KIKUYU AND MERU 
No preprefixea. 

Class I. Mcu^, Mu-, M'- (mu-, yu-, u-, co-) ; 2. A- (a-) ; 3. Mco-, Mu- (mu-, u-) ; 4. Me^, Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 
5. TJi-?, Ri^, Di^, :• (ri-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya-, a-) ; 7. Ki^, Ke^, Ge^, Gi- (ki-) ; 8. !■ (i-) ; 9. — ,N^, J^, Ny- 
(i-, n-) ; 10. — ,N^, Ny-,Ci- (pi. also to I and 7) (ci-) ; 11. Rco-, Ru-, Lu- (ru-, ru-) ; 12. Tw (t(o-, tu-) ; 
13. Ka^ (ka-) ; 14. 00-, U- (u-) ; 15. Ku-, Keo- (ku-) ; x6. Ha- (ha-); (17. only represented by the 
suffix •ini). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN KAMBA 

Class I. Mu^, M^ (mu-, m-, yu-, u-) ; 2. A- (a-) ; 3. Mu^ M^ (mu-, m-, u-) ; 4. Mi^ (mi-, i-) ; 5. !• 
(i-, di-) ; 6. Ma^ (ma-, ya-) ; 7. Ki^ (ki-, ci-) ; 8. I-,T3i- (i-, ic-) ; 9. N- (M-), -, Ny- (n-, i-) ; 10. N- (M-), 
— ,Nz-,Ny- (n-, ny-, zi-, ci-) ; II. U-(u-,m-) ; 12. Tu- (tu-) ; 13. Ka- (ka-) ; 14. U- (u-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 
16. Pa-, Va-, Wa- (pa-, va-, wa-) ; (17. represented only by suffix -ini). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN POOKOOMOO 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, yu-,ju-) ; 2. Wa- (wa-) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, u-) ; 4. Mi^ (mi-, i-) ; 5. — ,Dzi-, 
Dz- (di-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya-) ; 7. Ki- (ki-, ci-) ; 8. Vi- (vi-) ; 9. N- (M-), Ny-, — (n- (m), i-, yi-) ; 10. Ny-, 
N-, — (n- (m-), zi-) ; 11. Yu-, U-, Rco- ((?/rf/w«) (yu-, ju-) ; 12. U- (u-) ; 13. Ka-, K'- (ka-) ; 14. U- (u-) ; 
15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Fa- or Pfa- (fa-) ; 17. Mu^ (mu-, -mu, -mco ; -ni). 

I 2 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES, &C., IN TAITA 

A trace of preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, u-, yu-, hu-) ; 2. "Wa-, Va- (wa-, va-) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, gu-, yu-) ; 4. Mi- 
(mi-, i-) ; 5. Iri., I., Ji., Izi- (li-, ji-, j-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya-, ya-) ; 7. Ki- (ki-) ; 8. Vi- (vi-) ; 9. Ny-, N-, — 
(n-, i-) ; 10. Ny., N-, Nyu-, Cu- (n-, ci- ?, ri-) ; 11. Lu-, Lto- (lu-) ; 12. Du-, Di-, Ru- (?) (du-?) ; 13. Ka- 
(ka-); 14. U-, Wu-, Vu- (u-, VU-, yu-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Ha-, A- (ha-, ku-) ; 17. — (-ni or -nyi) ; and 
traces of a La- prefix in Taita and Nika. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN TAVEITA 
Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, u-) ; 2. Wa- (wa-) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 5. I-, Iji-, Ni-? 
(li-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a-) ; 7. Nki- ?, Ki- (ki-) ; 8. Vi-, Wi- (vi-) ; 9. N- (M-), Ny-, — (n-, i-) ; 10. N- (M-), Ny-, 
— (n-, ji- orzi-} ; 11. Lu- (lu-) ; 12. Tu- (tu-) ; 13. Ka- (ka-) ; 14. Wu- (wu-,u-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Ha- 
(ha-) ; 17. absent ? represented by locative suffix, -ni or -ini. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN NIKA 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, yu-, w-) ; 2. A- (a-) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 5. Ri-', Dzi-' 

(ri-, i-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga-) ; 7. Ki-, C'-, Ci- (ki-, c'-) ; 8. Vi-, Z;"- (vi-, ^'-) ; 8 a. Vi-, Fi- (vi-, fi-) ; 9. N- (M-), 

Ny'-, — (n- (m-), nyi-, i-) ; 10. N- (M-), Ny'-, — (n-, nyi-, zi-) ; II. Lu-, Ru- (lu-, ru-) ; 12 '^. U- (u-) ; 

13. Ka- (ka-) 14. U- (u-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Ha- (ha-); 17. Mu- (mu- ; -ni). Traces of La- prefix. 



11. Kikuyu is spoken in the Kikuyu highlands, between Upper River Tana, and the Meru and Nyeri 
districts north-east and north-west of the northern slopes of Mount Kenya ; south-west, to the vicinity 
of Nairobi ; eastwards, to the TJeraka country. The Meru dialect (ll a) is said to be markedly distinct. 
It is spoken in the north-east portion of the Kikuyu area. The dialects of Kikuyu proper (which — 
standard Kikuyu — is the Kiambu of Fort Hall) are the following, according to Capt. G. St. J. Orde- 
Browne: — Nyeri (north-west Kikuyu); Ndia (south-west Kikuyu); Embu (Cuka, Mwimbe, Emberre, 
Tseraka, and Igcoji, east and south-east Kikuyu) ; and 11 a, Meru, or north-east Kikuyu. 

12. Kamba is spoken in Ukambani, between the Tana river on the north and the Ofigcolea hills near 
Kilimanjaro) on the south. It is bounded on the west by Kikuyu and on the east by the Gala, Pcokcomco, 
and Giriaraa tribes. 

13. Pcokcomco is spoken in the country along both banks of the Lower Tana, behind the coast-belt. 

14. Taita is spoken in the Taita hills south of Ukambani, west of Giriama, east of Taveita and 
Kilimanjaro). 

15. Taveita is spoken in the Taveita settlement, south-east of Kilimanjaro). 

16. Nika is spoken in the coast country behind the Swahili fringe, from theSabaki river on the north 
to beyond the Umba river in the south. 

' />/. No. 4, Mi-. 2 ? 14. FI to Ka-. 



GROUP D GROUP E 

THE KILIMANJARO) LANGUAGES THE USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



17. Caga (Mosi or Ki-mcoci) 

17 a. Ki-siha or ^ira 17 c. Ki-rombco 

17 b. Ki-macame I7d. Ki-meru 

18. Pare-Gwenco 

1 8 a. C-asu 



19. 

19 a. 


^ambala 
Bondei 


20. 
20 d. 


Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-dcoe 20 c. Ki-kwere 
Kim rima (Lima) 





17. 


18. 


19. 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, (Sf'f. 


Pare^-Gwenco 
18 a., C-asu 


Sambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Wguru 

20 b. Ki-dcoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Animal, wild 


Ny-ama.I-nd<a; 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama, Z-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama. Kala 


Ny-ama 


beast 


ma-ndeo 












Ant 


M-bwine.Safu. 
Malw-ondco, 
N-ondoj. 
Faafu 


Ma-cici. Ma-ra. 
N-geni. Safu, 
Kcokombirco 


Cungu. Silafu 




Silafu. 

U-tilitili. 
U-sawa 




Ant, white 


M-sora. 


M-sau 


Mu-swa 


M-swa 


M-swa 


... 


(termite) 


N-sau (17 b). 












Sawa (17 d). 














M-keni (17 c). 














N-ktoki (17 a) 












Arm 


Ku-wukco; ma-. 
(l)-<akco ; pi. 
ma-tokco or 
ma-ak<o (17 a, 
b). M-ktonco 


M-ka>neo ; mi-. 
Ku-wwkco ; 

ma- 


Mu-kcono3 ; mi- 


Mu-kconco ; mi- 


M-kconco 


Mu-kconco ; mi- 


Arrow 


M-fe. M-fi. 


Mu-vwi ; mi- 


M-uvi, Z-uvi ; 


M-dali, M-sale. 


M-dali. M-sale. 






M-bale ; fi-ale 




m-pale. 


Hcosa ; ma + . 


M-fulco 






(17 d). 




(M-tegu = 
trap-arrow) 


Golwa ; ma-l- 
(wooden 
tipped). 
Ki-gumba 

(iron tipped) 






Axe, adze . . . 


Scoka ; ma- 
scoka. Ki-aara 


Zuka ; ma + . 


Sezci) ; ma + . 
Ccoka. 


Hoya. 


Hoiya. Sezco. 






Ka-zcoka ; vu- 


U-hamba. 


Ki-huju. 






pl.h-{ilA) 




Hoya ; ma + . 
Gembe; ma + . 
M-bajco 


M-kcijmco. 

Gembe, 

Jembe 


Gembe 




Baboon ... 


I-fie (17 d). 
I-fubi or 
I-fuwe 


I-puve (18 a). 
I-fcolongco. 
Jcobco ; ma -f 


Ny-ani 


... 


Ny-anl 


... 


Back 


M-oiigco. 
Mu-hongo) 


M-Yongco 


Mu-gongco 


Mu-gongco 


Mu-gongco 


M-gongco 


Banana . . . 


I-ruti. I-ruyu; 


RtiYii;ma-ruYvi. 


Huti. Tonte. 


Huti ; ma -f . 


Tonte ; ma + . 






ma-. I-kundu 


En-didi 


Bukco. 


Tonte; ma-l-. 


Tundwi, 






(17) (tree). 




Mu-dizi. 


Tindi; ma + 


Tindi ( = tree). 






Nida (17 a). 




Mu-hoyco 


(tree) 


Huti {unripe) 




Beard 


N-gererto. 
Ki-leri (17 d) 


Keolco ; ma + 


Dezu 


N-devu; 
ma-devu 


N-devu 




Bee 


N-juki. Suki. 
piki (17 d) 


N-jiiki 


N-ycoki 


N-ycoki 


N-yuki 




Belly 


N-deu 


N-denyi. 
Ki-fii 


Tumbco 


I-fu 


Tumbco, 
U -tumbco. I-fu 


I-nda ; pi. 
zi-nda 


Bird 


N-dehe ; fi-lehe 

or N-dee ; 
fi-lee. Ki-lehe; 
si-. Ki-te ; vi- 


N-deve 


N-dege 


N-dege 


M-dege 


N-dege 




(17 c). 


* M-pale is 


the correct form 


of the name. 







114 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17- 


18. 


19. 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, &'c. 


Pare-Gwenco 


^ambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 


Kim-rima 






18 a. C-asu 




20 a. Jfguru 


(Lima) 












20 b. Ki-dcoe 














20 c. Ki-kwere 




Blood 


M-samu.U-sau 


Tsakame 


Sakami. 
M-pcome 


P'come 


Sakame 




Body 


Ny-imbi. 


M-wiri ; mi- 


Mu-ili orN-wili Mu-ili ; mi- 


M-wili 


... 




Mu-ili.M-bihu 














(l7). M-bili 












Bone 


I-fuo. I-fua. 
I-fiiha 


I-yua 


Mu-vuha 


Ki-vuha 


Viiha; ma + 


... 


Bow 


U-ha. Wu-da 
(17). U-rara 
(17 d) 


Wu-ra 


Luu-ta 


U-ta 


U-ta 


... 


Bowels 


Ma-ula 


... 


I-fu 


I-fu ; ma- 


Ma-fu (I-fu). 
Ki-nkunku 


... 


Borassuspalm 


Sawerco 


N-dcogco ; ma + 


Mu-vumeo 


M-bumco 


M-sala.? 
Mw-andu? 


... 


Brains 


O-rongco, //. 
nyo-. (Kibco- 


U-fura ; ma -f 


Uw-ongco 


Uw-ongco ; pi. 
b-oiigco 


Ubw-ongco; //. 
mb-oiigco 




Breast (man's) 


M-bafu ; ma-. 
Ki-ala ; pi-ala 


M-bafu 


Ki-fua. 


Ki-fua 


Ki-fuwa 




Breast 


I-vele, I-wehe ; 


Ki-kombe 


Tombco ; ma + . 


Tombco 


Tombco 




(woman's) 


ma-. 

Ki.beeta ; pi-. 
Ki-bcota ; 
fi-bcota 




Ki-wele 








Brother ... 


N-dehe (Old 


M-dw-eru ; pi. 


N-dugu. 


N-dugu 


N-dugu. 


N-dugu 




Caga). Mco- 


wa-dw-eru 


Lumbu. 




M-kulu. 






nco. Wa-ma, 




Mu-kulu. 




M-vuna. 






Mw-anama. 




Nw-ene-tu 




Mw-en'-etu 






Mw-ana-n-die 












Buffalo 


M-bcoco, 
M-bcohco, 
M-bcogco 


M-bcoyco 


M-bcogco 


M-beogco 


M-bcogco 




Bull 


^au, N-isau 


N-saco, 


N-kambaku. 


Kambaku. 


N-jeka. 


N-ombe dume 




Kin-saeo 


Tule. N-dama 


N-gombe 


N-gidumale 










{jz{V.) 


fi-gcosi 






Buttocks ... 


Ma-dak(o. 
O-rumco. 
Ki-sia. 
Ki-irarco. 
Ki-ruaruco. 
Ma-tulu 


^i-ndikco. 
M-bweca 


Tako ; ma- 




Ma-takco 




Canoe 


N-galawa, 
N-g^lawa 




Dalu ; ma- 


Dalu ; ma + 


M-tumbwi 


... 


Cat 


N-kite. Paka 
or M-paka 


M-nyau 


M-nyaco. 
Conjwe 


M-nyaco 


M-nyau 


... 


Charcoal ... 


I-kaa ; ma-kaa 




Ma-kaa 


Ma-kala 


... 




Chief 


Mange, Mangi Mangi ; wa + . 


Z-umbe. 


Z-umbe ; ma -f 


Z-umbe. 


J-umbe 






Mambco. 


M-fumwa 




M-temi. 








M-gcosi; wa-. 






M-fumwa 








M-fumwa 










Child 


M-butu. 


Kamw-ana ; 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana 




M-kcoku. 


wa + . 


m-kebe. Kaz- 


Mw-ana 


m-teke. 






M-ana,M-cona, 


Em-dconi 


anaka-kebej. 


m-teke 


M-dcodco 






Mw-ana, 




Ka-zana 










Uw-ana. 














K-eona ; wa- 














kcona 













GROUPS D AND E ; KILIMANJARO) AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



IIS 





17- 


18. 


19- 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, 6^1:. 


Pare-Gwenco 
18 a. C-asu 


Sambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 
20 a. Wguru 
20 b. Ki-dcoe 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 












20 c. Ki-kwere 




Cloth 


N-guwco. 


N-guwco. 


puke, Guni 


N-guwco. 


Suke 






Scoori. 


Scoori. N-sori 


Guni 








N-setco ; mi-. 














Swaari 












Coco-nut palm 


M-site 




Mu-nazi 


M-nazi; mi- 


Nazi 




Cold 


M-behco, Beco, 
M-bico. Ki-sie 

(17 a) 


M-behco 


M-pehco 


M-pehco 


Pehu. M-pehco 




Country . . . 


U-ruka ; ma-. 


I-sanga 


Ni-pi 


F' 


Si 






00-ruka ; 












njo-ruka. 














I-sanga; ma- 












Cow 


Mbe. N-ombe 


Un-umbe. 


Gcoma. 


N-ombe mo- 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe 




N-gumbe 


Ki-nombe 


M-buguma. 


yele 


M-buguma. 


m-twanzi or 




(17 b). 




Mcoli (juv.) 




Mcoli 


M-buguma 




N-umbe(l7d). 














N-ube (17 c). 














Umbe (17 a) 












Crocodile ... 


Ki-nyaiiiu ; pi-. 
Ki-nyaii; fi-. 
Ki-nyan. 
Ki-nyani 


Ki-nyana ; vi- 


Mamba 


Mamba. 
Bcomco 


Mamba 




Date palm... 


I-kangaci, 
Y-angaji. 
I-harara 


I-yangaci 


Mu-sala 




M-sala 




Day 


N-keonu. 


M-firi. Mu-si ; 


Mu-pi. Siku. 


Siku 


Siku. M-si, 






N-sanin. 


mi-si 


(Mu-pi = day- 




(Zuwa = day- 






Suku. M-firi. 




light) 




light) 






N-yimco ;//. 














m-umoj 












Devil 


A-sukoj or 
Wu-suko. 
U-sukwa. 
U-ketoj. 
U-kwale. 
Mu-rumu ; 
■\-a-, wa-, or 
ba- 


Swi ; ma + 


M-pepco 


M-pepco 


M-pepco 


• 


Doctor 


Mw-anga, 
N-gaiiga 


... 


Mu-yanga 


M-sangi 


... 


... 


Dog 


I-kite ; ma-. 
M-bara. 
Ki-ite; fi-ite 


Kite. I-gurco 


Kuli 


Kuli 


Kuli. M-bwa. 
Si-kcokco 


Mbwa 


Donkey ... 


N-dzoi. 
I-cungu. I-se 


Zcoe, N-zcoe 


Jcowe. 

M-punda. 
Ki-hongwe 


N-jcowe 


N-jcowa. 
M-punda 


M-punda 


Door 


Mw-ong<a. 
Mw-aiigco 


Mw-angco 


Lu-uvi 


M-langco. 
L-uvi ; ny-uvi 


L-uvi. 
M-langco 




Dream 


I-lcodia or 
Nya-lcodia. 
J-oria. 
N-dcocosco 


N-dorco 


Scozi. N-dcotco 


Scozi orN-jcozi 


Scozi ; ma- 




Drum 


N-gcoma. 
M-tingco 


N-gcoma 


N-gcoma 


N-gcoma 


N -gcoma 




Ear 


Ku-du. Ku-rui. 


Ku-rwi. 


Gu-twi 


Gu-twi 


Gu-twe 


Gw-itwe 



Ku-hi (17 a) I-sikico; 
ma-sikico 



ir6 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17- 


l8. 


19. 


19a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, d^c. 


Pare-Gwenc* 


Sambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 


Kim-rima 






l8 a. C-asu 




20 a. Nguru 


(Lima) 












20 b. Ki-deoe 














20 c. Ki-kwere 




Egg 


Li-borto. I -bore 


Tagi 


Tagi 


Tagi 






I-barwe. 












I -bore. 












N-gODJcO, 












In-goj^to 










Elephant ... 


^cofu. N-dcofu, N-jcofu 


Tembco, 


N-thembo). 


N-tembco. 


... 




N-jcofu 


N-tembco 


Sojvu 


Ngcogcomi 




Excrement 


Ma-rifi, Ma-rifi, Fari 
Ma-difi, Ma-fi, 
Ma-tufi. 
Ki-ala, Ki- 
ra^i, Ki-rar<o 


Ma-vi 




Ma-vi 




Eye 


Ir-isco. R-isco R-isco ; m-esco 


Z-ipu 


Z-i^u or T-iS6) ; 
m-esoj 


Z-isco. M-esco 


L-isco or S-isu 
M-esco 


Face, forehead 


Ki-amu ; fij or Ki-amu 
fi-. Ki-sangu; 
fi- 


C-ene ; vy-ene 


C-ene ; vy- 


U-seo 




Fat 


Ma-fuha, Ma- Ma-fura 
fura, Ma-fuda. 
Ka-nda. 
Sunya 


Ma-vuta 


Ma-vuta 


Ma-vuta. 
Lu-gala. 
N-gulunya 




Father 


Baba. Wan-de. N-dico. Vava. 


Tate. Isoj, 
Ipe 


Tate. Isoj 


Tate. Isco, 


Tata 




N-deco, N-die. Apaa(i8a). 




Ise 






N-deye N-dito-fct), 










N-die 










Fear 


W-ilai. 0-wu. J-oawtoha 
Wu-cowu. 
Wu-hcowa 


OOga 


U-coga 


W-coga 


•<■ 


Finger 


'Nni. Kimu-nu. M-nywi. 
Kimu-nyco, Fi-tola. 
Ki-nyco. Mu-nyu 
Mu-nco 


C-ala ; vy-ala 


C-ala ; vy- 


(.?) pi. Dtole 




Fire 


M-ohci>. M-oru 
M-odoj. 

Mu-roj 


Mu-otto 


M-otco 


M-otoj 


M-otco 


Fish 


I-kuiiga N-kunga 


Fi 


Fi; mafi. 
Gcobu 


Ny-ama ya 
ma-zi. M-bisi 




Foot 


Ku-dende. Ku-rende. 


Mu-lundi. 


Mu-lundi 


Ki-ga ? Ha-za 


Mu-gulu; mi- 




U-rende. Ku-mui ; pi. 


Lu-ayco. 




Lw-ayto 






(jl)-woo. ma-mui 


M-kconco 










Nya-wayco. 












Nu-tufu (heel) 










Forest 


M-sudu. Ki-amrco 
N-gera. 
N-gorwpco. 
N-gumi, 
N-gudu 


Mu-zitu 


M-zitu 


M-bagu 




Fowl 


N-guku N-guku 


N-guku 


N-guku 


N-guku 


... 


Frog 


N-geli. I-kura. I-rcome 
Kilw. 
N-gwale. 


T-ula 


J-ula 


J-ula 
















I-kilwa 










Ghost 


;\Iu-rumu; va- Ki-nje 


M-pepto. 


M-zimu. Pepeo Ki-zuli. 






i;rba-.N-gilico. 


Mu-zimu 




N-kaka 






Ki-rinji; fi-. 












Ki-ripe; fi-. 












pi-rinje; fi- 













GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO) AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



117 



English 



17- 
Caga, &'(.: 



Pare-Gweneo 
18 a. C-asu 



19- 
Sambala 



19 a. 
Bondei 



20. 

Zigula 

20 a. Wguru 

20 b. Ki-dcoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 



20 d. 

Kim-rima 

(Lima) 



Giraffe 


Ny-coli, (jOlii. 
N-dia 




N-deya 




N-twiga 




Girl, maiden 


Mw-ali 


M-bori 


Mu-ndele ; wa- 
Ka-ndele ; vi- 
Ka-vele 


Ka-ndele ; vi- 


M-ndele ; 
wa-ndele 




Goat 


M-buru, 
M-buri. 

N-daina(l7b) 


Im-bu2;i. 
M-buru. 
M-buri 


M-buzi 


M-buzi 


M-buzi. 
M-peeni (20 a) 


M-buzi 


„ (he) ... 


OOlco, Oreo. 
Horco 


Orto 


N-dwlcome. 
Fulata 


Fulata 


Fulata. Bebelu 


Bulata 


„ (she) 


M-hcoma. 


M-ytoma 


M-balika. 


Teogwta or 


M-buguma. 


Ttogwta or 




N-gcolcj. 




N-twycota 


M-buguma 


N-ttogcota. 


M-buguma 




Sawana (lyd) 








Ka-vulata 




God 


I-ruva,E-ruwa 


Ruwa. Suva 


Mu-lungu 


Mu-Iungu 


M-luiigu 


Mu-lufigu 


Grandparent 


Mu-eku. 


Kcoku 


BabaS. Wauo. 
Weya 


Baba S. Wau 5 


Baba i. Wau 5. 


. . . 




Babu 




Nyco-kwe 














m-kulu 




Grass 


Ma-ra. Ny-asi. 
U-weresi 

(17 d) 


Ny-ansi. Ma-ra 


Fcovto. Lu-puki 


Ftovco ; ma + . 
Inde ; ma -f . 
M-ani. Kusi 


Ny-asi. Z-ani ; 
m-ani 




Ground 


OO-rika. 


M-bai 


Lu-wangwa. 


pi 


Si 






W-anda (17). 










Si. Sumbai 




U-longo3 








Ground-nut 


... 


... 


N-jugu 


Sugu 


N-jugu 




Guinea-fowl 


N-ganga. 
I-raiia. U-furu 

(i7b).N-gelele 


Ny-anga. 
N-gelele 


N-kanga 


N-khanga 


N-kanga. 
N-kelele 




Gun 


Wa-leb«lw. 
Nge-bcole- 
bulco. 

Ki-pcjlcopcolco. 
Ki-alcalco ; fi-. 
M-bunduki 


Bwindiki 


Futi 


Futi 


Futi 




^ 


(17c). 












Hair 


N-dzui, N-ji. 


N-jui. N-zui. 


Fill 


Fili 


Lii-vili. (Lu-fili 


Lu-nyuele ; 




Ma-fuli, 


Seri 






=^one hair) ; 


nyuele 




Ma-fili 








Fili 




Hand 


M-kconu, 


U-hi ; ma-hi. 


Mu-kcanu. 


Gasa 


M-kconco. 


Mu-kcon&3 




N-kwnu. U-hi. 


M-k<onco ; mi-. 


Ki-gasa; -yasa 




N-konde. 






Ka)-cokco 








N-gumi. 





Head Mu-dco. N-rcae. M-rwi. J-ongco. Mu-twi 

N-hcoe. Mu-rue 

M-dcoe; mi- 
Heart N-goo. (I-hima N-g5eo or 

= liver) En-gcolco 

Heel Sedu, Sendu, Tutunye 

or Ki-sendu. 

Ki-sinanu. 

U-tufc* ; nyu- 
Hide N-jconi, ^coni. N-jeoni 

N-doiigoj 
Hill l-bici 



Mu-twi 



M-oyco. (I-ni M-oy<a 

= liver) 



Ki-haya 



Hippopotamus N-gerre, N-gerere 

N-gere 



Lu-kinga> 

Ki-lima 

M-vulu 



Ki-haga ; vi- 



Lu-kingco. 
Babu 
Ki-lima 

Ki-bonkhco 



Ki-fumba. 
Ki-gasa 
Mu-twe, M-twi Li-twe 



M-oycij. (Z-oyto 
= large heart) 

Ki-siginco. 
Ki-haga 



N-kingco. 

M-kcota 
Ka-lima. 

I-tunda 
M-vulu. 

Ki-bonkco 



ii8 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17- 


18. 


19- 


19a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, &-C. 


Pare-Gwenco 

18 a. C-asu 


Sambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-dcoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Hoe 


I-ebe (17 a). 
L-embe 


I-jembe 


... 


Gembe ; ma + . 
M-gembe; mi- 






Honey 


V-uki, W-uki 


Wu-ki 


U-ki 


W-coki 


U-ki, U-ci. 
Wco-ki 


... 


Horn 


OO-be; bebe. 
O-mbe ; 
me-mbe. 
U-hembe; 
m-hembe. 
U-embe ; 
m-bembe 


U-embe 


Lu-vea ; p/. 
fea or feya 


Lu-fea ; fea 


H-embe ; mp- 




Horse 


N-gungu 


. . . 


Falasi 


Falasi 


Falasi 


Farasi 


House 


Mba, N-umba, 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba. 


N-anda ; ma- 




N-uba, 


I-banda. 


Kaya 


Kaya 


N-anda. 






Ny-umba. 


I-huru 






(Z-umba = a 






M-bii ; fi-bii. 








large house) 






I-tengco. 














M-calco. 














I-tongoj 












Hunger 


N-jaa. Scotco 

(I7d). 


N-jaa 


Sala 


Sala 


Sala, Gumbco 




Husband . . . 


M-mi (17 a). 


Em-buonge 


M-gcopi. 
Mu-lume 


M-gtosi ; wa- 


M-gcosi. 
M-lume 


... 


Hyena 


I-fisi. I-fulu. 


I-batco 


Fisi. Bau. 


Fisi. Bau. 


Baw. Fisi. 






Sisi. I-rabulu; 




Ma-njak&> 


Ndzaku ; ma- 


N-dilili. 






ma- (i7d) 








Ki-ngugwa 




Iron 


M-inya, 
M-enya. 
Ma-ringa 


M-inya 


M-scomco. 
Ki-lama 


Ki-lama 


Ki-rama 


J-uma 


Island 


I-rua. K-inga. 
Ki-ringitia 


Ki-dara 


Ki-siwa. 
Ki-luwa 




Ki-luwa 




Ivory 


OO-be; //.bebe. 
Ma-hehco. 
U-embe Iwa 
pcofu. Ombe 
Ico nj-cofu 


regco or Gegco 


N-tembco. Fea 


Lu-fea. 
Tembco 


M-pembe za 
n-tembco 




Knee 


Nrl, N-dru, 
I-ndi, Ndii. 
I-riki. Keri 

(17) 


N-di 


Vindi. I-swi, 
I-zwi 


Vinti ; ma + 


I-di; ma-di. 
Vindi ; ma -f 




Knife 


Ki-pu; fi-. 
Ki-adu. 
Ki-copco. 
00-banga. 
Ki-andwi 


Ki-andwi 


Tuni ; ma -f . 
Sime. 
Lu-panga 


Tuni ; ma + 


N-g«la 




Lake, sea . . . 


I-ruwa 




Ziwa 


Ziwa 


Ziwa 


. . • 


Leg 


Ku-tendu, 
Ku-dende. 
U-rende 


Ku-rende 


Mu-lindi 


M-lundi. 
Ki-fumba 


Ki-ga; vi-ga 


Mu-gulu 


Leopard . . . 


0-basi. 
Ny-amanru 
(17 a). 
I-rumu. 
N-gwe 
(17 d). 
N-gulamu 


M-lula 


pui 


Suwi. Duma 


Sui. Duma 




Lion 


Simba 


Simba 


Simba 


Simba 


Simba 


••• 



GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



119 





17- 


18. 


19- 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, &^c. 


Pare-Gwenco 

18 a. C-asu 


pambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. ffguru 

20 b. Ki-dcoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Lips 


M-lcomu. 
M-comcd. 
I -rumbu. 
Fi-ramu (//.) 


M-umu, 
Mi-umu 


Mu-lcomco 


M-lcomco ; mi- 


Mu-lcomeo 


... 


Magic 


W-anga, 
N-sawi or 
Wu-sawi 


U-sawi 


U-pawi 


U-cawi. 
U-ganga 

(good) 


U-sayi 


... 


Maize 


Ma-hemba, 


I-emba, 


Mu-hemba. 


Mam-phemba. 


M -pemba 


... 




Y-embe, 


Pemba, 


Ma-pemba 


Ku-bonda 








I-mba 


Hemba 










Man 


'Nru ; va-. 


M-ndu ; wa-. 


Mu-ntu ; wa-. 


Mu-nthu, 


Mu-ntu; wa-ntu 


Mu-ntu ; 




Mu-ndu ; wa-, 


(£m-biionge = 


(M-geopi = 7/zy.) 


M-ntu; wa- 




wa-ntu 




va-. N-dumi, 


husband) 










'M-mi (vir., 














htisband). 














M-sorco 














{warrior, 














yotcng man) 












Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Medicine ... 






Mu-zi-yi 


M-ziye 




... 


Milk 


Ma-lela, Ma- 
ruwa. (-kama 

= to milk) 


Ma-riwa 


M-ele 


M-ele (-kama 
= to milk) 


M-ele. (-kama 
= to milk) 


... 


Monkey . . . 


N-gima. 
N-gcoonda. 

Ki-nangoyoa ; 
gi- or fi- 


N-tumbiri. 
N-gcoto. 
N-gima 


N-tumbili 


Tumbili 


N-tumbili. 

N-kima 




Moon 


Mw-eri, M-eri, 
Mw-iri, Mu-ri 


Mw-eri 


Mw-ezi. 
'Nw-ezi 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-edzi 


Mw-edzi 


Mother ... 


Ma, Mau, 


Ma-(o. 


Mu-lala (mid- 


Mami. M-lala 


M-nala. Mame. 


Mama 




Wa-ma. 


Ka-mangco. 


wife in Bon- 




Nyco-kwe. 






Mayca. Mae, 


Ma-e 


dei). Nyco-kwe. 




Nin-e 






Maye 




Nin-e 








Mountain ... 


Subalco. 
I-fumbu. 
I-fufu. M-sari. 
U-rto ; //. 
nkyu-rco 


Fumbu 


Mu-lima 


Lu-gulu ? 


Lu-gulu; ma-. 
M-lima. 
Lu-gundi 

(20 a) 


Ki-lima 


Mouth 


Ka-na. 
Fi-ramu. 
Dumbu, 
Rumbu, 
Lumbu 


Rumbu 


Ka-nwa 


Ka-nwa 


M-ltomco 


M-lcomco 


Nail (of finger 


OO-paa ; pi. 


N-jala 


Kombe ; ma -(- . 




N-kombe 


... 


or toe) 


paa. N-caa ; 
pi. n-jaa. 
N-jaa ; //. 
ma-njaa 




Lu-kombe ; 
n-kombe 








Name 


Ir-ina. R-ina ; 
pi. mar-ina 


R-ina 


Z-ina 


Z-ina 


Z-ina 


J-ina 


Navel 


Nkim-bumbucu. 
M-kufu, 
Ki-kufu, Kuu 


M-kufu 


Lu-kuvu 


Lu-kuvu 


Lu-kuvu 


... 


Neck 


Siiigco, 
N-zingco 


Zingco 


Bingco 


singco 


Singco 


... 


Night 


Ki-co 


Ki-co 


Ki-lco. (Kiza 


Ki-co. (N-gima 


Ki-lco 





ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17- 


18. 


19- 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, dy'c. 


Pare-Gwen&j 


Sambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 


Kim-rima 






1 8 a. C-asu 




20 a. Nguru 


(Lima) 












20 b. Ki-dcoe 














20 c. Ki-kwere 




Nose 


M-buo, M-bua 


M-bua. Pula 


Pula 


M-phua 


M-pula 


Pula ; ma-hula 


Ox 


N-gumbe, 
N-ube, 
N-umbe, 
Umbe, Mbe 


N-umbe 


N-ombe. 
r-ombe. 

N-jeku. 
M-palala 


N-ombe 


N-ombe. 
M-palala 


N-ombe 


Paddle 


... 




Kafl 




•.. 




Palm wine, 


Ma-lcoojti, 


Ma-lcoyco. 


M-pombe 


Tembco 


M-pombe 


... 


beer 


Ma-lcoycoti 


Ma-wa 










Parrot 


Ka-suku 


Ka-suku 


N-kwalu 


Kwalu ; ma 4- 


Ka-suku 


... 


Penis 


M-bcolu. M-kia. 
U-rumbi(i7d) 


M-cuni or 
M-cunu 


Tam-bcolco 


M-bcolco 


M-bcolco 


M-bcolco 


Pig 


N-guve, 
N-guwe 


N-guwe 


N-g^luwe 


N-guiiwe or 
N-gumwe 


N-gfuluwe 




Pigeon 


M-beta. 


I -beta 


puwa 


N-giwa 


Suwa 


... 


Place 


Wa-nda, 
Wa-ndra, 
Ha-ndu, 
Wa-ndu, 
A-ndu 


Ha-ndu 


Ha-ntu 


Ha-ntu. 
Ku-ntu 


Ha-ntu 




Rain 


Fuo, M-vuw, 
Vua 


Mw-era 


Fula 


Fua 


Fula 




Rat 


N-gyaha. 


M-bewa. 


N-gcojSwe 


N-gcoswe. 


N-gcosco. 


... 




M-bewa 


N-gcoswe 

(18 a) 




Gule 


M-puku 




Rhinoceros 


Bia. M-bura 




Falu. M-pela 


Pela 


M-pela 


... 


River 


M-fongco. 
M-edenyi. 
Mu-reny'. 
N-denyi 


M-fconyi 


Mu-tco 


M-tco 


M-tco 




Road 


pia, N-jia, 
N-jila 


N-jia, En-sia 


pila 


Sia 


Sila 


Sila 


Salt 


Mu-nyu. 
M-bala 


... 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nyu. 
Cumvi 


Mu-nyu 


... 


Shame 


Sconu. Sojni. 

I-reeze (17) 


I-rawa 


pconi 


^coni 


Sconi 


... 


Sheep 


C-toondi ; f i-. 


M-ondco. 


N-geotco. 


N-gcotco. 


N-gcolco. 


... 




I-ccondi ; ma- 


N-onzi (18 a) 


pamba. 


Samba. 


N-dcolcome. 






J-anria; ma + 




N-kcoscoycolco 


Kcoscogcolco 


M-bugumaj 






I-horima. 




(ram) 


{ram) 








(OO-luvi = 














lamb) 












Shield 


N-gaco, 
N-gawco 


N-gawco 


N-gawco 


N-gaco 


N-gawco 


... 


Shoulder ... 


I-veva 


... 


Wega, E-ya ; 
ma + , ma 'eya 


Wega ; ma + 


Wega 


... 


Sister 


M-pigicogoj. 


Lu-mbuya 


Lumbu. 


Lumbu 


Lumbu. 


N-dugu 




M-piki. 




N-dugu 




Zuguni 


m-twanzi. 




M-fuama 




mun-dele. 






Lumbu 




{i7d, 17 b) 




M-vele ; -vele 








Skin 


N-dongco, 
N-rongco, 
M-rongco 


N-jconi 


Babu 


Babu 


N-kanda. 
N-kiiigco. 
M-kcota 




Sky 


E-rua. I-buci 


Ka-YU 


Lu-wingu, 


U-laiiga 


Ku-langa 


... 




(17). Ma-fusi 


M-bifigu. 










(17 b). Ma- 




Mu-lungu 










rumbi (17 d). 














I-ruhu (17 c) 













GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO} AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 





17- 


18. 


IQ. 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, 6^c. 


Pare-Gwenco 

18 a. C-asu 


^ambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki-dcoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Slave 


I-pinga,I-singa 


M-sorco or 
M-zoroj ; 
va-zorco 


M-pumba. 

Mu-puna 

Mu-tunwa j 
U-|sisiza 


M-tumwa 


M-tumwa. 
Mn-dele 


M-tumwa 


Sleep 


Ma-dco, Ma-rco. 


Ma-rico(I-laa = 


... 


N-tongco 






Ru-w (17 d), 


verb) 










Toi-co (17 c) 












Smoke 


Mu-zu, M-su 


M-tsi 


M-topi 


M-cosi 


M-cosi 


... 


Snake 


pcoka, N-jtoka 


N-jcoka, 
Ny-coka 


Ny-ojka 


Ny-coka 


Ny-coka. 
(Z-coka = big 

snake) 


... 


Son 


Mw-ana. 


M-bwaiige. 


Nw-ana 


Mw-ana ; //. 


M-bwanga. 


Mw-ana 




M-paka. 


Mw-ana wa 




yu-ana 


Mw-ana 


mu-lume 




Mw-ana-ke, 


ki-umi 






m-gcosi 






M-ana-w-tomi, 














Ki-mana. 














M-sangi 














(17c) 












Song 


Ki-lbco ; fi-. 


On-gora. 


U-ila ; ny-ila. 


Zumco, (-imba 


W-ila 


... 




Ki-imbeo ; fi-. 


Lu-mbco 


Imbu 


= to sing) 








Ma-fina 












Spear 


Fumto, I-fumu. 
M-bere 


Fumco 


Guha 


Guha 


Guha 


... 


Spirit, soul 


Mu-rumu 


... 


Mu-zimu. 
M-pepco 


Pepoj. Lcohco 


M-zimu, 
M-oyco 


Mu-zimu 


Star 


Ny-enyeri, 
Ny-inyiri 


N-dondco 


Lu-tondcj 


Tondco 


Lu-tondco 


N-tondco 


Stick 


Ki-ri, Ki-di. 
M-senge. 
M-biiri. N-dici 


M-penge 


N-gcoda 


N-gtoda 


N-kcome. 
Bankcola. 
Fimbco 


Fimbco 


Stomach ... 


Ma-ula 




... 


I-fu ; ma- 


I-gu. Tumbco. 
Nda 


... 


Stone 


I -we ; ma-we. 
I-hco, Ny-ihco 
ma-hu 


I -we, I-bwe 


I-we. I-boj 


I-we ; ma- 


I-we 


••• 


Stool 




Ki-cumbi 


Ki-ti; vi-ti 


Ki-ti; vi- 


... 


... 


Sun 


E-riia, I-ruva. 
M-nengeri, 
N-nengeri ; 
mi-. (M-ui = 
stmshine) 


M-bari. 
Suva 


Zuwa 


Zuwa 


Zuwa 


Dzua 


Tail (of an 


N-kia. N-desi, 


Mu-ngwapi. 


Mii-kila 


M-kila 


M-kila 


. . t 


animal) 


Mw-asi, 
N-gasi, 
M-hasi. 
M-kuli 


M-sise 










Tear 


I-soru, I-saiu. 


M-sori 


ptozi; ma + . 


Stozi ; ma + 


Scozi 


... 




M-cenyere. 




Zi-pcozi ; ma- 








M-perere 












Testicles ... 


M-bcolco- 
ta^imba, 
N-dekere 


M-bulco 


Ma-humba 


Ma-humbu 


Humbu 


*.* 




(17 c). M-bo>lw 










Thief 


M-wiwi. 
I-langoj 


M-rangco 


M-bavi. 
N-wivi 


M-bavi 


M-bavi 


... 


Thigh 


Ki-nama. 
Ki-sojwu 

(17) 


Ki-nama 


N-onga. 

Ny-onga 


Ki-gudi 


Wambco 


• »• 



122 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17-^ 


18. 


19- 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, CJ^c. 


Pare-Gwenco 


pambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 


Kim-rima 






18 a. C-asu 




20 a. Wguru 


(Lima) 












20 b. Ki-dcoe 














20 c. Ki-kwere 




Thing 


Ki-ndu, 


Ki-ndco 


Ki-ntu ; vi-ntu. 


Ki-ntu ; vi- 


Ki-ntu 


Ki-ntu 




Ki-ndco ; fi-, pi- 




I-ntu ; 
ma-ntu. 
Nyi-ntu. 
Ka-ntu 








Thorn 


Mw-inga. 
Mu-pa, M-sa 


M-fwa 


Mvv-iwa. 
Nw-iwa 


Mw-iwa 


Mw-iwa 


... 


Tobacco . . . 


Mbatu 


M-batu 


Tumbatu 


Tumbatu 


Tumbatu 




To-day 


Lalu, U-lalu. 
I -nil, 'N-nu, 
Lu-nu 


I-sanya. 
Ycoco 


Lelco 


Lelco 


Dyelco. 

(Elco = now, 
then) 


Leco 


Toe 


Ki-mnyto. 


M-nywe wa 


C-ala 


C-ala ca 


Dcole (dya 


... 




Ki-nu. 


ku-rende 




m-lundi 


Ki-ga) 






Ki-munu. 














Ki-mconyo5. 














N-ni(i7d) 












To-morrow 


N-gama. 

Desi{i7b,i7d) 


N-gama. 
Yavco. 
M-tondco 


Ki-loi. Lu-vi. 
Mu-hitu 




Luvi. Ki-sindeo 


• ■• 


Tongue 


No-ilimi, 
U-lumi, 
0-limi,U-limi; 
fu-limi (17 b) 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi. 
Lu-laka {of 

beasts) 


U-limi 


Lu-limi 


Limi 


Tooth 


I-yco. Hehu ; 
ma + . Jeo ; 
ma-eco 


reyco or Gegoj : 
jil. ma-gego3. 
I-yeu 


Z-inco 


Z-inco ; m-eneo. 
(Ki-gegco, a 
long front 
tooth, a tusk) 


Z-inco. Gegco 


Dz-inco 


Town 


Mu-ri. Kanie. 
Ki-hong&3. 
Mu-ngto. Ki-ara> 


Ki-bare. 

Mu-ri 


Mu-zi 


M-zi. Kaya 


M-zi. Kaya 


Mu-kaia, 
Kaya 


Tree 


N-hi ; mi-hi. 
N-ri ; pi. fi-ri. 
M-di ; mi-di 


M-ri. Mu-ti 


Mu-ti 


Mu-ti 


M-ti. Umu-ti; 
pi. imi-ti 


... 


Twins 


Ma-asa, 


M-hasa 


M-papa 


Pasa 


Ma-vyaza 


... 




M-baasa, 












M-hasa, M-aza 












Urine 


Ma-ji. 
Ma-u-ham«, 
Ma-amo3, 
Ma-faamco 


Ma-mangco 


Ma-kcozoj 


Ma-kcoza 


Ma-kcozco 




Vein 






L-uge 


M-sipi 


L-uge; ny-uge. 
Lu-basi ; 
m-basi 




War 


Fi-ha. N-gondu. 
Fi-ta. Si-da 

(17) 


Fira 


N-kondco. 

(Ma-ta = 
weapons) 


Kondco 


N-kondco 




Water 


Mu-ha. Mu-ra. 
Ma-ringa 


M-ringa 


Ma-zi 


Ma-zi 


Ama-zi ? 


Ma-dzi 


Well, source, 






Ki-sima. 


Tekeloi 


Ma-lengu. 


Ki-sima 


spring 
White man 


M-zuingu. 
N-zungu 


M-zungu 


MQ-zungu 


Mu-zungu 


Ma-zi. Sima 
Mu-zungu 


Mii-zungu 


Wife 


M-bora. 


M-ka. 


Mu-kaza. 


M-vyee. 


M-vyele. 


M-kangwa 




M-ka, N-ka. 


Em-bora. 


Mu-ke 


M-kaza 


M-kazi. 






Mw-ana-wa-ka. 


Em-deku. 






M-kaza 






M-fele;wa-fele 


M-ceku 












(17 c) 













GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



123 




19a. 
Bondei 



20. 


20 d. 


Zigula 


Kim-rima 


20 a. Wguru 


(Lima) 


20 b. Ki-dcoe 




20 c. Ki-kwere 





Wind 


Beco. N-dimu. 
M-beh(o. 
U-tanu. 
M-kuma 
(17c). U-ratco, 
Mbu-ratco 
(I7d) 


M-kuma 


Pehco 


Pehco. 
U-hehco 


M -pehco 




Witch 


Mu-anga. 
A-lcoa. 
M-sawi, 
N-sawi 


M-sawi 


M-pawi. 
Mu-payi 


M-sawi 


M-sawi 




Witchcraft 


U-sawi 


... 


U-pawi. 
N-doywa 


U-sawi. 
U-ganga 


U-sawi 


... 


Woman ... 


M-fele Mu-ka, 


M-ndu-m-ka 


M-vele, 


M-vyele 


M-vyele. 


M-twanzi 




N-ka. 


Laco. 


Mu-vyele. 




M-ndele 






M-bora. 


Em-bora 


Mu-ndele 










M-ndu m-ka. 














Mu-ali 














{virgin). 














Mu-humba 














{old maid) 












Womb ... 


U-roj'co. 
U-nene. 
U-rudco (17 c) 


I-lemwa 


N-da 


I-fu 


N-da. I^fu 




Wood (fire- 


00-kui, N-gwi, 


N-g5i 


Lu-kuni 


N-khuni 


Lu-kuni 




wood) 


N-gu 


Em-pande 










Yam 


Ki-ya ; fi-. 
Ki-kwa ; fi- 


Ki-ya 


Ki-lungu 


Ki-lungfU 


N-kudumbe 




Year 


Mw-aka, 
M-aka 


Mw-aka 


N-waka 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 




Yesterday 


Wu-kcowu, 
U-kwau, 
Kau, I-wco 


I--yuco 


Zana. Tulco. 
Zuzi 


Zana 


Gulco. Zuzi 


... 


Zebra 


I-tikco 


I-tikco 


Punda 


N-kulco 


M-punda 
mi-lia 


... 


One 


-mui, -mu, -mco 


Mcosi, -mwi 


Bcosi. 

Mwe-iiga, 
-mwe 


Bcosi. 

Mwe-nga ; 
-mwe 


Bcosi. Mwe-nga 
or -imwe 


■mwe. Mcoja 


Two 


■vili, -wii, -bi, 
-vi, -wi 


•wi. Y-eri 


-ili 


-idi, -ili, -ii 


-ili or M-bili 


M-bili, -wili 


Three 


-hahu, -rarco, 
-radu 


-tatu 


-tatu 


■tatu, -utatu 


-tatu 


-tatu 


Four 


-ini, -nna, -ina 


-nna, -nne 


-nne, -ne 


-nne 


-nne 


-nne 


Five 


-hanu, -tanu, 
■tanco, -ranu 


-tanu, -zanu 


-sanu, -panu 


-panco 


-panco 


■sanco 


Six 


■radahu, 
-ndaru, 
-randaru. 
Fi-tanu na 
ki-mu 


Ndaru, 
-randaru 


Mu-tandatu 


M-tandatu 


M-tandatu 


M-tanda 


Seven 


M-fungade, 
Fungare, 
Fungahi. 
Fi-tanu na 
fi-wi 


M-fungare 


Mu -fun gate 


M-fungate 


M-fungate 


M-fungati 



124 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17. 


18. 


19. 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, <S^'<r. 


Pare-Gwenco 

1 8 a. C-asu 


Sambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Nguru 

20 b. Ki^dcoe 

20 c. Ki^kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Eight 


Nyanyi, 
Nyanya. 
Fi-tanu na 
fi-radu 


Fi-nana 


Mu-nane 


M-nane 


M-nane 


M-nane 


Nine 


K-eda, K-enda, 
Ky-enda. 
Fi-tanu na 
fi-ina 


K-enda 


K-enda 


K-enda 


K-enda 


K-enda 


Ten 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


Kumi 


Kumi 


Kumi. 
M-loiigco 


Kumi 


Eleven 


I-kumi na 
ki-mco 


I-kumi na 
ki-mwi 


Kumi na -nwe 


Kumi na mcosi 


Kumi na imwe 


Kumi na mwe, 


Twenty ... 


Ma-kumia-vili, 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-longto 


Mi-longco 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi a-idi 




or ha- will, or 


ha-wi 


mi-ili 


mi-ili or 


m-idi. 


or Ma-kumi 




ga-wi, or 






Mi-ongco 


Mi-ongco 


ma-idi 




ma-wi, or 






mi-idi 


mi^idi 






a-wi 












Thirty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-longco 


Mi-oiigco 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 




ga-rarco or 


ha-raru 


mi-tatu 


mi-tatu 


mi-tatu 


ma-tatu 




ha-raru, &=€. 












Forty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-longco 


Mi-ongco 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 




ga-nna or 


ha-ana 


nii-ne 


rai-nne 


mi-nne 


ma-nne 




ha-ana, &=€. 












Fifty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-longoj 


Mi-ongco 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 




ga-tanco, ai^c. 


ha-tanu 


mi-panco 


mi-^anco 


mi-sanco 


ma-sanco 


Sixty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-longco 


Mi-ongco 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 




ga-randaru, 
Ma-kumi 


ha-randaru 


rau-tandatu 


m-tandatu 


m-tandatu 


m-tanda 


Seventy ... 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-longco 


Mi-ongco 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 




in-funga(fe. 


ha-fungare 


mu-fungate 


m^fungate 


m-fungate 


m-fungati 


Eighty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-loiigco 


Mi-ongco 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 




nyanya, &=€. 


ha-nana 


mu-nane 


m-nane 


m-nane 


m-nane 


Ninety 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-longco 


Mi-ongto 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 




k-enda, &=€. 


k-enda 


k-enda 


k-enda 


k-enda 


k-enda 


Hundred ... 


N-gama (17), 
I-hana, Jana. 
Yana 


I -Yana 


Gana 


Gana 


Gana 


Gana 


Thousand . . . 


Lule. Kiku. 
Ma-hana 
i-kumi 


Ma-yana. 
i-kumi 


Kulija 


Ma-gana kumi 




... 


I, me, my ... 


Nyinyi, Inyi. 


Inyi. Ni-, N-. 


Imi. Mimi. Ni-, 


Mimi. Na-, Ki-. 


Miye. Muye 


Anye. Ni-, N-. 




Ngi-, Ng-, 


-ngi-, -nji-. 


Na-. 


•ni-. -a-iigu 


(20 a). Ni-, N-. 


•ni^. -a-ngu 




Ni-, N-, gi-, I-. 


-a-kwa 


•ni-. -a-ngu 




■ni-. -a-ngu 






-ngi. -ni-, -|si-. 














-a-kco, -a-kwa. 












Thou, thee. 


^i-cowto, Ico, 


Ibwe. U-, Ku-. 


I -we, Wewe, 


Wewe. U-, 


Weye. Berewe 


Wee. U-. 


thy 


Ewe, Iwe. 


-ku-. -a-fco 


Weco. U-. 


Ku-. 


(20 a). U-. 


•ku^. -a^kcij 




Wu-, Ku-, Ki-, 
Kto-, 00-, U-. 
•ku-. -a-fw, -fu 




•we. -ku-. 
-a-wco, -a-kci), 
-yco 


-ku-. -a-kco 


•ku-. -a-kco 




He, him, his 


00, We, Ye, 


I-s<o. A-. 


Yee, Yuja. A^. 


Yeye. Ka-, A-. 


Yeye. Ayu 


Yu^la. Yu^,A-, 




Yi-towu. A-. 


■m- -a-kwe 


•mu-. -yco, -ye, 


-mu-, -m-. 


(20 a). Ha-, 


•m-, -mu*. 




-m-, -n-, -mu-. 




-a-ye, -a-kwe 


-a^kwe 


Ka-. 


-a-ke 




-a-ke, -a-kwe 








-m-, -mw-. 
-a-kwe 





GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO) AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



125 





17- 


I 


8. 


19. 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, 6-<:. 


Pare-Gwenu 


Sambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 


Kim-rima 






l8a. 


C-asu 






20 a. Nguru 
20 b. Ki-due 


(Lima) 






Iswi. 


Tsii-, 






20 c. Ki-kwere 




We, us, our 


Ise, Ese. Sco. 


Ipwi, pwiu. 


Swiswi. Ti-. 


Suwe. Ki-, Ci-, 


Tiye. Ti-, T'-. 




Leo-, Lu-, Ta-, 


Swa- 




Ti-, T '-. 


-tu-, -ti-. -etu 


Ti-, C-. 


-ti-. -etu 




Ti-, Dw, Du-. 


-tsu- ? 


. -eru ? 


-tu-, -ti-. -pwi. 




-ki-, -ti-. -etu 






-lu-, -du-. -ehu, 






-epu, -etu 










-a-ru, -a-du. 
















-a-m<odu 














Ye, you, your 


Ine, Ini. Enyi, 


Imwe. 


Mu-. 


Inwi, Nwiu. 


Nwinwi. Mu-. 


Nyuwe, Niiwe. 


Nyie. Mu-. 




Nyco. Mco-, 


-mu- 


-enu 


Mu-. 


-wa-. -enu 


M-, Mw-, Mi-?. 


-enu 




Mu-. -nyi. 






-nyi. -wa-. 




-enu 






-mu-. -a-nu 






-enu 








They, them, 


Wco. Awa. 


Iwu. 


Wa-. 


Wau, Wawa. 


Wau. Wa-. 


Wa-dya. Wa-. 


Wa-Ia. Wa-. 


their 


Wa-, Va-. 
-wa-. -a-wco, 
-a-mwawco 


-wa-. 


-a-wu 


Wa-. 

-au. -wa-. 

-a-we, -a-u 


-wa-. -a-u. 


-wa-. -a-u 


-wa-. -a-u 


All 


•cose 


•ujse 




-upe 


-use 


-useni ; -use 


-ote? 


This, these 


-cu, wu, e-u, 


-i-ti; a 


-wa ; i-u ; 


U-yu ; a-wa ; 


U-yu; a-wa ; 


Yu-nu; wa-nu; 


Yu-nu Of 




u-ii ; a-ava. 


i-i ; &'c. 


u-nu ; i-nu ; 


i^c, much as 


u-nu ; i-nu ; 


liu-yu ; wa-nu 




a-wa ; u-fu, 






i-ji or jiji; 


in Sambala 


di-nu; ya-nu; 


or ha-wa ; 




i-fu, e-u, u-ii. 






a-ya; i-ci ; 


ki-nu ; vi-nu ; 


cy-'t., micch as 




i-ii ; i-i ; i-li ; 






i-vi ; i-nu ; 




i-nu ; zi-nu ; 


in Zigula 




a-ha, a-ga ; 






i-zi ; iJ-lu ; 




lu-nu ; 






i-ki ; i-pi, i-fi ; 






a-ka ; u-nii ; 




( ? wa-nu 






i-i ; i-ti, i-zi. 






ku-nu ; a-ha ; 




= Class 12) ; 






i-tsi ; u-lu ; 






u-mu 




ka-nu ; u-nu ; 






? u-tu ; a-ka ; 










ku-nu; ha-nu. 






u-u, u-wu ; 










ha-nu, u-mu 






u-ku ; a-wa- 














That, those 


U-lya, u-la ; 


-u-ya ; 


wa-ya ; 


^u-yu ; fa-wa ; 


-da (yu-da, 


Su-yu ; sa-yu ; 


Yu-dya ; 




va-la, va-lya. 


u-ya 


i-ya; 


fu-nu ; fi-nu ; 


wa-da, u-da, 


&=c. 


wa-dya ; is^c. 




wa-la ; fu-la. 


QfC. 




fi-ji; fa-ya; 


&-<:.) 


Yu-dya ; 






fu-lya, u-lya ; 






^-c. 




wa-dya ; 






i-la;li-la;ga-la. 






Yu-ja ; wa-ja ; 




u-dya ; 






ha-la ; ki-la ; 






u-ja;i-ja;ji-ya; 




i-dya ; is'c. 






p-la, fi-la, 6-=;:. 






ya-ja; ci-ya ; 




Uyu ; awu ; 






I-tco; i-vco. 






vi-ya ; i^c. 




uwu ; iyu ; 






i-wco ; i-tu ; 






^u-yu-ja, b^c. 




idyu ; ayu ; 






i-yco ; i-leo ; 






U-yu ; a-wu ; 




6-f. 






i-io ; i-kico ; 






u-wu ; i-yu ; 










i-fco ; i-yoj ; 






i-ju ; ^'c. 










i-tu ; i-lu ; 






gu-yu, yuyu ; 










i-tu ; i-ku ; 






sa-wu, wawu, 










i-tu; i-ku; 






&^c. 










i-u(l7b) 














Bad 


-bi, -bicu or 
-wicwa. -kasa 

(17 c) 


-icwa 




-wiwi. -bada. 
-baya 


-baya 


-iha 


-eha 


Black 


-rusa. -iu. -ngiu 


-uruhe 




-pize, -zize 


-zize 


-titu 




Female 


-ka, -kaki. 


-ka 




M-vyele, 


-ndele, -vyele. 


-vyele, -ndele. 


-ke. 




-kika. -fele 






-vyele. 


-buguma 


-buguma 


M-buguma 




(I7d) 






-n-gazi. -dele, 
-ndele. -kaza. 
M-buguma 

[for certain 
beasts) 






and -toguta 

{cattle and 
goats). 
-twanzi 
(humans and 
cattle). 



126 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





17- 


18. 


19- 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, 6-f. 


Pare^Gwenco 

18 a. C^asu 


^ambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Wguru 

20 b. Ki^dcoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


Fierce, sharp 


-senge. -cohi. 
-ui. -kyai. 
-awi 


■wawie 


■kali 


-kai 


■kali 




Good 


■sa. -ca. -nuru 


-hedi. ■ca 


-yedi. -tana 


-edi 


-edi 


■jomwa 


Great 


•nene, -nani, 
a-nana, -nini. 
■due 


■rwe. ■baha 


-iculu. -gima 


■kulu 


■kulu 


... 


Little 


-tutu, -nywa, 
■nya, -nyeo. 
■nana 


-du. ■dori 


-dcodco. -zihi. 

(Yeke =few) 


■dcadcd 


N-deodto, 
-dcodco. (-jece 

=few) 


■dcodco 


Long, high, tall 


-lepe. -apa. 


■aca 


-tali, -le 


-le 


N-tali; -tali 


-taU 


Male 


■aca 
■iimi, ki-iimi. 
■sorco, -nserco. 
■bunga (?) 


■umi 


■gupi. -lume 


■gojsi. (-dume 
or -lume 

beasts) 


■gcosi. ■dume 


■dume, ■lume. 
-bulata 


Old 


Kiio. -kuu, 
•ku 


Kya^kala 


■dala. ■huzu. 
■Sakala, 
■^akaru 


-dala. Bw-ende 


■dala [also 
' hard') 




Red 


-n^gundu. 
Ltandara. 
■iiare. Kya- 
motco 


■r&jtcome 




Ca-lungu^lika 


-kundu 


■kundu, 
-e-kundu 


Rotten 


■biru. ■bicu 


■wcoa. U^boru 


■vizu 


-wla (-vunda= 

to rot) 


... 




Short 


-fui. ■simba 


... 


■gihi, ■zihi 


■jihi 


■guhi, ■gihi 


... 


Sick 


■gorco. -ndore. 
■Icoeo. -saka. 
■ndwari 

(■Iwaa) (17 d) 


■ilua 


■tamu 


■tamu 


-a unyonge. 
-a utamu ; 
■tamu 




White 


■b<o. -ili. -ewa. 
■lyi, ■lya 


■ewa 


■zelu (light- 
coloured) 


-a na!a 


-a ku^nala, 
■izaiigala, 
■nala, -naza 


■eupe 


Above, up, on 


Huye N^duco. 


Kavu 


U^langa. Kena 


U-langa 


Ku^langa 


Ku^canya 


top 


Kaale.Dcocoka 












Before 


M-bele 


M^cozya 


Ma^zu 


Ha mi^lundi ya 


. . . 




Behind 


N.uma. N-ima. 
Ny.uma 


Ny^uma 


Ny^uma 


Ny-uma 


Ny.uma 


Ny-uma 


Below, down 


Si. Wa^nda. 


Mbai I ■pi 


Hi^pi, Ha^pi. 


Ha^si 


Si 


Ha^si 




Sumbai 


gi 








Far 


Ku^lepe. 
Ku^apa 


Kiia. Hale 


Ha^le 


Ha^le 


Ha^le 


Ku^lali 


Here 


I ■ha. E.a. I-ya 


I ■ha. A-ha. 
Kunu 


A^ha 


A^ha, Ha^nu 


Ha^nco 




In, inside ... 


Ki^idi. Kari 


Fcosi. Ndeni 


N^dayi. Mu^, 
u^mu, ■ni 


Mw-e^, ■i, ■ni, 
■mco 


Kun^dani 




Middle ... 


Kahikahi. 
Karikari 


Gati 


Gati 


Gatigati 


Ku^gati 


... 


Near 


Wa.fui 


Ha.fuhi 


H^ehi 


H^ehi 


Ha^guhi 


Ha-guhi 


Outside 


N^ja. Bcju. 
Suta. ^a 


Bw^anga. N.ze 


Se 


... 


Lse, Ku^se 


... 


Plenty, many 


■ingi. Foi 


Fanda, ■jinki 


■ingi 


■ingi 


■ingi 




There 


Kulya, Kula 


Kuya. Hala. 


A^hco, Ha^hw, 


Hada. U^kco. 


Ku^dya, 


..• 






Ahco 


U^kco, Tu^kco 


Kuda 


Ha^dya, U^kco 




Where? ... 


Kahe? Ku? 
Kwi? 


Kwi .' Hico ? 


Hi? Hii? 


Hahi? Ahi? 
Kuhi? 


■hco? ■kcoP-mco? 





GROUPS D AND E: KILIMANJARO) AND USAMBARA LANGUAGES 



127 





17- 


18. 


19- 


19 a. 


20. 


20 d. 


English 


Caga, &■€. 


Pare-Gwenoo 
18 a. C-asu 


^ambala 


Bondei 


Zigula 

20 a. Wguru 

20 b. Ki-dtoe 

20 c. Ki-kwere 


Kim-rima 
(Lima) 


No! 


Ote! Ode! 
£he! 


Obe ! Hai ! 




Chuu! 


Nkioo! Kaka! 


... 


Not {with verb. 


pi, Ci. -ku. fca. 


Si. Sa- 


'^\;'^?i-{\stpers. 
sing.), -ku- 




Xa. -ki- (N-ki, 




as prefix, in- 


-ndi 


Si-, Te- (T-U-, 




6^r.),-ku-,-ka-, 




fix, or suffixY 


Si-, pi-. Hu-, 


Te-, Tetu, 


(»ku-), -ka-, 




-kaki, ka-ni, 






Ha-(i7a).pe-, 


Te-m-, Te-ve) 


-ka-ti, -ka-mu-. 




-ka-wa. -se- 






pcj-, ga- 


{i8a) 


-ka-wa, iSj-c. 




(Ne-se-,u-se-), 






(17b)? 




Also -ke-, (S^f. 
pe-, -se- {ist 
pers. sing) 




also -hi-, -ha- 




To 


I- 


I- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


■kapa. -kava 


-biga 


-tcowa 


■tcoa 


-tcoa 


-tcoa 


„ buy, sell 


■tila. -ka 


-zora. -taga 


-Yula. taya 


-gula 


■gula. -taga 


-gula 


„ come ... 


-ja, -ca, -pa 


■ca 


-iza 


-eza. Scou ! 

(imp.) 


-iza 


-za. Idzco ! 


„ cut 


-wehaho. 
-manyia 


■tema, -temia 


... 


-senga. 
-dumula. 
-dwisa 


-senga 




,, dance ... 


•pina or -fina 


-fina 


-vina. -seziga 


-vina 


-vina. -seziga 


... 


„ die 


-fa. -kcomeka 


-fwa 


-fa 


■fa 


-fa 


-fa 


„ eat 


-la, -lya 


-lya, -la 


■ja 


-da 


-dya 


... . 


„ give ... 


■neka. -pa. 
-ninga, 
-nenga. 
-eleka (17 b) 


-neka. -inga, 
-iiika 


-inka 


-inka, -eiika 


-iiika 


-ha or -pa 


,. go 


-henda. 


■yenda. 


-hita. -yenda. 


-hita 


■genda. -hita 


-hita, -pita. 




-tonga, -eda 


-tonga 


-tamba 






■genda 




(17 b) 




(travel) 








„ kill ... 


-waha 


■wa-ya 


-kuma 


■kcoma 


■kcoma 




„ know ... 


■manya. -ici, 
-ipi 
■seka 


-ici. -manya 


-taila 


-manya 


-manya 


... 


„ laugh ... 


■peka 


-seka 


-seka 


-seka 




,, leave off, 


■leka, -lekia 


•piga 


-leka 


-leka 


-leka 




cease 














„ love,want 


-kunda. -ori 


-furie. -kunda 


■kunda 


■kunda 


-unga 




„ see 


•wcona. -luM. 
-Icolia 


-wcona, -vcona 


-una 


-cona 


-kaula. 
■wona. -Icdla 




„ sit, remain, 


■kaa 


■kaa 


-kala 


-kala 


-ikala 


■kala 


abide 














„ sleep ... 


■ilaa. -lala. 
-laa 


■lee. -pin^ia 


-lala. -gcona 


-gcona 


-gcona 




„ stand, stop, 


-lyika 


... 


■kima 


-gcoluka 


■kimala. 


-ima 


be erect 










-gcolcjka 




„ steal ... 


■iwa 


-iwa 


-bawa 


-bawa 


■bawa 





Chiefly by stiffix in the Caga group. 



K 2 



128 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN THE CAGA DIALECTS 

Very slight traces of preprefixes in the Sth, 9th and loth classes. 

Class I. M-, Mu-, N- (mu-, m-, wu-, u-) ; 2. Wa-, Va- (?Ba-) (wa-, va-) ; 3. M-, Mu- (m-, mu-, fu-, 
U-) ; 4. Mi., N- (17 c, 17 e) (mi-, i-) ; 5. L, Iri-, Ri-, — (Nyi-, Ni- ? 17 a) (li-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ha-, ga-) ; 
7. Ki-, Nki-, C-, ^i. (ki-, ci-) ; 8. pi-, Fi-, Vi- (gi-, fi-, vi-) ; 9. N- (M-), N-, Ng-, In- (n- (m-), i-) ; 10. N- 
(M-), If-, ffg., Nj-, In-, ^u- (17 c) (ti-, tsi-, zi-) ; 11. Lu- (Nu- 17 a), U-, O)- (lu-, ru-) ; 12. Tu- (in 17 b 
pi. to Ki- and Ka-), (tu-) ; 13. Ka-, K- (ka-) ; 14. 00-, U-, Wu- ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Wa-, Ha-, A- (a-, 
wa-) ; (17 and i8 absent). Note.—l-, the 5th prefix is used for the verbal infinitive instead of Ku-. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN PARE-GWENO) DIALECTS 

Very slight traces of preprefixes in Old Ki-mpale. 

Class I. M-, Mu- (mu-, m-, u-) ; 2. Va-, Wa- (va-, wa-) ; 3. M-, Mu- (fu-, mu-, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 
5. 1-, Ri- (li-) ; 6. Ma- (ha-, a-, nya- "■) ; 7. Ki- (ki-, ci-) ; 8. Vi-, Fi- (vi-, fi-) ; 9. N- (M-), N-, En- (Em-), 
— (n-, i-, y-) ; 10. N- (M-), W-, En- (Em-), — (zi-, zi-, tsi-, n- (m-), ny-) ; il. Lu-, Nu- (lu-) ; 12. ? want- 
ing; 13. Ka- (ka-); 14. Vu-, Wu-, U- (wu-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Ha- (ha-) ; 17. ? (-ni). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN pAMBALA-BONDEI-ZIGULA-MRIMA 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, Mu-, Nu- (mu-, yu-) ; 2. Wa- (wa-) ; 3. Mu-, M-, Nu- (mu-, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 
5. Dzi-, Zi-, Si- (Ti-), Li-, — (ji-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya-) ; 7. Ki- (ci-, ki-) ; 8. Vi- (vi-) ; 8 a. Vi- (vi-) ; 9. N- 
(M-), Ny-, — (i., n-, — ) ; 10. N- (M-), Ny-, — , Zi- (20 b), (zi-) ; 11. Lu- (lu-) ; I2. [Tu- is absent ; a prefix 
Wa-, Hwa-, Va- takes its place as diminutive-collective and as plural to Ka-) ; 13. Ka- (ka-) ; 14. U- 
[//. usually Ny-, M-] ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Ha. (ha-); 17. Umu-, Mu- (mu-, -i, -yi). 



17. Caga dialects are spoken on the flanks of Mount Kilimanjaro) from Rombco on the north-east to 
Macame on the north-west. Also the Aruga plain to the south and the outlying mountain ot Meru. 
Perhaps also the Mbugwe people on the south shores of Lake Manyara. 

18. Pare-Gweno> and 18 a. Casu dialects are spoken in the Ugwento and Mpare mountains south- 
south-east of Kilimanjaro) and east of the Rufu river. There is said to be a colony of Pare-speaking 
Bantu settlers in So)nyo), a district on the west of Natron Lake (far to the north-west of Kilimanjaro)) ; 
but these may belong to the ^agi group. 

19. ^ambala is spoken in the mountain region of Ufambala, north of the lower Rufu or Pafigani 
river. 

19 a. Bondei is spoken in the lowlands between Ufambala and the Swahili coast-strip on the Indian 
Ocean, north of the Lower Rufu. 

20. Zigula, 20 a. Nguru, 20 b. Kidcoe, 20 c. Kikwere, are spoken in the Nguru and Zigula (Uzeguha) 
countries south and south-west of the Lower Rufu and north of the Usagara mountains. 

20 d. Kimrima is spoken in the coast-strip south of the Pafigani (Rufu) river and north of the 
Kingani river, opposite Zanzibar Island. 

' Johnston in Ki-gwenco. 



GROUP F 

THE ZANGIAN LANGUAGES 



21. Swahili (Ki-uiiguja) of Zanzibar ; also Ki- 
hadimu or Ki-kae and Ki-ngcozi 

21 a. Ki-mvita {of Mombasa) 

21 b. Ki-amu. (2\z and 216.. Ki-siu (?r Ki-cozi 
and Ki-pate) 



2 1 e. Ki-tikuu (or Faza-Bajun) 

2 if. Ki-wibu (Ki-mrima and Kim-gaco), and 

2 1 g. Ki-ngcoje of A-ngcope 
22. ^i-aiigazija {Great Komoru) /^.) a^id 22 a. 

Xi-nzuani {Johanna J^.) 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tiktiu 


Ki-wibu 


pi-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cdzi 




21 g. Ki-ngtoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), <yc.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Adze 


Sezco ; ma + . 


Sezco ; ma + 


Sezco 




^eoka la-pwa. 
Ny-embe 






Jeca,Yeca(H) 










Animal, wild 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


N-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


beast 














Ant 


Cungu. Siafu. 
N-gwireo 


Tungu. Siafu 


Tungu. Siafu 


Tungu. Siafu 


^ungu 


... 


Ant, white 


M-cwa 


M-twa 


M-twa 


Mu-twa 


U-swa 


... 


(termite) 














Arm 


M-kconeo ; mi- 


M-kconco ; mi- 


M-kconca; mi- 


M-kunco ; mi- 


M-kunco ; mi- 


Mu-hconco 


Arrow 


M-pale; mi-. 
C-embe ; 


Wanco ; ma + . 


Wanto, 


I-vanco ; ma-. 


Tsonga ; ma + . 


Sembe 




C-embe ; 


I-T*anto ; 


C-embe ; 


M-omba ; mi- 






vy-embe 


vy-embe 


ma-w^anco. 
C-embe ; 
z-embe or 
■b-embe 


tj-embe 






Axe 


peoka ; ma + . 
Mu-ndu ; mi- 


Scoka ; ma + 


Suka ; ma + 


^coka ; ma- 


Scoka ; ma + 




Baboon 


Ny-ani (//. 
same) 


Ny-ani ; ma- 


I-yonda or 
Yonda ; ma + 


I-yonfla ; ma- 


Ny-ane 


... 


Back 


M-gongco ; mi-, 
Mi-ongto (H) 


Ma-ungco 


Ma-ungeo 


I-ungoo ; ma- 


Mu-ungco ; mi-. 
M-tana 


Di-ngoj; 
me-ngco 


Banana ... 


M-gomba; mi- 


M-gomba. 


M-gomba. 


M-sitani {tree). 


N-inga. 


... 




{tree). 


N-dizi 


I-zu ; ma-zu 


I-bu ; ma-bu. 


Ri-samba ; 






'N-dizii fruit). 






Ki-ccovi ; 


ma- 






Ma-zu 






tii-ccovi 






Beard 


N-devu 


N-devu 


N-devu 


N-devu or 
N-defu 


N-devu 


N-devu 


Bee 


Ny-uki 


Ny-uki 


Ny-ooki 


N-coki 


Ny-uki 


... 


Belly 


Tumbco ; ma + . 


Tumbco ; ma + 


Ma-tumbo), 


1-cumbco ; ma- 


Mimba. 


Imba, Mimba. 




Ki-nena 




I-cumbco ; ma- 




Ma-tumbco 


Fu (22 a) 


Bird 


N-dege 


Ny-uni 


Ny-uni 


N-eoni ; ny-coni 


Ny-uni 


Ny-unyi ; zi + 


Blood 


Damu {Arab.) 


Damu 


Damu 


Damu 


Damu 




Body 


M-wili ; mi-ili 


M-wili 


Ki-wiliwili ; 

zi- or fci-. 
Mu-ili ; mi- 


M-vili. TJia 


M-wiri 


... 


Bone 


M-fupa ; mi- 


M-fupa 


M-fupa 


M-fupa 


Kongcolco ; 

ma + 


p-iba ; z-iba. 

Mu-bwa ; mi- 


Borassus palm 


M-vumco, 

M-vuma; mi- 


M-vumoj 


M-tapa 


M-capa 


Mu-vuma ? 


... 


Bow 


ll -ta; nyu-ta 


U-ta ; nyu-ta. 


U-ta ; nyu-ta. 


Ki-gwe ; 


U-ta. U-pinde 


U-ta 




or ma-ta. 


U-pindi ; 


U-ca ; nyu-ca. 


fei-gwe. 








U-pindi ; 


p'indi 


M -pindi 


Uvu-ca; 








pindi 






mbu-ca 






Bowels 


Ma-tumbeo 


Ma-tumbco 


... 






Ma-rumbeo 



13° 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tiktiii 


Ki-wibu 


^i-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




2ig. Ki-ngcoje 


22 a, Xi-nzuani 




(H), &-(.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Brains 


Ub-ongco ; 
mb-ongco 


Ub-ongoj 


B-ongco; ma + 


Ib-ongco; ma- 


Uw-ongco 


... 


Breast (man's) 


Ki-fua; vi-fiia. 
M-tima. 
Ki-dari 


Ki-fua. 
Ki-dari 


Ki-dari ; zi- or 
bi- 


Ki-dari ; bi- 


Ki-fiia 


I-fuba, Xi-fuba 


Breast 


Ziwa ; ma + 


Titi; ma-f . 


Ve ; ma-ve. 


I-vee ; raa-vee 


Ri-wele ? 


Bele; ma-bele 


(woman's) 




Wele; ma-f 


Bu-bu ; ma -f 








Brother ... 


N-dugu. Kaka. 


N-dugu 


N-dugu. 


N-dii. N-dugu 


N-duye or 


Mw-ana nya. 




Dumbu (H) 




M-nuna 




N-dui 


Mw-ana 
nyahi 


Buffalo 


Ny-ati. Bcakco 
M-bui {diif- 
falo's horn) 


Ny-ati. 
M-bcog<o ; wa- 


Ny-ati 


Ny-aci 


Ny-ati 




Bull 


Fahali; ma + 


N-ombe dume 


Fahali 


Fahali 


. . . 


Konzco ; ma -f 


Buttocks ... 


Takco ; ma + 


Takoj ; ma -f 


Takco; ma- 


I-cakco 


Ma-takco 


Nzu 


Canoe 


M-tumbwi;mi- 


M-tumbwi; mi- 


M-tumbwi; mi- 


M-cumbwi. 


Mu-tumbwi. 


... 




Galawa. 


N-galawa 


N-galawa 


N-galawa. 


Mapua. 






Masua 






Masua 


Mu-kunu 




Cat 


Paka 


Paka 


Paka 


Paka 


Maka 


M-paha 


Charcoal ... 


Ma-kaa 


Ma-kaa 


Ma-kaa 




Ma-kala 




Chief 


Jumbe. 
M-faliime. 
M-kuii 


M-faume 


M-faume 


M-falume 


M-falume. 
Mu-twaco. 
C-eke 




ChUd 


Mw-ana. 


M-t«tco. 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana or 




M-tcotco 


Mw-ana 


Kij-ana 


Kij-ana 


Mu-tcoteo 


M-ana 
m-tsa 


Cloth 


N-guco 


N-guco 


N-guco 


N-guvco 


N-guco 




Cold 


Baridi {Arab) 
P'epw 


Baridi. P'epto 


Baridi 


Baridi 


M-epa> 


... 


Country ... 


In-ci. 
Jimbco ; ma + 
Ki-yambco 


N-ti • 


N-ti 


I-ti 


In-ti or In-di 


N-si 


Cow 


N-ombe m-ke. 


N-ombe m-ke. 


Kcoco la n-ombe I-kcoco la 




Ny-ombe fi-ke 




M-tamba; wa 


- Kuco la 
n-ombe 




n-ombe 




or n-pe 


Crocodile ... 


Mamba. 
N-gwena. 
M-bulu 


Mamba 


N-gwena 


N-gwena 


N-gconya 


■ •• 


Date palm 


M-tende 


M-tende 


M-cende 


M-cendeci 






(wild) ... 














Day 


Siku. M-cana 


Siku. M-tana 


Siku 


Siku 


Sikco. 

Mu-sana 


Haku? 

M-tsana 


Devil, evil 


Zcoka; 


Hojka, Zcoka. 


M-zuka ; wa- 


M-buka ; va- 


. . . 


M-subiani. 


spirit 


ma-zcaka. 
Ki-zuu 


Zimwi ; ma- 








Sera ; ma + 


Doctor (medi- 


M-ganga 


M-ganga 










cine man) 














Dog 


M-bwa. 
Hungwe (H) 


M-bwa 


M-bwa 


Im-bwa. 
Jim-bwa ; 
mijim-bwa 


Um-bwa 


M-bwa or 
M-ana 'm-bwa 


Donkey ... 


Punda 


Punda 


Punda 


Punda 


... 


M-pundra 


Door 


M-langco. 
Mw-angeo 


M-langco 


M-langco 


M-langco 


M-riangco 


Mu-angco 


Dream 


N-dcotw 


N-dcotco 


N-dcotco 


N-dcocco 






Drum 


N-gtoma, 


N-gcoma, 


N-gcoma, 


N-gcoma. 


N-gcoma 






Gcoma 


Gcoma 


I -gcoma 


I-gcoma 






Ear 


Sikiw ; ma + 


Sikico, Sikico 


Sikizi, Sikibi 


I-pikico ; ma- 


Sikirco ; ma -)- . 


pipioj ; ma -t- 

"KiiTi.t ' ma -t- 



GROUP F: THE ZANGIAN LANGUAGES 



131 



English 



21. 

Swahili 

(Ki-hadimu 

(H), 6-^.) 



31 a. 
Ki-mvita 



21 b. 

Ki-amu 

21 c. Ki-cozi 

21 d. Ki-pate 



21 e. 
Ki-tikuu 



21 f. 

Ki-wibu 

21 g. Ki-iigcoje 



22. 

gi-angazija 

22 a. Xi-nzuani 



Egg Yayi ; ma+ Yai; ma+ li ; ma-ii Ingi; ma-f R-i; ma-i 

Elephant ... Tembco. N-dcovu N-dcovu N-dcovu N-embeo or 

N-dojvu (H) N-embu 



Excrement 


Ma-vi 


Ma-vi 


Ma-vi 


Cu-bi 


Ma-bvi 


Ma-dzi 


Eye 


J-icco; ma-cco. 


J-itco ; ma-toj 


Itco ; ma-teo 


Y-itco ; ma-tco 


R-ipco; ma-pco 


Dz-itsco ; 




M-btoni 








ma-tsco 


Face, forehead U-sco ; ny-usco 


U-sco; ny-usco 


U-sco ; ny-usco 


Vu-sco ; ny-usco 


U-sco; ma-sco? 


U-sco 












Pa-cenye 




Fat 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


Ma-fuca. 
M-ori 


Ma-futa 


... 


Father 


Baba {old root, 


Baba 


Baba 


Baba. 


Vava. 


Baba. Ba-. 




?a.) 






(^co-we = thy 


pa 


Hala 










father). 












Ife, -pe; 














ma-ipe 
Ku-ca. 






Fear 


W-coga. 


Ku-ca 


Ku-ca 


W-coga 


... 




U-caji. 






Ki-cco 








-tipa, -tipw. 














Ku-tya 










, 


Finger 


Ki-dcole ; vi- 


Ki-dcole ; vi-. 


C-anda ; 


Ki-yaa or 


J-ala ; vi-ala. 


X-a ; pi. m-a 






C-anda ; 


z-anda. 


Ki-jaa ; fei-jaa 


Li-kombi 








vy-anda 


Ki-nwe ; 
bi-nwe 








Fire 


M-otco ; mi-otto 


M-otco ; mi- 


M-otco; ny-otco M-occo; ny-occo 


M-otco 


M-6rco ; m-erco 


Fish 


Samaki 

{Arab.) 


^amaki 


N-si. 
I-jisi ; 
mi-jisi 


I -si. I-jisi 


In-sui 


Fi ; zi-fi 


Foot 


M-guu ; mi-, 
M-guyu (H) 


Gtiu ; ma-guu 


Giiu ; ma-guii 


I-guu ; ma- 


Ri-ulu ; raa-. 
M-ulu 


M-diiu, 
Mu-ndru ; 
mi-ndru 


Forest 


Mw-itu; mi-itu 


Mw-itu ; 


Mw-itu ; 


Mw-icu ; 


Nundu 


Karco. 






mi-itu 


nyi-itu 


nyi-icu 




Mpa-harco 


Fowl 


Kuku 


Kuku 


Kuku 


Kuku ; pi. same 
or mi-kuku^ 


Uku 


Kuhu 


Frog 


C-ura; vi-ura 


C-ua ; vy-tia 


C-ua ; z-ua or 
b-ua 


C-uva-c-uva ; 
pi. b-uva- 
b-uva 


Rambe ; ma -f . 
Rume 


... 


Ghost 


Pepco. N-j{ozi. 
Ki-vuli 


Pepco 


Pepco 


I-buka ; ma- 


... 


... 


Giraffe 


Twiga 


Tiga 


Tia 


Civa 




.•• 


Girl 


Ki-jana. 
Ki-zinda. 
Mw-ali 


Mw-ana-mw-ali 
Kij-ana 




Kiy-ana 


Ki-simana 
mu-ka 


. . • 


Goat 


M-buzi {pi. 
same ) 


M-buzi 


M-buzi, M-but>i 


M-bubi 


M-buzi 


M-buzi 


„ (he) ... 


Beberu; ma + . 
(Kcoco la 
m-buzi, 
M-farika = 

female) 


Beberu 


Beberu 






M-buzi n-dume 
(M-buzi di-pe 
= ?) 


God 


Mu-ungu. 
Mw-enyiezi- 
mu-tingu 


M-ngu 


M-ungu 


M-ungu 


Mii-lungu 


M-ungu. 
M-enyizi- 
mgii. 

Mw-ezi- 
m-ungu 



Mi-kuku is an augmentative plural, probably taking place of No. 6. 



132 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


21. 

Swahili 
(Ki-hadimu 

(H), 6-..) 


21 a. 
Ki-mvita 


21 b. 

Ki-amu 

21 c. Ki-ojzi 

21 d. Ki-pate 


2ie. 
Ki-tikuii 


21 f. 

Ki-wibu 

21 g. Ki-ngwje 


22. 

pi-angazija 
22 a. Xi-nzuani 



Grandparent 
Grass 



Ground 
Ground-nut 

Guinea-fowl 
Gun 



EabuS. Bibio. Babu 

M-zee 
Ny-asi. 

U-kcoka. 

Jani ; ma + 
In-ci N-ti 

N-jugu N-duu 



Jani; ma + . 
Ny-asi; ma + 



Hair 



Hand ... 



Head ... 



Heart... 



Kanga 
Bunduki 

Uny-wele ; 

ny-wele. 

Ny-iwili (H) 
M-kcono> ; mi- 

(Ki-ganja, 

Ki-tanga, 

Kufi —palm). 
Ki-cwa 



Kanga 
Bunduki 

Uny-ele 



Babu 

Yani ; ma + . 
Ny-ika ; ma -f 

N-ti 
N-jugu 

Kanga 
Bunduki 



Uny-ee 



M-kconco ; mi- M-kconco 



Bibi 

ly-ani ; ma-. 
I-gugu; ma- 

N-ti 

U-tcokco ; 
tcokco 
Kanga 
Bunduki 

Un-ee 



Mu-kconco. 
Ki-canga 



^aku. Bibi 

Mi-ani, 

Miny-ani {pi.) 

In-ti 



N-kaiiga 
Bonduki. 

Mudugwe 
Ny-uiri (21 f). 

Ny-uli (21 g). 

M-kunco. 
Canja {palm) 



Ki-twa ; vi-twa Ki-twa; zi-twa Ki-twa; ti-twa 



Heel 



Hide ,. 
Hill .. 



M-oyco ; 

mi-oyco or 

ny-oycij. 

M-tima. M-coa 
Ki-fundco 

ca m-guu. 

Ki-siginco 
N-gcozi 
Ki-lima 



M-oyco ; mi- 



Ki-siginco 



N-gcozi 
Ki-lima 



M-oyca ; 
ny-oyeo 



Ki-^ikinu ; z 
Ki-singin» ; 
tji- 

N-gojzi 

Ki-lima 



M-oyco ; 
ny-oyco 



Ki-singinyeo ; 
fei- 

N-geobi 
Ki-lima 



Hippopotamus Ki-bcokco or Ki-bcokco ; vi- Ki-bcokco ; zi- Ki-bcokco ; fei- 



Hoe 

Honey 

Horn 

House 



Bcokco. 

Tcomondco 
Jembe or 

Gembe 
A sali ya 

ny-uki 
Pembe ; ma + 

Ny-umba 



Jembe ; ma- 

Asali ya 

ny-ula 
Pembe 



Asali ya 

ny-uki 
Pembe 



Ny-umba. Ny-umba 

J-umba; ma-f- 



I-yembe 

Asali ya 

ny-coki 
Pembe 

N-umba 



Ki-sua (21 f). 
E-swa (21 g) 

MQ-tima ? 
M-oyco 

Ki-nyunyu 



pambala 
Mu-angco ; 

mi-angco. 

N-drima 
Namondco 



N-yembe 

Ansali 

Lu-nyanga ; 
pi. nyanga 
Ny-umba 



N-si 
Tubi 

Kanga 
Buduki 

Uny-ele ; 

mi-ele. 

Ny-ile 
Mu-kconco or 

Mu-hconco. 

Sanza. PI ; 

ma-vi 
Hi-tswa or 

^i-tswa ; pi. 

zi-tswa 
M-uyco or M-co 



Tsinzconi. 
Koruwa 

N-gcozi 

M-ana 'xi-lima 



Hunger 
Husband .. 


N-jaa 
M-ume; 


N-daa 
M-ume 


N-daa 
M-iime 


N-daa 
Mu-vuli 


N-yela 


Hyena 


wa-ume 
Fisi. 

Ki-ngubwa 

{spotted hyena) 


Fisi 


Sumra; ma-)-. 
Sembra ; 
ma + . Pisi ; 


pumurwa. 
Pisi ; ma -1- 


Fizi 


Iron 

Island 


C-uma ; 
vy-uma 
Ki-siwa ; vi- 


C-uma 
Ki-siwa ; vi 


C-uma ; z-uma 

or t-uma 
Ki-siwii ; zi- or 

tji- 


C-uma ; fe-uma 
Ki-siwa ; ti- 


C-uma 

Ki-sirua. 
E-silwa (21 g) 



Nyonga 

Dagcoor Lageo; 

ma + {stone 
house). 
Ny-umba 
{with thatched 
roof) 

Ma-rusa 



GROUP F: THE ZANGIAN LANGUAGES 



133 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikiiii 


Ki-wibu 


^i-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




21 g. Ki-ngcoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), ^-f.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Ivory 


Pembe. Buri 


Pembe 


Pembe 


Pembe 






Knee 


Gote ; ma + . 
Futi (H) 


Gwti ; ma-f- 


Ondcd; ma-h 


I-gonju; ma-f 


Lundi ; ma -f 


Gungunco or 
Gunguni 


Knife 


Ki-su ; vi-su 


Ki-su ; vi-su 


Ki-su ; zi- 


Ki-su; bi-su 


Ki-dzu 




Lake 


Ziwa. 
Bwawa (H) 


Ziwa 




... 


N-tada or 
T-anda 


Dzia 


Leg 


M-guu. 
Mu-undi 


Guti ; ma + 


Guu; ma- 


I-guii; ma- 


Ku-tilu ; 
ma-iJlu. 
K-tolu ; m-tolu 


M-undu 


Leopard ... 


Cui 


T5i 


Tui 


Tuvi 


^uvi 




Lion 


Simba 


Simba 


Simba 


Simba 


^imba 




Lips 


Mi-oamco (//.). 
M-do>mco, 
M-leomco; mi- 


M-dcom<o ; mi- 


Mu-comoj ; mi- 


Mu-comco ; mi-. 
I-dumu; mi + 


Mu-rcomo> ; mi- 


Dcomco ; 

ma-lcomcd 


Magic 


U-cawi. 


U-tawi. 


U-tawi. 


U-tavi. 


U-sawi ? 


... 




U-ganga 


U-ganga 


U-ganga 


U-ganga 


U-ganga 




Maize 


Mu-hindi, 
Ma-hindi 


Mu-hindi 


Burn 


Buru 




M-rama burii 


Man 


M-tu ; wa-tu 


M-tu ; wa-tu 


M-tu; wa-tu 


M-cu ; wa-cu 


Mu-nu ; wa-nu 


M-tu, Mu-tu, 
or Mu-ntu ; 
wa-ntu 


Man, vir. ... 


M-ume. 
(M-vulana = 

a young man) 


M-iime 


M-iime. 

M-vule 


Mu-vuli 


Mu-lume 


Mu-tu-m-iime 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


N-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Medicine ... 


Dawa (Arad.) 


Dawa 


Dawa 


Dava 


Dawa. Tiba 




Milk 


Ma-ziwa 


Ma-ziwa 


Ziwa 


TSiwa 


Ma-ziwa 


N-zia 


Monkey . . . 


Kima. 


Kima. 


Kima. 


Kima. 


N-kima 






Tumbili. 


Tumbiri 


Tawau 

or Ki-tawau 


Tawau 






Moon 


Mw-ezi ; mi- 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-ezi; ni-ezi 


Mw-efei ; ni-efei 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-ezi or 

M-ezi 


Mother ... 


Mama. Nina 

{Kingeazi) 


Mama 


Mama 


Mame. Inya ; 
ma-inya 


Mama 


Mama, Mma. 

Nya 


Mountain ... 


M-lima ; mi-. 

Ki-ngurima 

(H) 
Ki-nywa or 


M-lima ; mi- 


M-lima ; mi- 


M-lima ; mi- 


Mij-angco ; mi- 


M-lima, 
Xi-lima 


Mouth 


Ka-nwa; ma-f 


Ka-nwa ; ma -(- 


Ka-nwa ; 


Ka-nywa ; vi- 


Ha-mwa. 




Ka-nwa ; 






ba-nwa ' 




gi-nwa ; pi. 




vi-nywa, 










zi-nwa. 




maka-nwa 










Ha-nyu 


Nail (of finger 


Uku-caa ; 


Uku-ca 


Un-yaa ; n-yaa 


U-dcoe; ma-dcoe Ombe {21 f). 


Fuu; ma-fuu. 


or toe) 


ku-caa. N-yaa 

(Kinguiei) 








Li-kcole (21 g) 


Kcdfu; 

zin-keofu 


Name 


J-ina; ma-t- 


J-ina ; ma -1- . 
D-yina ; maH- 


Ina ; ma-ina 


Y-ina ; ma + 


S-ina 


Dz-ina 


Navel 


Ki-tcovu ; vi- 


Ki-tcovu; vi- 


Ki-tcovu ; zi-. 
Ki-ccovu ; fci- 


Ki-kojvu ; bi- 


M-toy<o 


Tnntu or 
Kcovu 


Neck 


SijQgoj; ma + . 
' U-k«si 


Singco ; ma -1- 


^ingco 


Mico ; pi. 


^ingco. 


Singco 






rai-mico 


Lu-kcosi 




Night 


U-siku ; siku. 


U-siku ; ma-. 


U-siku ; ma- 


U-siku ; ma-. 


U-siku. (Kiza 


Uku. (Xidza 




(Giza = dark- 


(Kiza = dark- 




(Kiba = 


= darkness) 


= darkness) 




ness) 


ness) 




darkness) 






Nose 


Pua. Puya (H) 


Pua 


Pua 


Puva 


M-ula, 
Inti (21 f). 
Pula (21 g) 


M-biia or 
Pua 



Zth prefix showing the Ka- of the sing, to be a valid 13//? prefix. 



134 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuu 


Ki-wibu 


^i-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




2ig. Ki-iigcoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), a^c.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Oil palm ... 


M-cikici 


M-cekece 




M-cikici 






Ox 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-gombe 


N-ombe 


N-yombe 


Paddle ... 


Kasia ; ma + . 
Kafi ; ma + 


Kafi 


Kasi 


Kasi 


Kapi? 
Kasia ; ma + 




Palm wine, 


Tembto, 


Tembco 


Tembco 


I-cembco 


... 


... 


beer 


Thembco 












Parrot 


Kasuku 


Kasuku 


Dura ; ma + 


Dura 


... 


... 


Penis 


M-bcoco ; 
mi-bcow. Unie 


M-bco ; mi- 


M-bcoco. I-borco 


I-vorco. I-vcoco 


M-borco 


M-bco 


Pig 


N-guruwe 


N-giiiiwe 


N-giatiwe 


N-giiiive 


N-guluwe 




Pigeon 


N-jiwa 


N-diwa 


N-diwa 


N-diva 


N-jiwa or 
N-siwa 


... 


Place 


Ma-hali or 
Pa-hali 


Ma-hali 


Ma-hala 


Ma-hala 


Va-hali (21 g) 


... 


Rain 


M-vua 


M-vua 


M-vua 


Vua 


M-vula 


M-viia 


Rat 


Panya. 


Panya. Buku 


Panya. Buku Pana 


Panya. Fuku 


Puhu 




Buku ; ma + 












Rhinoceros 


Ki-faru. Pea 


Pea 


Pea 


Ki-faru 


Mera 




River 


M-tco; mi-tco 


M-tco 


M-tco, M-cco 


Mu-cco 


Mu-teo 


M-rco 


Road 


N-jia 


N-dia 


N-dia 


N-dia 


N-pira 




Salt 


C-umvi 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nyco 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nyco 


Mu-nyco 


Shame 


Hay a {Arab.) 


Haya 


Haya 


Haya 


... 


... 


Sheep 


Kondcoco. 

Kondcoy{o(H) 


Kondcoco 


Kondco 


Hondcoco 


Kondcolco. 
Putiputi 


Gonderu 


Shield 


N-gaco 


N-gaco 


N-gaco 


N-gavco 






Shoulder . . . 


Bega; ma+ 


Fuzi ; ma + 


Fuzi ; ma -f 


Fubi; ma + 


Ri-bega; ma-? 


Vihco; ma-f. 
Bega ; ma + 

(22 a) 


Sister 


Umbu ; ma + . 
N-dugu. 
Dada 


Umbu ; ma-f . 
N-dugu. 
Dada 


Umbu. 
N-dugu 


Umbu. Ndu 


M-lumbu ; wa- 


>• 


Skin 


N-gcozi 


Gcovi, N-gcovi, 
N-gcozi 


N-gcozi, 
N-geobi 


N-gcofci 


N-gcozi 


N-gcozi 


Sky 


U-bingu or 
U-wingu ; 
m-bingu 


U-wingu 


U-wingu ; 
m-bingu 


U-wingu 






Slave 


M-tumwa; wa- 
M-twana. 
Mu-hadimu 

Arab.). 


. M-tumwa 


M-tumwa 


M-cum'wa 


Mu-ja ; wa-ja 


M-ruma 


Sleep 


M-jakazi 5 
U-zingizi. 
(Ma-lalco = 

sleeping place 


U-singizi 

) 


U-sindizi 


U-sindit>i 


U-zingizi 


U-dema 


Smoke 


M-M|si ; mi-ojpi 


M-copi 


M-copi ; ni-copi 


M-cosi ; ni-cosi 


R-eopi 


M-cosi 


Snake 


Ny-coka. 
J-coka. (Fili= 

venomotis 
snake) 


Ny-coka 


Ny-coka 


N-coka 


Ny-coka 




Son, boy ... 


Alw-ana ; 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana ; 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana; 


Mw-ana 




wa-ana. 




wa-ana 


m-vuli ; 


w-ana 


mtu-iime 




Kij-ana; vi- 






va-ana, 
va-vuli 






Song 


U-imbco ; 
ny-imbco 


W-imbco ; 
ny-imbco 


W-imbco 


U-imbco ; 
ny-imbco 


... 


... 


Spear 


Fumco ; ma -1- . 


Fumco ; ma 4- . 


M-kuki. Fumco I-fumco ; ma- 


Mu-kuki 


Fumco 



M-kuke ; mi-. M-kuki 
Sagai; ma -I- 



GROUP F: THE ZANGIAN LANGUAGES 



135 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tiktiii 


Ki-wibu 


pi-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




21 g. Ki-ngcoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), &^,.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Spirit, soul 


Pepco ; p'epto. 
Hcoka, Scoka. 
Rcohco 

{Arai.). 
Mzimu ; wa- 


P'epeo, Pepco. 
Mu-zimu, 
M-zimu ^ 




Mu-t>uka 


Mu-zimco 




Star 


Ny-5ta 


Ny-6ta 


Ny-ota 


N-coca 


N-ondcoa (2 if). 
M-tada>a(2ig) 


Ny-ora, 
Ny-urra (Z2a) 


Stick 


Fimbco. 
Gongco. 
U-fitco 


Fimbco 


Simbco 


U-simbeo 




Tsimbco 


Stone 


Ji-we ; ma-we. 
M-bwe. 


Ji-we; ma-we. 
Dy-iwe 


I-we ; ma-we 


Iji-we; maji-we 


Ri-we ; ma-we 


Bui ; ma-we 


Stool 


Ki-ti 


Ki-ti 


Ki-ti 


Ki-ci 


Ki-ti 


Xi-ri 


Sun 


Jua; ma+ 


Jua ; ma + . 
Dyua 


Yua ; ma -f 


Yuva ; ma + 


N-yua, Jua 


I-dzua or Zna. 


Tail 


M-kia ; mi-kia 


M-kia 


M-kia 


M-kiya ; mi- 


Ru-kira 


... 


Tear 


Ccozi ; ma + 


Tcozi ; ma + 


Tcozi ; ma + 


I-tcotsi ; ma- 


Tscozi ; ma + 


Ma-tscozi ipl.) 


Testicles ... 


Pumbu; ma + . 
Tambcoa 


Pumbu ; ma + 


Kende ; ma-f 


I-kende ; ma- 




Pumbco. Qense 
or Konnezi 


Thief 


Mw-ivi ; w-evi. 
Mw-izi; w-ezi 


Mvv-ivi ; w-evi 


Mw-izi ; w-ezi. 
Mw-ibi; w-ibi 


Mw-ibi ; v-it)i 


Mu-ivi ; w-evi 




Thigh 


PajaorU-paja. 
Ki-weco 


U-paja 


Ki-weco ; 
zi-weco or 
bi-weco 


Ki-veco ; fei-veco 


Paja 


Paja 


Thing 


Ki-tu ; vi-tu. 
J-ambco ; 
m-ambco 


Ki-tu ; vi-tu 


Ki-tu ; zi-tu or 
ti-tu 


Ki-cu ; ti-cu 


Ki-nu. (C-uma 

= property) 


pi-ntu ; zi-ntu 


Thorn 


Mw-iba ; 
mi-iba 


Mw-iba 


Mw-iwa, 

Mw-iva 


Mw-iva 


... 


... 


Tobacco ... 


Tumbakco 


Tumbakco 


Tumbakco 


Tumbakco 


Tumbakco 


... 


To-day ... 


Leco 


Leco 


Yeco 


Eco 


Lelco, Rerco, 
Reru 


Leco 


Toe 


Ki-dcole ca 
m-gtiii 


Ki-dcole ca giiu 


C-anda ca guu. 
Ki-nwe ca 
guu 


Ki-yaa ca i-gu 


... 


S-aya pa m-duu 


To-morrow 


Ke^co 
U-nju 

{Kifemba). 


Kepco 


Ke^co 


Kepco 


Ma-tsesu 




„ the day Keg<o-ku-twa. 


M-tondco 


M-tondeo 


M-condco 


M-tondco 




after 


M-tondco 












Tongue ... 


U-limi; n-dimi. 
Ki-dimi (H) 


U-limi 


U-limi 


U-limi 


Ru-rimi, 
Lu-rimi 


U-limi ; n-dimi 


Tooth 


J-inco ; m-enco 


J-inco or 


Inco ; m-enco. 


I-enyco ; 


R-incoorR-inu; 


Dz-inyeo ; 






Dy-inco ; 


Y-enco or 


m-enyco 


m-enco 


ma-nyco 






m-enco 


Enco ; m-enco 








Town 


M-ji; mi-ji. 
Kiji-ji; viji-ji 


M-ji ; mi-ji. 
Kiji-ji 


Mu-i ; mi-i. 
Kiji-yi 


Mu-yi ; mi-yi 


Mu-dl (21 g). 


M-ji 


Tree 


M-ti; rai-ti 


M-ti; mi-ti 


M-ti, M-ci 


Mii-ci ; mi-ci 


Mu-ti 


Mw-iri, Mu-rrco 
or Mo-ri ; pi. 
mi-ri 


Twins 


Paca ; ma + . 
M-siwanda 

(H) 


Pata ; ma + 


Pata ; pata- 
pata 


Pata ; pata- 
pata 


Ri-papa; ma-f 


... 


Urine 


M-kcojco 


M-kcojco 


M-koyco. Bau 


Ma-nne 


Mi-kcojco 


Kcozco 


Vein 


M-pipa ; mi- 


M-pipa 


M-sipa 


M-pipa 


Mu-sipa, 
Mu-sipe 


... 



^ From -zimu, to become invisible, to be about to die. 



136 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuu 


Ki-wibu 


gi-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




21 g. Ki-ngeoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), &-€.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 









War .. 
Water 



Vi-ta 

Ma-ji 



Vi-ta 
Ma-dyi 



Zi-ta or Tji-ta 

Ma-i 



ti-ca 

Ma-yi 



Kondco. Vi-ta Huana 



Ma-zi, Ma-ji 



Ma-ji or 
Ma-zyi. 

Ma-pe (22 a) 



Well, source 


Ki-sima 


Ki-sima 


... 




• • . 


N-dzitsu 


White man 


M-zungu 


M-zungu 


M-zungu 


M-t>ungu 


MQ-zungwe 




Wife 


Mw-ana, Nana 


M-ke ; wa-ke 


M-ke 


Mu-ke 


Mu-ka 


Mu-haza. 




(disiinct fro?n 










M-pe 




' child ', means 














' mistress of 














household'). 














M-ke ; wa-ke 












Wind 


U-pepoj; p'epci) 


U-pepeo 


U-pepco 


U-pepco 


M-epoj (21 f) 


M-bevoo, 
Peva 
or Pevci) 














Witch 


M-cawi ; wa- 


M-tawi 


M-tawi 


M-tavi 


M-psawi (21 f) 


M-ganga 


Witchcraft 


U-cawi. 
U-anga 


U-tawi 


U-tawi 


U-tavi 


U-sawi 


... 


Woman . . . 


Mw-ana-m-ke. 


Mw-ana-m-ke 


M-tu-m-ke or 


M-cu mu-ke ; 


Mu-ka 


►M-rii-m-se, 




M-ke ; wa-ke 




M-cu-m-ke 


wa-cu-wa-ke 




M-tu-m-pe;//. 
wa-ntu-wa-pe 


Womb 


M-ji. Tumbto 


Tumbco la 


Ma-tumbca ya 


I-cumb(o la 


Mimba 




la u-zazi. 


u-zazi 


u-bat)i 


ku-t>aa 








Mimba 












Wood (fire- 


U-kuni ; kuni 


U-kuni 


U-kuni 


U-kuni 


Ru-kuni 


... 


w^ood) 












, 


Yam 


Ki-azi ki-kiiii. 
Jimbi ; ma -f 


Ki-azi ki-kiiii 


Ki-azi ki-kiiu 


Ki-at>i ki-ktiu 




Xi-azi 


Year 


Mw-aka ; mi- 


Mw-aka ; mi- 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka; ni- 


Mw-aka ; mi- 


M-pa or 
Mu-aha 


Yesterday 


Jana. Juzi 

(day before) 


Dyana 


Yana 


I-yana 


Dz-ana, I-jana. 
I-juzi (day 
before) 


Vco-^ana. 
Vco-zuzi 


Zebra 


Punda mi-lia 


Punda mi-lia 


Punda mi-lia 


Punda mi-lia 


... 





One ... 


-mooja. Meosi 


-mcoja. -mojsi 


-mcoya. 


-mcoya. 


-mcodya,-mcoja. 


Monsi, Mcodze 








Mw-anda 


Mw-anda 


Mcozi 


Mundzi. 
Mcoza, Mcdsa 


Two ... 


-will, -bili. 


-bili, -will, 


-bili, -will, 


-bili, -vili, 


-biri, -viri 


-bili, -ili 




-wiri 


-pili 


-pili 


-pili 






Three... 


.. -tatu 


-tatu 


-tatu 


-cacu 


-tatu. N-atu 


-taru, -raru 


Four ... 


-nne 


-nne 


-nne 


-nne 


-ne 


-nne. Nai 


Five ... 


-tanco 


-tanu 


-tanco 


-tanco 


-tanu, -lanu 


-sanco, -tsanco. 
-dzanvu 


Six ... 


.. Sita (Arab.). 
M-tandatu 


Sita 


Sita 


Sita 


M-tandatu. 
Sita 


N-tandaru 


Seven . . . 


Sabaa (Arab.). 
M -fun gate 


Sabaa 


Saba 


Saba 


M-fungate. 
Saba 


M-fukari or 
-kare 


Eight ... 


-nane 


Nane, -nane 


-nane 


-nane 


-nane 


Nane 


Nine ... 


Kenda 


Kenda 


Kenda 


I -kenda 


Kenda 


Senda, 
' Xenda, 
N-pinda 


Ten ... 
Eleven 


.. Kumi. 

Mu-ongco ; 
mi-ongco 
Kumi na mcoia 


Kumi 

Kumi na mcoja 


-kumi. 
Mu-ongco 

Kuminamcoi 


-kumi 
/a Kumi na mo^ 


-kumi 
ya. Kumi na mcozi 


Kumi ; 
ma-ngumi 

Kumi na mwza 



GROUP F: THE ZANGIAN LANGUAGES 



137 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuu 


Ki-wibu 


^i-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




21 g. Ki-ngcoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), &^c.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 








Twenty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


M-engco m-ili 




ma-wili 


wa-wili 


ma-wili. 


ma-vili 


ma-viri. 


or M-ingco or 




(•wiri). 




Mi-ongco 


Mi-ongco 


Inpiriri 


Ma-ng^m' ili 




Mi-ongco 




mi-wili 


mi-vili 


a Arab. 






mi-wili (-wiri) 








Iprin ?) 




Thirty ... 


Ala-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-ngumi taru 




ma-tatu 


ma-tatu 


ma-tatu. 
Mi-ongco 
mi-tatu 


ma-cacu 


ma-tatu 


or raru or 

M^ingco 

mi-taru 


Forty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-ngum' 




ma-nne 


ma-nne 


ina-nne 


ma-nne 


ma-ne 


a-nne or 

M-iiigco 

mi-nne 


Fifty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-ngumi 




ma-tanco 


ma-tanco 


ma-tanco 


ma-tanco 


ma-lanu 


tsanco or 

M-ingco 

mi-sanco 

(mi-dzanco) 


Hundred ... 


Mia (Arab.). 


Mia 


Mia 


Mia 


Ma-kumi 


I-jana or Sana 




Gana 








-kumi. Mia 












{Arab.) 




Thousand... 


Ki-kwi; vi-kwi. 


Alfu 


Alfu 


Alfu 


.? Ci-kwi. 


p-uhi; z-uhi 
(z-uhi z-ili = 




Elfu (Arab.) 








Mia kumi 














2,000) 


I, me, my ... 


Mimi, Miye. 


Mimi, Miye. 


Mimi. N-, Ni-, 


I-mi. N-, Ni-, 


U-mi, OO-mi. 


Wa^mi. Isi^, 




N-, Ni-. 


N-, Ni-, Hu-. 


Hu-. 


Hu.. 


N-, Ni-, Gi- ? ' 


Ntsi-. 




-mi. -ni-. 


-mi. -ni-. 


-mi. -ni-. 


•ni-. -a-ngu 


-mi. -ni-. 


-ni-. -a-ngu 




-a-iigu 


-a-ngu 


-a-ngu 




-a-ngu 




Thou, thee, 


Wewe, Weye. 


Wewe, Weye. 


Wewe. U-. 


U-we. U-. 


U-we, Wewe. 


Wa-we. U-. 


thy 


U-. 


U-. 


-we. -ku-. 


-we. -ku-. 


U-, Ku-? 


•hu^, -WU-. 




-we. -ku-. 


■we. -ku-. 


-a-kco 


-a-kco 


-we. -ku-. 


-a-hco 




-a-kco. -wco, -co 


-a-kco 






-a-kco, -co 




He, him, his 


Yeye, Yee. A-, 


Yeye. Yu-, 


Yeye. A-,Hu-. 


I-ye. A-, Hu-. 


I-re. U-ye ? 


W-eye, Tsua 




Hu-, Yu-. 


A-, Hu-. 


-ye. -m-. 


•ye. -m-. 


Ye-. A-,Ka-?, 


or U-nu. A-. 




-m-, -mw-. 


-ye. -m-. -a-ke 


-a-ke 


-a-ke 


U-. 


■m. -a^he 




-a-ke, -ye ; 








-ye. -mu-. 






-we 








-a-ke, -e 




We, us, our 


Siswi, Swiswi, 


Siswi. Tu-. 


Sisi. Tu-. 


I-si. Cu-. 


U-fwe. Tu-, 


Wa^si. Tu-, 




Sisi. Tu-. 


•tu-. -etu 


-tu-. -etu 


•CU-. •ecu 


Ti-. 


Ri-. 




-swi. -tu-. 








-fwe, -swe. 


-tu- ? -a-tu 




•etu 








-tu-. -etu 




Ye, you, your 


Ninyi, 


Nyinywe. M-, 


Nyinyi. M-, 


I-ni. M-, Mu- 


U-mtie. Mu-. 


Wa-nyi. Mu-. 




Nwinyi, 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 


-wa-. -enyu 


-mwe, -nwe. 


-wa-. -a-nyu 




Ninywi. Mii-, 
M-. 


-wa-. -enu 


-wa-. -enu 




•wa-. -enu 






•nyi, -nwi-. 














-wa-. -enu 












They, them, 


Waco. Wa-. 


Waco. Wa-. 


Waco. Wa-. 


I-vco. Wa-. 


Wa-re. Waco. 


Waco. Tsawa. 


their 


-aco. -wa-. 
-a-co 


-wa-. -a-o) 


•wa-. -a-co 


-wa-. -a-vco 


Wa-, Va-. 
•aco, -WCO-. 
-wa-. -a-co 


Wa. 

•wa^. -a-hcoco 



' According to Joaquitn d' Almeida da Cunha (Apontamentos . . . das linguas falladas pelos indigetias . . . em 
Mozambique) i^i the Angose orKingcoje dialect the verbal pronouns are Ki-, U-, A- ; Ni-, M-, A-. 



138 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


2 


le. 


21 f. 


J22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikuu 


Ki-wibu 


^i-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 






2lg. Ki^ngcoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), &^c-.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 










All 


■ote. Pia 


-ote 


-ote 


-ote 




Pia. Apa^ 

(Apawa ?) 


•onji 


This, these 


Hu-yu; ha-wa; 


Hu-yu; ha-wa; 


Hu-yu, &^c. 


Hu-u; 


ha-wa ; 


A^ (a^yco ; 


-nu (u-nu. 




hu-u ; hi-i ; 


&^c. 




&^c. 




a-wa ; a-u ; 


wa-nu, 6^ir.) 




hi-li ; ha-ya ; 










a-i ; a-ri; 






hi-ki ; hi-vi ; 










a-ya ; a-ci ; 






hi-i (si-i)i ; 










a-vi; di-'iT.) 






hi-zi ; hu-u ; 
















hu-u ; hu-ku ; 
















ha-pa ; hu-mu 














That, those 


Hu-yeo; ha-co ; 
hu-co ; hi-yeo ; 
hi-lco ; ha-yco ; 
hi-cco; hi-vyco; 
hi-yeo ; hi-zeo ; 
hu-eo ; hu-co ; 
hu-keo; ha-pco; 
hu-mco 


Hu-yu ; ha-eo ; 


Ho-yeo, 6-'f. 


Hco-co , 


ha-co ; 








Yu-le ; wa-le ; 


Yu-le ; vva-le ; 


U-le, arc. 


U-le, wa-le, 


-re (I-re; wa-re; 


•le (u^le, wa-le. 




u-le ; i-le ; 


&'C. 




va-le. 


&•(:. 


u-re; i-re; 


i-le, pi-le, 6-1;.) 




h-le ; ya-le ; 










ri-re ; ya-re ; 






ki-le (ci-le) ; 










ci-re ; vi-re ; 






vi-le ; i-le ; 










6-^.) 






zi-le ; u-le ; 
















u-le ; ku-le ; 
















pa-le ; m-le 














Bad 


•baya, -baa 


-baya. -beo-vu 


-eo-vu 


•co-vu 




-i (Mu-i). 
si ng-ema 


•wii, •bi 


Black 


■eusi 


-eusi 


-eiisi 


-eiisi 




-erufi 


-udu, M-udu 


Female 


-ke. -keoco 


-ke. -a ki-ke 


-ke 


-ke 




-ka 


-pe 


Fierce, sharp 


-kali 


-kali 


-kali 


-kali 




-kari 


Good 


-ema ; -zuri. 
■tco 


-eina 


-ema 


-ema 




-ema 


-ema 


Great 


Bora. -kuu. 
•kubwa. 
-nene 


-kuti. -kubwa 


-kiiti 


-kuru 




-kulu 


Bua-fu. Dibave 


Little 


-dcogco. -cace 


-dcogco 


■tcotco, -ccoceo 


-dcoda. 


-titi 


-tcotco. -pusu. 
-aba {few) 


-titi. Ka-, Ga- 

(as prefix). 
•nkinyi 


Long 


-re-fu 


-re-fu 


-re, -re-fu 


-re-fu 






*.i 


Male 


-ume, -dume 


-ume. -aki-ume 


-ume 


-vuli 




-lume 


-{ime, •diime 


Old 


-kukuii. -zee 


•zee. -kukuu 


•zee, -bee. 


-bee. 


-bima. 


-vere. -se or 


-kiihu 








-kuktiu 


-kukiiu 


-zee 




Red 


•ekundu 


-ekundu 


•ekundu 


-ehundu 


-eundu 


-kundu 


Rotten 


-co-vu, -bco-vu 


-co-vu, -bco-vu 


-covu 


-covu 




-bvunda 




Short 


•fupi 


-fupi 


-fupi 


-fupi 








Sick 


-gonjwa. -weli 


-wele. gonjwa 


-we, -dwe 


-we 




•Iwala 


-ade, mu-ade 


White 


-eii-pe 


-eu-pe 


-eu-pe 


-eu-pe 




■elu-pa 


-jeu. -eu 


Above, up, 


Juii 


Juu or Dyuu 


Ytm 


I-yuu 




Julu 


U^zyu (7rDzu 


on top 
















Before 


Mbele 


Mbele 


MbSe 


Mbee 




Mbele 


Mbele 


Behind 


Ny-uma 


Ny-uma 


Ny-uma 


Kwan- 


ima 


Ny-uma 


M-engco-ni 



s replaces h in a few KingOdzi demonstratives ; i. e. Sa.- for Ha-, Si- for Hi-. 



GROUP F: THE ZANGIAN LANGUAGES 



139 





21. 


21 a. 


21 b. 


21 e. 


21 f. 


22. 


English 


Swahili 


Ki-mvita 


Ki-amu 


Ki-tikiiu 


Ki-wibu 


gi-angazija 




(Ki-hadimu 




21 c. Ki-cozi 




21 g. Ki-ngcoje 


22 a. Xi-nzuani 




(H), &^c.) 




21 d. Ki-pate 









Below, down 


Ci-ni 


Ti-ni 


Ti-ni 


Ti-ni 


Si-ni. Pa-nsi 


Won-si. M-si-n 


Far 


M-bali 


M-bali 


M-bali 


M-bali 


Baidi 


M-bali 


Here 


Hapa. Huku. 
Hupoa 


Hapa 


Hapa 


Hapa 


Apa 


Hava (?) 


In, inside ... 


Nda-ni. 
Hu-mco. 
Mil-, M-. -ni.- 
Katika 


Nda-ni 


Nda-ni 


Nda-ni 




-ni, -mi, -mu 


Middle 


Katikati 


Katikati 


Katikati 


Kaci 




. . . 


Near 


Karibu (Arab.). 
Pa-fupi 


Pa-fupi 


Pa-fupi 


Pa-fupi 


Pepi 


Vanu 


Outside 


Nje 


Nde 


Nde 


Nde 




... 


Plenty, many 


•ingi. Tele 


-ngi, -ingi. 
Tele 
Pale. Kule, 


■ngi, ingi. 
Tele 
Pale 


-iigi. Tele 


-ngi, -ingi 


■ingi 


There 


Htikto. Kule. 


Pale 




Hule Tsahco 




Pale 


&'C. 










Where? ... 


■pi ? Wa-pi .' 


-pi '>. Wa-pi ? 


Wa-pi? 


Kwa-pi ? 


-pi? 


... 


No! 


Ahaa! Siyco! 


Pico! 


Siyco! 


Sivco ! 


Ebu! 


Si 


Not {wztA verb 


Si. -si-. Si-. 


Si. -si-. Si-. 


Si. -si-. Si-. 


Si. -si-. Si-. 


Si. Si-, -si-. 


Si. Si-, -si-. 


as prefix, in- 


Hu-. Ha-. 


Hu. Ha- 


Hu-. Ha- 


Hu-. Ha- 


Ku? Ka? 


Hu-. Ha- 


fix, or suffix) 


Ku-tcoa (with 













infinitives) 



To 

„ beat 

„ buy, sell 



„ cut 
„ dance 



Ku- 



Ku- 



Ku- 



-piga •piga_ -piga_ 

■nunua. -uza ■nunua. ■uza. .nunua. 

■uliza 
-ja (N-jcoco ! = -ja, -dya -ya 

imperative) 



■kata. -cinja -kata 
■ceza. -randa -teza 



die 


-fa 


■fa 


eat 


■la 


■la 


give ... 


-pa. -tcoa. 
■tunza 


■pa 


go 


-enda, 
enenda. 
-pita 


■enda. - 


kill 


■iia 


-iia 


know . . . 


-jua 


-dyua 


laugh ... 


■ceka 


-teka 


leave off, 


■aca, -ata, 


■ata 


cease 


■kcoma. 
? -regea {to 
be loose) 




love, want 


-penda 


-penda 


see 


■ona 


■ona 


sit, remain, 


■kaa (■kalia = 


-kaa 


abide 


remain for) 




sleep . . . 


■lala 


-lala 


stand, stop, 


■simama. 


-simama 


be erect 


■ima 




steal ... 


-iba 


-iba 



kata 

teza 

fa 

la 

pa 



pita -enda 



■ua 
-yua 
-teka 
■ata 



-penda 

-ona 

-kaa 

-lala 
-simama 

■jepa 



Cu- 


Ku- 


U-, Hu- 


■bika 


-ilia 




■nunuva. 


■uza 


-uza 


■kuba 






-ya 


■dya. ■lawa. 


-ija. (Xco ! = 




(Jco ! = im- 


imperative) 




perative) 




-kaca 


-sinpa 




-teba 


•vina 




-fa 


-fa 


■fa 


-la 


■ria 


■la 


-pa 


-pa 


-be. ■va(22a) 


-enenda 


■enda, 


-enda, -senda, 




■enenda. 


-inda {past 




-tembera. 


tense : 




■ka 


■endre) 


-uva, -vua 


■waga, -ula 


■hua 


■yiwa 


■ijiwa 


-jua 


-teka 


■zeka 


■tepia 


■ata 


■reka. ■asa 




-penda 


-penda. -saka 


■vintsa 


■vona 


-ona 


■hcona 


-teti 


■ikala 


■kensa 


■iyala 


■lala 




-simama 


.•• 


... 



-yepa 



■iba 



140 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN THE SWAHILI DIALECTS 

Virtually no traces of preprefixes, except in the 9th prefix in the Ki-unguja and Ki-mrima dialects 
(21 f and g). 

Class I. M-, Mu-, Mil- (21 e, 21 f) (m-, mu, yu-, ?hu-, u) ; 2. Wa-, (Va- sometimes in 21 e and f) 
(wa-, va-) ; 3. M-, Mu-, Mii- (21 f ) (m-, mu-, u) ; 4. Mi-, Ny-, Ni- (21 c, d, and e) (m-, mil-, i) ; 5. — . 
Ji-, J-, Dy-, Ri- (21 f and g),Ni- (21 f ) (li, j-, r-, ri-) (21 f ) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya) ; 7. Ki-, C- (ki, ci-, c'-) ; 
8. Vi- (21, 21 a, 21 f and g), Zi- (21 c), TJi- (21 d and e) (vi, zi-, tii-) ; 9. In- {21 and 21 f ), N- (M-), N-, 
Ny-, — (— , n- (m-), ny-, nj-, ng-, i) ; 10. In-, N- (M-), N-, Ny- (— , zi, ny-, nj-, fig-) ; 11. U-, Lu-, Ru- 
(last two forms only in 21 f and g) (m-, u, lu, ru-) ; 12. (Absent throughout); 13. Ka- (almost absent, 
save for slight traces — with Vi- as plural — in Ki-unguja and the other northern dialects, but commoner in 
21 f and g) ; 14. U- (plural sometimes Ny-, but more commonly Ma-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Pa- (Va- 
in 21 f), rarely Wa- (pa-, va-) ; 17. Mu- (mij- and -ni)— almost absent from 21 e. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN pi-ANGAZIJA, &C. 
No preprefixes. 
Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, m, u-) ; 2. Wa- (wa-) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, u) ; 4- Mi-, Me- (mi-, i-) ; 
5. Dzi (D'-, L'- ?), — (dz', dzi-, H) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ? a) ; 7. pi-, Xi-, Xi-, Hi- (pi-, xi) ; 8. Zi- (zi) ; 9. N- 
(M-),N-,Ny-, — (n-, i); 10. ? Zin-, N- (M-), N-, Ny- (zi ?, n-) ; 11. (missing) ; 12. (missing) ; 13. (rare) 
Ha-, Ka- (? ha-, ka) ; 14- U-, V«- ? (u) ; 15. Hu-, U-, ? Gu- (? hu) ; 16. Wa-, Va- (va ?) ; 17. ? (? -mu?, 
-mi, -ni). 



21. Swahili is spoken in Zanzibar, Pemba, and Mafia islands, and in the coast towns between the 
Paiigani river, Kilwa, and Lindi ; also in an adulterated form right across Africa from Unyamwezi and 
Tanganyika to the Lualaba and Upper Congo. Kihadimu or Kikae is the ancient dialect of Zanzibar 
island and Kingcozi the affected ' literary ' speech. 

21 a. Kimvita is spoken in the towns of the Mombasa coast-belt between Vanga and Malindi. 

21 b. Kiamu, 21 c. Kicozi, and 21 d. Kipate, are spoken on the islands of Lamu and Pata, and in 
the Witu sultanate and the delta of the Wzi and Tana rivers. 

21 e. Kitikiiu is spoken in Faza (north of Lamu) and at all the Swahili settlements along the coast 
between' Kwaihu and the Juba river ; also north of the Juba river. 

21 f Kiwibu (Kimrima and Kimgaeo) are spoken on the coast between the mouths of the Rufiji 
and theRuvuma rivers (Cape Delgado) ; at Ibo and in the Kerimba islands ; 21 g. Kingtoje is spoken 
in the Swahili-Arab colonies of Angwfe (Angoxa). 

22. Siangazija and 22 a. Xinzuani are spoken in the Komorco islands (Great Komorco, Johanna, 
and Mwl^la) : with the exception, perhaps, of Mayotte. 



GROUP G 

THE USAGARA-UGOOGO) LANGUAGES 





23. Dzalamco 






24 c-g. Southern Sagara dialects ' 




23 a. 


Kami. 


23 b. Ki-xutu. 




25. Gcogco 










23 c. Ki-ruguru 




26. Irangi. 


26 a. Kiumbugwe 




24-24 b. Kaguru (Northern Sagara)' 












23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b.' 


24 c-g.' 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamco 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 








23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki. 








23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Adze ... 


— 


Temco. 

N-hemco 


N-hemto 


N-temco. 
Ci-widzco 


N-temco 


N-temco 


... 


Animal, 


wild 


Ny-ama ; //. 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


beast 




dziny-ama 












Ant ... 




Mi-gege (pL). 
N-humbi- 
humbi 


Cia. 
Nconycs 


Siafu. I-fulafu. 
Sungusungu. 
N-bingi. 
Cungu 




Ny-ungu 


Ny-ereri 


Ant, white 


Mu-swa 


Genhe ; 


Mu-swa 


• .. 


M-mehe or 


Mu-swa 


(termite) 




ma-genhe 






Mu-mehe. 
















Ki-swa ; 
















vi-swa 




Ape (chim- 


... 










••• 


panzi 


or 














gorilla) 
















Arm ... 




M-ktonoj ; mi- 


Mu-ktonco ; mi-. 
M-wcoku; mi- 


M-kconco ; mi- 


Mw-cokco 


Mw-cokco ; mi- 


Twaliti 


Arrow- 


... 


M-sale ? 


Lu-hcote. 
M-dumka 


Mu-vi. I-sagi. 
Lu-pcobeta 


... 


Sofiga 


M-iii or Mw-iii ; 
mi-wui 


Axe ... 




^uka 


Wagco ; ma + 


Ci-widzco. 
N-temco. 
Sengco 


Heiiigco 


Sengco 


C-aria, 
Caha 


Baboon 




Di-kcjkco 


. . . 


Ny-ani 




Ny-ani 


N-jai. Tiii 


Back ... 


• <• 


M-gongco ; mi- 


M-gongco 


M-gongco ; mi- 


... 


Mu-gongoo ; mi- 


Lekele 


Banana 




Nhcoco ; 


Ncohco. 


N-xco. (Bcokco 


. .. 


Tcoke; ma + . 


N-dizi 






mi-khcoco. 


(M-gomba = 


or Di-bcokco = 




N-dizi 








M-zuzu 


tree) 


tree) 








Beard... 


... 


N-debvu 


N-debfu 


Ki-devu or 
Lu-levu 


N-devu 


N-devu 


N-dedu 


Bee ... 


. . . 


N-yuki 


N-yuki 


N-juki 


N-zuki 


N-zuki 


N-yuki 


Belly ... 


... 


Mu-nda 


I-nda. 


Ku-nda, 


Tumbco ; maH-. 


Tumbu ; ma + . 


Guvia 








Mda. 


Mu-nda, 


I-nda ; pi. 


I-nda ; ma-da 










Tumbco 


I-nda. 

I-tumbu. 

I-sile 


nyi-nda, 
mai-nda 






Bird ... 




N-dege ; 
dzin-dege 


N-dege 


I-dege ; ma- 


N-dege 


N-dege 


Zcodie. 
N-dee 


Blood... 


. . . 


M-lcopa 


M-lcjpa 


Sakami ; ma + 


Sakami 


Sakami 


S^gami 


Body ... 




M-wili 


... 


M-tufl 


Ku-wiliwili 


M-wiri or 
Ki-wiliwili 


... 


Bone ... 


... 




Guha 


I-guha 


[-fupa 


I -fupa ; ma- 


• • * 


Borassus 


palm 




M-vuma or 
M-vumeo 


... 




... 




Bow . . . 




U-pinde. U-ta. 
Waiiga 


U pinde 


N-ta or U-ta ; 
pi. mi-ta 


U-pindi 


Pindi. 
U-kunje 


... 



' The principal dialects (?/"Sagara speech spoken in the hilly regions of Uluguru, Rubehoo, and Usa,ga,ra may 
be enumerated as follows : Northern Sagara, 24. Kaguru, 24 a. Itumba, 24 b. Kondcoa or Solwe ; Southern 
Sagara, 24 c. Ziraha, 24 d. Kwenyi, 24 e. Wkwifiya, 24 f. Ndunda, 24 g. Wgwila. 

1734 L 



142 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24C-g. 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamco 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Bowels 


Tupe; ma+ 


Ma-tumbco 


Ma-tumbu. 
(U-fu = sto- 
mach of oxen) 


... 


Ma-tumbu 


... 


Brains 


U-lutco 


U-bongco 


Ca-ongco ; vya- 


Uw-ongco ; ma- 






Breast (man's 


Mbaga. 
M-ha-mbaga ; 


Ma-mbaga 


Ci-fa 




Pa-mbaga 


Ki-kua 


Breast 


mi- 
Mipa-mbaga. 


Tombco ; ma-f 


I-tombco ; ma- 


Tombco ; ma- 


Ma-tomboj 


I-tombco ; ma-. 


(woman's) 


Ma-tombco 
(//.) 










Ma-jcororco. 
Ma-susu 


Brother ... 


Kaka. M-kulu 


. N-dugu. 


M-dugu ; wa-. 


N-dugu. 


N-dugu. 


Lumbu. N-duu 




M-dcodco. 


Magati. 


Mw-ene-tu. 


M-kulu. 


Lumbu 






M-zuanda. 


Se-g^lu 


M-vuna 


M-dcodco 








N-dugu (rela 






waiigu. 








Hon) 






I-lumbu 






Buffalo ... 


Tupa ; ma + 




M-bcogco 


M-bcogco 


M-bcogco 




Bull 


M-nhufi. 


N-ombe 


N-xambaku 


I-senga i-lume. 


N-jeku. 


M-jeku 




Bebelu 


n-dume. 
Senga 
m-bigalco 
(23 b) 
Dakco ; ma + 




N-zeku. 
Khambaku 


Kambaku. 
? Kabakco 




Buttocks ... 


Lu-kundu 


I-takco; ma- 


Ma-dakco 


I-dakco ; ma- 


Ma-takco 


Canoe 


M-humbwi 


Mu-humbwi 


I-lcokco 


... 


... 


M-tumbi 


Cat 


Nyaco 


M-nyaco 


Nyaco. 
I-tulwa 


... 


Nyaoj 


Nyau 


Charcoal ... 






Li-kala ; ma- 




Ma-kala 


Ma-kala 


Chief 


N-dewa 


M-dema. 
Jumbe. 


Mn-dewa or 
M-gcosi 


... 


M-teme 


M-temi. 
M-sungati 
(26 a) 






(M-dewa = 












interpreter) 










ChUd 


Mw-ana. 


Cin-keli ; viii-. 


C-ana; 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana 




M-dcodco 


Mw-ana. 
Gu-iindila ; 
ma-undila 

(23 b) 


vy-ana. 
Ci-ali ; vi-. 
M-dcodco. 
C-aniki ; vy- 


M-dcodco 


M-dcodco. 
Ki-dzererco 


m-dudia 


Cloth 


N-guwco ; zi + 


N-guco 


Mw-enda. 
Lu-ke 




Mw-enda 


Lu-enda ; 
mi-enda or 
ny-enda. 
N-gcana 


Cold 


Behco 


M-behco. 
Bfega 


M-behco. 
Ny-coba 




M-behco 


Talala 
I-si 


Country . . . 


I-si 


I-si 


I-si ; zi-si. 




I-si 








Ki-runga 








Cow 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe 


M-buguma ya 




N-ombe. 


N-ombe inki 




M-buguma 


m-buguma. 

Senga 

m-twanzi 


n-ombe 




M-buguma ya 
n-ombe 




Crocodile ... 


Mw-ena 


(23 b) 
M-buru 






Mamba 


Mamba 


Day 


Siku. Um-usi 


; Mu-si. Siku. 


I-jua. 


... 


K-ilco or C-irco. 


Siku. 




imi-si 


M- cany a 


Mu-gingco 




Ki-nguru 


Mu-si 


Devil, evil 


Kungu or 


I-dzimu ; ma- 


Isi-ntu i-kulu. 


I-kunga (24 c) 


Mu-zimu 


... 


spirit 


Di-kuiigu ; ma 


- 


I-sooka; ma + 
I-zimu 








Doctor (medi- 


M-ganga, 


M-ganga. 


M-ganga 


... 


Mu-ganga 


Mu-anga 


cine man) 


N-ganga, 
M-lagula, 
M-laguzi 


M-lagutsi 











GROUP G: THE USAGARA-UG0l)GCO LANGUAGES 



143 



English 



23- 
Dzalamcd 



23 a. 

Kami 

23 b. Ki-xutu 

23 c. Ki-ruguru 



24-24 b. 

Kaguru and 

Northern 

Sagara 



24 c-g. 
Southern 
Sagara 



25. 
Gcogca 



26. 

Irangi 

26 a. Ki- 

umbugwe 



Dog 

Donkey 

Door 

Dream 
Drum 

Ear 

Egg 

Elephant .. 

Excrement 
Eye 



M-bwa. 
Ki-bwa 



Im-bwa, 

Yum-bwa, 
Jim-bwa 



N-dcogcowe. N-dcogtowe ; 

Ki-hongwe ma- 
Lu-ivi ; ny-ivi M-langco 



N-dcozi 
Gombu. 

In-gooma ; 
zin-gcoma 
Gu-twi ; 
ma-twi, 
gama-twi 



N-geoma 



Nghu-twe or 
Gu-twi ; 
magu-twi 



I-bwa or 

Di-bwa. 

Dinyam-bwa; 

manyam-. 

Suku 
N-dcoguwe 

Lu-iji ; ma-. 

M-laiigco 
N-jcozi 
N-gcoma 



Mnyam-bwa. Mnyam-bwa, 
Nyaka-bwa. Im-bwa, 
Di-bwa ; ma- Di-bwa 



N-dtogojwe 



N-doogcowe 
Mu-langco 

N-gcoma 



Finga ; gama + Finga ; ma + 
N-hembco N-hembw 



Tu-twe ; ma- 

I-tagi; ma- 
N-themb<a 



Ma-vi 

S-isu ; m-eS£o 



Face, forehead Ki-anga 



Ma-ve Ma-vi 

Nenge; ma+ I-gisoj ; 

and dzi-. ma-gisoa. 

Z-isco or L-isco; D-isco ; m-esco 

m-esco 
Ci-hanga Fumda ? 

Ki-hanga ? 



I-sikidza; ma-. Igu-twe, 
Igu-twe ; ma- Iku-tu ; ma- 



I-gankha or 

Ganga ; ma + 
N-zcofu or 

N-dembco 
Ma-vi 
Z-iseo, 

L-isu ; 

m-esoj 



Z-ihoj ; m-ehco. 
Iz-ihco ; m-eSM 



N-dcosi ; 
ma-dcosi 



Fat, oil . 


Gama-vuta or 
Ma-vuta. 
U-nconco 


Ma-bvuta 


Ma-futa 




Father . 


.. Tata, 
Thatha 


Baba. 
Tate 


Baba 


Tata 


Fear ... . 


Di-wcoga, 
Wooga 


... 


Wcoga 


•• 


Finger 


.. Ki-dcole. 
C-anda. 
Gumba 


Ci-dcole ; 
pfi-dcole. 
Z-ala 


Ki-dcole ; ci- 


I-dcole 


Fire ... . 


Um-otco 


M-otco 


M-otco 


M-otco 


Fish ... . 


Somba 


Somba 


I-jcoka 
dya me-dji 


•• 


Foot ... . 


M-gulu ; mi- 


M-gulu. 
Lu-ayco 


M-gulu; mi-. 
I-jayco ; 
n-jayco 




Forest 


Di-hulco, 
Umu-hulcij. 
M-bagca 


Mu-hulco 


M-bagu 


M-bag 


Fowl ... . 


lii-guku or 
Ifi-huku 


Nuku 


N-xuxu 




Frog ... 


M-bula ; mi- 


Butwa ; ma -f 


Bula; ma-l- 


.. 


Ghost... .' 


M-zimu. 
Kinya-mkela. 
Mu-lungu; mi- 


M-zimu 


M-yefu. 

Mu-ye 




Giraffe 


N-hwiga 


Twiga 


N-dwiga 





U-su. 

Kum-esco. 

M-es<a 

ma-jeti 
Ma-futa 



Scoga. 

Baba. 

Kcolori 
Mojga .' 

Wcoga? 
K-ala. 

Ki-dcole 

M-otco. 

Ma-waa 
Comba, 

Somba 
Mu-gulu. 

Ki-gere 

M-bagu. 

I-saka. 

Mu-ceme 
N-kuku or 

N-kunkhu 

Mu-tima ? 



N-twiga 



Kuli 

N-dakwi 

Mu-riangto 

M-ina 

Ku-tu; ma-tu 

Ya-i ; ma-i 
N-jcou 

R-iseo ; m-isco 
N-giirirco 

Ma-kuta 



Nani. Nanikco. 
M-sedia. 
Tata 



C-ala ; vy-ala 

Kau. 

M-5tco 
Somba 

I-gulu 

I-saki 

Kuku 

C-ura ; vy-ura 

Tula 



L 2 



144 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24 c-g. 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamoi 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Girl 


M-twanzi. 


Ci-gcole, 


M-dere. 


Mu-hinza 


Ki-hinza. 


Mu-hinja. 




Ki-gcoli 


Mw-ana 
ci-gcole 


Ki-gcoli 




Mu-tcogco 


Mw-ari 


Goat 


M-hene, 
M-pene 


M-pheni. 
M-peeni (23 b) 


M-peeni 


M-peeni 


M-peeni. 
M-buri. 
Mu-tcogco-ta 5 


M-buli 


„ (he) ... 


... 


M-vulata. 


Fulata. 


I-fulata, 


M-vulata 


M-buzi 






(M-togojta = 


Tcogcota 5 


M-vulata. 




mu-lume 






female) 




M-buguma. 
N-gadata 5 






God 


Mu-lungu; mi- 


Mu-lungu. 


Mu-lungu. 


Mu-lungu 


Mu-lungu. 


Balalco. 




Mw-ungu 


M-vula (23 b) 
(= rain) 


M-balco. 
C-comi 


... 


Mu-tari 


Mu-lungu, 
M-ungu 


Grandparent 


Se-kulu 


Se-kulu 


Kuku. 
Magconco ; 

wama- (9) 
Mny-ari. 




Yiya S 
BabuS 


Baba. 
Mamei 


Grass 


Mi-jani (//.) 


M-gina. 


... 


Ma-hanza 


I-sambi 






Ma-bagcij 


N-yuju 








Ground 


I-si 


I-si 


I-si 


... 


A-si 


I-si. N-si 


Ground-nut 


N-zugu. 
N-halanga 


••• 


... 


... 


N-zugudu 


... 


Guinea-fowl 


N-hanga 


N-hanga 






Kanga 


... 


Gun 


Bunduki 


Futi 


Bundiki 




Bunduki 


... 


Hair 


Im-vili ; zim- 


Lu-vili ; 


Lu-vili ; 


Lu-vuile ; 


Lu-vuile ; 


Lu-guwati. 






ma-vili 


n-juile 


ma-vuile 
or m-vuUe 


m-vuile. 

M-viri 


Ny-weri 


Hand 


M-kconco. 


Mw-cokco. 


M-kconco. 


... 


Mw-cokco. 


Twaliti. 




Di-ganza. 


Ganza 


Mw-cokco. 




Ganza or 


Mu-kconco 




Ki-limbili ; vi- 




I-ganji 




Ganya 




Head 


Di-twi ; 


Li-twe or 


Di-twe or 


Mu-twe 


Mu-twe 


Baiti. 




gama-twi 


Di-twi 


I-twe; ma-twe 






Mu-twe 


Heart 


M-oyto 


M-oyco 


M-tima. 
M-oyco 




Mu-tcoga 


Kcolco. 

M-oyco 


Heel 


Ki-siginyco; vi- 


Ki-segeyu 


Ki-sinyagirco 


... 


M-katalco 




Hide 


Kwembe 


Li-kwembe ; 

ma- 


N-kingco 




N-cingco 


Mo-mberu. 
N-diri 


Hill 


Ki-gongco 


I-tunda. 
Lu-gongco or 
I-gongco 


Lu-kwilco ; ma- 


I-tunda 


I-tunda. 
Ki-gongco 


... 


Hippopotamus 


3 Ki-bonhco. 
Tcomondco 


N-hcomondco 


M-tcomondco ; 

ma- 


... 


Tcomondco 




Hoe 


Di-gembe; ma 


■ Gembe ; ma + 


Li-yumbe. 
I-sire 




I-sile 


I -sere 


Honey 


Uki, W-uki 


... 


Uki 


... 


Uci 


COki 


Horn 


N-hembe 


M-hembe 


M-pembe 
(? M-pombe) 


... 


Li-embe 


... 


House 


U-kaye, Kaya 


. N-anda. 


N-umba, 


N-anda, 


N-anda. 


N-khambi. 




C-anga ; vi-. 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umija ; 


Ny-anda. 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba- 




Ki-banda or 


(23 b) 


zi + . N-anda. 


Ny-umba 


Ci-banda 


culco 




r-wanda, 




Mu-kcola. 










N-ganda, 




Ki-banda 










N-anda 












Hunger 


N-zala 


N-zala 


Cumbi 


... 


N-zala. 
M-kombe 


N-jala 


Husband . . . 


M-kazanco. 
M-bigalco 


M-kasana 


M-lume 


M-zererco 


M-umi 


Mu-lume 


Hyena 


N-dula 


Hcobwe. Bau. 
M-dula 


I-fisi, 
I-fipi 


... 


M-visi. 
Biti 


Pici 





GROUP G: THE USAGARA-UGtOGCO LANGUAGES 


US 




23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24 c-g. 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamu 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Iron 


C-uma 


C-uma 


C-uma. 
Ci-bongi. 
N-dopco 


C-uma 


C-uma 


Lu-bvula. 
I-sanyenge 


Island 


Solco or 
Di-solco ; ma- 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Ir-iwa 


Ivory 


N-hembe 


M-hembe 


N-thembco 


... 


Lu-bali 


Lco-hembe 


Knee 


Vindi ; ma + 


Funda ; ma -f 


Figameru 


... 


Gcose 


K-iru (26a) 


Knife 


Mw-ele 


Mage. 


Ki-magi. 


... 


Mw-ere. 


L-upu ; ny-usu 






Mw-ere 


Wereza 




Maje 


L-ufyu ; 
ny-ufyu 


Lake 


Lamba 


... 


I. lamba. 
I-siwa 




I-ramba 


Lawa 


Leg 


Di-gulu. 
Ki-gonhco ; vi- 


Li-gulu; ma- 


M-gulu; mi- 


M-gulu ; mi- 


Mu-gulu ; mi- 


Kulu ; mi-ulu. 
I-gulu ; ma- 


Leopard ... 


Duma ; ma + 


Duma 


Gui; ma + . 
Duma 


... 


NtSuI. 
Duma 


Suwi 


Lion 


Simba. 
N-goadtomi 


Simba 


Nya-lcopala. 
I -simba 




Simba. 
Nya-lcopala. 
Nya-tuni 


Simba 


Lips 


M-lcomoj; mi- 


Mi-lcamoi [pi) 


M-lemeo ; mi- 


... 


Ma-lcomco 


Ma-lcomco 


Magic 


U-ganga 


U-ganga 


U-ganga 


>>. 


U-wai 


U-wai 


Maize 


Mu-hindi 


Ma-hindi 


I-tama or 
U-tama 


... 


Mu-hindi 


Mu-hindi 


Man 


Umu-nhu, 


Mu-nhu ; 


Mu-nhu 


Mu-nhu; wa-. 


Mu-nhu or 


Mu-ntu ; 




Imu-nhu, 


wa-nhu 




Mu-lume 


Mu-ntu 


wa-ntu 




Mu-nhu ; 














wa-nhu 












Man, vir. ... 


Mu-lume. 


M-lume. 


M-gcosi. 


■•• 


Mu-dimi. 


Mu-dimi. 




M-bigalco 


M-bigalto 


MJume 




Mu-gcjsi. 
M-zererco 


Mu-lume 


Meat 


Iny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 




Ny-ama 




Medicine . . . 


I-dawa 


Mu-gcoda 


Mu-ti. M-gcoda 


■ ■• 


... 


M-wcoda 


Milk 


Ma-bisi (?) 


M-ere, m-ele 
(ga ii-ombe) 


M-eli ; ma-eli. 
(Ku-kama = 

verb) 




M-eri 


... 


Monkey ... 


... 


... 


Tumbili. 
Kima 


... 


Gedingwa 


Taha 


Moon 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-edzi. 


Mw-ezi. 


... 


Mw-ezi. 


M-lenge. 






M-lenge 


M-lengi. 
M-lunga 




M-lenge 


Mw-eri 


Mother ... 


Mamco 


Wenye, 
M-wenye. 
Mama. 
(I.nyco = va- 
gina) 

Goiigoj 


Mau, Wau. 
N-gina-, 
N-yina- 




Yaya or Yiya 


Ihyco, lyoo. 

Mawe (26 a) 


Mountain ... 


Ki-lima 


Lu-kwilco. 


... 


I-tunda 


Lulu 








I-tunda ; ma- 








Mouth 


M-leomco 


M-lcomco 


M-lcomco ; mi- 


Mu-lcomco, 
M-dcomco 


Mu-lcomco. 
Ku-mwa. 
Ma-laka 


Dida 


Nail (of finger 


lii-hombe ; zi- 


N-hombe 


I-kombi. 


... 


Kombe. Zala 


Ci-riri 


or toe) 






J-era 








Name 


Tagwa or 
Tangwa, 
Di-tagwa 


Twaga 


I-sina. 
I-tagwa 


I-tagwa 


I-tagwa 


I-rina 


Navel 


Di-kuvu 


Kubfu. 


Tuduco 


... 


Mu-kuvu 


... 



Ci-nena 



146 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24 c-g. 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamco 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Neck 


Singto ? 
U-geosi 


Singco 


Singoj 




N-gcozi. 
Singco 


I-kiiigco 


Night 


I-kilco. 


C-irto. 


Kilto, 


■ ■• 


K-irco or C-iru 


U-ciku. 




(Dziza 


U-siku 


Ciloj. 






Ny-colco. 




= darkness) 




(Lu-isa dark- 
ness) 






(Ki-luilya = 
darkness) 


Nose 


M-hula 


Im-pula; zim-, 
M-hula ; zim- 


M-pula; ma- 


M-pula 


M-pula 


Saiti ; 
ma-saiti. Pula 


Oil palm ... 
Ox 


N-ombe 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe 


Palala.' 






Senga; ma+ 


N-dafu 


Senga; ma-f . 
N-koficolco 




N-dafu. 
N-gombe 


Paddle ... 


N-hafi 






... 


... 


... 


Palm wine, 


U-gimbi. 


U-gema. 


U-gema. 


... 


Ma-lusco 


I-rusco ; ma-. 
Nycou 


beer 


Tembco. 


M-baali. 


U-gimbi 








N-gema 


Tembco 










Parrot 


. . . 


... 


... 


... 




... 


Penis 


M-buloo. 
Mw-azi 


Temua 


... 


... 


... 


M-bco 


Pig 


M-tumbi. 
In-guluwe 


M-tumbi 


N-gume. 
N-g:uruwe 




N-gubi 


•'* 


Pigeon 


N-ziwa 


N-ziwa. 
Huwa 


N-jiwa 


N-dziwa 


N-ziwa 


• >> 


Place 


Ha-nhu 


Ha-nhu 


Ha-nhu, 
Ha-ntu 


... 


Ma-bala 


Ha-ntu. 
Ma-hare 


Rain 


Im-vula 


M-vula 


M-vula 


M-vula 


M-vula. 
Tconya 


M-bula 


Rat 


M-huku. 
M-bewa 


M-bewa 


M-b»dtu 


... 


M-bewa 


Puku 


Rhinoceros 


M.tupa ; mi- 


Faru 


M-phera ; ma- 




... 


M-pera 


River 


Lu-anda 


Mu-tsanda, 
Ci-tsanda. 
Lu-anda 


Lu-kcolongco. 
Lu-anda 


... 


Luenga. 
Kcolongco. 

M-ongco 


Mu-vulco 


Road 


N'dzila. 


N-zila 


N-gila 


... 


N-zira 


... 


Salt 


Di-kondco 

M.kele. 
Ny>humvi 


Mu-nyoj 


Mu-nyu 


... 


Mw-inu 


Sangasco 


Shame 


Ki-nyala 


Ci-nyala 


Sconi 


Sconi 


Sconi 


Sconi 


Sheep 


N-hondcoloj 


N-hcolca. 
N-ondorco 


N-khcolca or 
Xcolu 


... 


N-khtolu. 
Wkorco 


Mu-ndi 


Shield 


Ki-kidz<o 


N-guluma 


N-gula 


... 


N-gula 




Shoulder ... 


Yega ; mi-ega 


L Yega i m-ega 


Yega ; ma -f 




I-wega; ma- 


... 


Sister 


Lumbu. 
Di-lumbu 


Lumbu ; ma -f 


Lumbu 


Mu-hadza ; 
wa-. 
Lumbu; ma 4 


Mw-elumbu 


Lumbu. 
N-dugwe 


Skin 


Kwembe 


Li-kwembe 


Li-kwembe ? 


..• 


N-kuli 


... 


Sky .,, ... 


U-langa 


... 


U-langa. 
Vunde 


... 


Vunde. 
W-alco 


... 


Slave 


M>tumwa. 


M-fugwa. 


M-fugwa 


M-fugwa. 


Mu-lelwa. 


M-terewa. 




M-fugwa. 


M-tumwa. 




M-phangu 


M-fugwa 


M-rerwa. 




M-pinga ^ 


M-pinga 5 








M-singa ; wa- 
M-tumba 


Sleep 


U-tulco 


U-tuloj. 
Nofigco. 
(N-dalco = 

sleeping-place 


) ,. - 




Sinzira 




Smoke 


Di-6)8i 


Y-wsi 


M-oosi or 
Di-ti>si 


... 


Li-copi, 
Y-copi 


>•• 





GROUP 


G: THE USAGARA-UGCOGOJ LANGUAGES 


147 




23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24 c-g. 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamco 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Snake 


N-zwka 


Zcoka; ma + . 
N-zcoka 


Nj-coka or 
Ny-coka. Pili. 
Ci-hililya 




Zcoka 


Ny-coka 


Son, boy ... 


Mw.ana. 


M-songcolco. 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana. 




M-hale 


Mw-ana. 


C-ana. 


Mu-dimi. 


m-lume. 


Mu-tawana 






Ka-bigalco, 


Ci-lume. 


Ki-songcolco. 


Ki-zererco 








M-bigalco 


Mw-aniki 


K-ana ; pi. 
tw-ana 






Song 


Lu-ila; ny-ila 


Ci-gcoma. 
Lu-imbco (?) 


Lu-imbu ; ma -f 


... 


U-imbco 


... 


Spear 


M-gooha 


M-gcoha 


Mu-guha 


... 


M-gcoha. I-tari 


I-jimu ; ma- 


Spirit, soul 


Um-oyco. 
M-zimu. 
Im-behco 


Um-oyco. 
Ki-dia 
Kinya-mkera 


Mu-zimu 




Mu-zimu 


M-oyco 


Star 


Tondco or 
N-hondco. 
N-hilu 


N-tondco 


My-erezi; zi-f 


N-tondwe 


Ny-eredzi. 
N-tondwa 


N-tondwe 


Stick 


N-hcota ; 


I-bika? 


I-bike ; ma-. 


N-xwekco. 


I-biki. 


M-ranga 




mi-khcota 


M-biviri 


M-phandco ; 


Mu-keoti 


Kcomi 




Stone 


Di-bwe ; 
ma-bwe. 
U-bwe ; 
gama-bwe 


I-bwe ; 
ma-bwe 


ma- 
I-we or Di-bwe 


... 


I-bwe; ma-bwe 


I-we; ma-we 


Stool 


Ki-gcoda 


Ki-gcoda, 
Ci-gcoda 


Ci-gcoda, 
Li-gcoda 


... 


Ki-gcoda 


... 


Sun 


Di-zuwa 


Dzuwa 


I-jua 


... 


I-dzua. 
Mu-asco 


C-coze. 

Mw-as&3 


Tail 


M-khila 


Mu-ingco 


Mu-se 




Mu-cira 


... 


Tear 


Hcozi ; ma + 


Hcotsi ; ma + 


I-seozi; ma- 


I-scozi ; ma- 


OOdzi 




Testicles ... 


Pumbu 






... 


... 


M-bia" 


Thief 


M-bavi 


Mu-hizi 


Mu-hiji ; wa- 




Mu-izi 


... 


Thigh 


Hadza ; ma + 


... 


I-haja 


. . . 


C-ima 


... 


Thing 


Iki-nhu ; 
ivi-nhu 


Ci-nhu ; 
vi-nhu 


Ki-ntu; vi-ntu 


... 


Ki-ntu ; vi-ntu 


Ki-ntu ; vi-ntu 


Thorn 


Mw-iba 


Mu-iwa 


M-iia ; mi-wa 


... 


Mu-wa; mi-wa 


. .. 


Tobacco . . . 


Tumbaku 


... 


I-kondi 




Konde 


Tumbatu 


To-day ... 


Lelco 


Lelco 


Lelco 


Lelco, Di-lelco, 
Dya-lelco 


Zuari 


I-sikco 


Toe 


C-anda. 


Ci-dcole ca 


N-dcole dya 


... 


Ki-dcole 


Memba ra 




Gumba 


m-gulu 


m-gulu 






kulu 


To-morrow 


Imi-tondco 


I-rubfl 


Au-siku. 
I -tondco 


Mi-tondco 


Mi-tondco. 
Ci-laco 


Lu-vi. 
M-tondco 


Tongue ... 


Lu-limi ; 
n-dimi 


I-limi or 
Lu-limi (23 b) 


Lu-limi ; 
zin-dimi or 
malu-limi. 
Lu-laka 




Lu-limi 


Lu-wa 


Tooth 


J-ineo, Dy-inco ; 


Dz-inco; m-enco. 


Inco, D-inco ; 


I-dzinco ; 


Idz-ineo ; 


L-inco ; m-enco 




m-enco 


ma-zinco 


m-enco. 
Gegco ; ma + 


ma-zinco or 
m-enco 


m-enco 




Town, village 


Kayi(?). 
Ki-rambco 


Kaya(?^Kaye. 
Bu-lulu 


I-kaya 


... 


Kaya 


Kaya 


Tree 


Mu-biki, 


I-bike, Li-biki. 


I-biki; ma-. 


I-biki. 


I-biki. 


Mu-ti ; mi-ti 




M-biki; mi- 


I-bika (23 b) 


Mu-ti ; mi-ti 


M-gcoda 


Ki-biti 






(imi-) 












Twins 


Vi-basa {pi) 


... 


Pasa; ma-pasa 


... 


Hasa ; 
ma-hasa 


... 


Urine 


Ma-kcozco 


M-kcozco 


... 


Ma-tunzi 


Ma-tunzi 





148 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24 c-g. 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamu 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






ll mbugwe 


Vein 


... 




N-kundi 


Ki-timba ; vi- 


Ki-kwari ; vi- 


I-pirira. 
Mu-kifa 


War 


N-hondco 


N-hondco 


U-khondco. 
Lewa 


... 


U-lugu. 

Ma-feta 


Feta. 
M-kondco 


Water 


Gama-zi 


Ma-tsi or 
Ma-zi. 
Lu-lenga ; 
ma- 


Me-ji or Ma-ji 


Ma-dzi. 
Ma-leiiga 


Ma-leiiga 


Nua. 
Ma-ji 


Well, source 


Sima or 
M-sima 


Ci-sima 


I-sima 




... 


Ki-rimoyco. 
Ki-rinkazco 


White man 


M-zungu 


M-zungu 


Mu-zuiigu 




Mu-zungu 


Mu-jungu ; wa 


Wife 


Im-wehe 


M-wehe ; 


M-ke, Mu-ke. 


Mwe-ha; we-ha. 


Mu-ke; wa-ke. 


Mu-ke ; wa-ke 






wehe 


M-cekulu 


Mwe-he. 

Mu-ke. 

M-cekulu 


M-cekulu 




Wind 


Im-behco. 
Di-behco 


U-behco 


M-pheco 


... 


... 


Pehco 


Witch 


Mu-hawi 


Mu-hawi 


Mu-sai, 
Mu-hai 


... 


Mu-hai. 
M u-ganga 




Witchcraft 


U-hawi, 
U-ganga 


Wu-hawi 


U-sai, 
U-hai 


... 


U-hai 




Woman ... 


M-ke. 


Mu-ke. 


M-veli. 


M-kodzi; wa-. 


Mu.ndu^mu^ke. 


Mu-ntu-mu-ke. 




Mw-ali. 


M-pinga. 


Mu-ke 


M-pinga. 


Mu^dala 


Mu-iletu. 




M-pinga 


M-twanzi 








Mu-hinja 


Womb 


... 


... 


I-fiJ. 
I-sambeo 


Nimi. 
I-sambco 


... 


Nda 


Wood (fire- 


Lu-pek&j. 


N-gcodi ; 


N-gcodi ; zin-. 


N-gcodi 


..I 


Kiii 


wood) 


N-gcodi 


zin-gcodi 


Bilco 








Yam 


Ki-gondco ; vi- 








... 




Year 


Umw-aka ; 
imi-aka 


Mw-aka. 
Ci-rimeo 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Yesterday... 


Ma-ycij 


1-gcolco 


Li-gulu 


Li-gulu. 
Di-gcolco 


I-gcolco 


I-jco 


Zebra 


... 


M-hunda m-lia M-punda. 




N-dcoge. 


N-dakwa ya 








N-jcowe? 




Ku-rira 


i-sagi 


One 


•monga. 


Mcosi? 


•mwe 


Mcose. 


Mcose, 


Munce. 




Mcosi. 


Mwe-nga. 


(Di-mwe). 


•mwe 


Bcosi. 


-monga. 




•mwe 


-mwe 


Mcosi 




-monga 


-mwe 


Two 


•bill 


-pili, -wiri, -ili, 


•idi (Ka-idi). 


•pili. -bili. 


•ijete (Me-ijete, 


-bili, -wiri 






-bill 


-ili (K-eli). 
ele (K-ele, 
P-ili) 


-ele 


Ke-ijete) 




Three 


•datu, -dathu 


-datu, -tatu 


-datu 
(Ka-datu) 


-datu, -tatu 


-datu 

(Ka-datu) 


-tatu 


Four 


•ne 


•nne, -ne 


•ne (Ka-ne), 
-nne 


-nne 


-ni, •ne, •ena 

(Ka^ne) 


-nne 


Five 


-thanco 


-thanco. 


-sanco 


-tanco. 


•banco 


Salia. 






-sanco (23 b) 


(Ka-sanco) 


-banco (24 e) 


(Ka^hanco) 


•sanco 


Six 


Sita 


M-tanda. 


M-tandatu. 


M-tandatu 


M-tandatu, 


I-sasatu, 






M-tandatu 


M-tanda (24b) 


-n-tadatu 


-sansatu 






(23 b) 










Seven 


Saba. 
M-fungate 


M-fungati 


M-fungati 


M-fungati 


M-fungati 


M-pungate, 
M-fungate 


Eight 


Nane 


M-nane. 
•M-nana 


M-nana 


M-nana 


Mu-nane, 
M-nana 


I -nane 



GROUP G: THE USAGARA-UGCOGCU LANGUAGES 



149 



English 



23- 

Dzalamco 



23 a. 

Kami 

23 b. Ki-xutu 

23 c. Ki-ruguru 



24-24 b. 

Kaguru and 

Northern 

Sagara 



24 c-g. 
Southern 
Sagara 



25. 
Gcogu 



26. 

Irangi 

26 a. Ki- 

umbugwe 



Nine ... . 

Ten ... . 

Eleven 

Twenty . 

Thirty 

Forty... . 

Fifty ... . 

Hundred . 
Thousand . 



Kenda 

M-longto. 

Mu-longco. 

Kumi 
M-longco na 

■monga 
Mi-longeo 

mi-bili. 

Iperini 

[Arab.) 
Mi-loiigco 

mi-dathu 
Mi-longco 

mi-ne 
Mi-longco 

mi-thanco 



Mi-longto 
kumi 



Kenda 
I-kumi 



I-kumi na 
•mwe 

Mi-longco 
mi-ili or 
mi-wili 

Mi-longco 
mi-datu 

Mi-longco 
mi-nne 

Mi-longco 
mi-thanco 



I gana 



Kenda 
I-kumi 



I-kumi na 
di-mwe 

Ma-kumi 
ma-idi, or 
ma-ili, m-ele 

Ma-kumi 

ma-datu 
Ma-kumi 

ma-ne 
Ma-kumi 

ma-sanco 



I -gana 



Ki-deole. 
Ma-gana 
ma-kumi 



I -kenda 

I-kumi, 
I-cumi 



Mi-longco 

mi-Twili. 

Mi-longco 

mi-ili 
Mi-longco 

mi-datu 
Mi-longco 

mi-nne 
Mi-longco 

mi-tanco or 

mi-hanco 



I-gana. 
Mi-loiigco 
cumi 



I -kenda 
I-kumi 



I-kumi nari 
■monga 

Ma-kumi 
me-ijeti 



Ma-kumi 

ma-datu 
Ma-kumi 

ma-ne 
Ma-kumi 

ma-hanco. 

(Ma-kumi 

ma-ntadatu 

= 60) 
I-gana, I-jana 



M-cenda. 

Kenda 
A-fundika. 

Kumi. 

Mu-rongco 
Kumi na mwe 

Ma-kumi awiri. 
Mi-rongco 



Ma-kumi 

a-tatu 
Ma-kumi 

a-nne 
A-fundika. 

Ka-hanco. 

Mi-rongco 

i-sanco 

Gana ; 

ma-gana 



I, me, my ... Mia. Nene. 

Niye. 

N-,' Ni-. 

■n-. -a-ngu 
Thou, thee,thy Geo ! Gwe, 

Gw^egwe. 

K'-, Ku-, U-. 

•ku-. -a-gco 

He, him, his Yuyco, Heyco. 

Ka-, K-, Ye-, 

Ya-, A-. 

•m-, -mu-. 

-a-ke, -a-ge 
We, us, our Twee, 

Twetwe. 

Tu-, T'. 

■tu-. -e-tu 
Ye, you, your Mwe or 

Mwemwe. 

M-, Mil-. 

-wa-. -e-nu 



They, them, 
their 



Wco. Hewco. 
Wa-, W'-. 
■wa-. -a-co 



Nene or A-nie. 

N-, Ni-. 

-m-, -n-. 

-a-ngu 
Gwege, Wege, 

or Agwee or 

Egwe. 

U-, Ku-, Kco-. 

-ku-, -a-kco 
Yuye, Uyu. 

Ayu. 
. Ka-, Ya-, A-. 

-m-. -a-ke, 

-a-kwe 
Atie, Hetwe, 

Tete. 

Tu-, Ti-. 

-tu-, -ti-. 
Amwee, 

Hemwe, 

Mwemwe. 

Mu-. 

■wa-. -e-nyu, 

-e-nhu 
Wawco. Wa-. 

-wa-. -a-wco 



Anie. 
•nye, 



-e-tu 



Ni-, N-. 
-neni. 
-ni-, -n-, 
-a-ngu 
Agw^egwe. U-. 
■gwe. -ku-. 
-a-kco 



Aye. Yuyu. 

Ka-, Yu-, Y-, 

A-. 

-yu. -m-, 

•mw-. -a-kwe. 
Ase. 

Ci-, C-. 

•se. -ci-, -c-. 

-e-tu 
Anyie. 

Mu-, M-. 

•nye. -wa-. 

-e-nu 



Waco. Wa-. 
-aco. -wa-. 
-a-co 



Nene. 


Nene, Nanu. 


Ni-, N-. 


Ni-, N-, J-. 


•ni-, -n-. 


■n^, ■ni-. -a-ne 


-a-ngu 




Gwegwe, Gwe. 


Wewe, We. 


U-, Ku-. 


U-. 


-gwe. -U-, 


■ku^. -a-kco 


■ku-. -a-kco 




Yuyu, Ayu. 


Yeye, lya. A-. 


Yu-, A-, Ka-, 


-m-, -mu-. 


Ya-. 


-a-kwe 


■m^. mu-. 




-a-kwe 




Sese, Se. 


Susu. 


Ci-, C-. 


Tu-,Ti-. 


-ase. -tu-. 


-tu-. -i-swe 


-e-tu 




Anye, Nyie. 


Nyunyu. 


Mil-, M-. 


M-, Wi: 


-nye. -wa-. 


? -W-. -i-nywe 


-e-nu 





Awco, Wa-. Wcowu. Wa-. 

•wa-. -a-wco •wa^. -a^co 



' As in the northern Swahili dialects, hu-, the impersonal pronominal particle, may take the place of any pro- 
noun in the nominative case before verbs. 



I50 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



All 

This, these 



That, those, 
yonder 



23- 
Dzalamco 



23 a. 

Kami 

23b. Ki-xutu 

23 c. Ki-ruguru 



24-24 b. 

Kaguru and 

Northern 

Sagara 



-ose 

•nco (yu-nco, 
wa-ncj>, is'c^, 



That, those -co 



(He-u, he-y&j ; 

he-woj ; h^c.) 
■dya 
(A-idya ; 

aw-adya ; 

a-iidya ; 

a-idya ; 

a-didya ; 

a-gadya ; 

a-kidya ; 

a-vidya ; 

a-idya ; 

a-zidya ; 

a-ludya ; 

a-iidya ; 

a-kudya ; 

a-hadya) 



-ose 

-nco (yu-nco ; 

wa-nco ; gu-neo 

oru-nco; i-nco; 

h-nco (7rdi-nco; 

ga-nco ; ci-nco ; 

fi-nco, pfi-nco, 

orvi-nco; i-nco; 

zi-nco ; lu-nco ; 

u-nco ; ku-nco ; 

ha-nco; mu-no>) 

Hu-u ; hi-ci ; 
hi-pfl; 6-'c. 

-ja (Yu-ja or 
ayu-ja ; wa-ja, 
awa-ja ; &=€.) 



-da {23 b) 



-ose 

A-yu ; wa-wa ; 

a-u ; a-i ; a-li ; 

a-ga, a-ya; 

a-ci ; a-vi ; 

a-i ; a-zi ; a-lu ; 

a-u ; a-ku ; 

ba-ha 



-nco (Yu-nco ; 
wa-nco ; &'c.) 

-co (Yuyco ; 
wa'wco ; uco ; 
iyco ; didco ; 
gagco; &=€.) 

-dia (yu-dia, 
wa-dia, Ss'c.) 



24 c-g. 
Southern 
Sagara 



25. 
Gcogco 



26. 

Irangi 

26 a. Ki- 

umbugpive 



•ose 

Yuyu ; ha-wa ; 

hu-co ; hi-i ; 

lidi; gaga; 

cici ; vivi ; 

hi-i ; zizi ; 

lulu ; hu-u ; 

kuku ; ha-ha 



Yu-ria; wa-ria; 
U-ria: i-ria; 
ri-ria ; ga-ria ; 
ci-ria ; vi-ria ; 
i-ria ; zi-ria ; 
ru-ria ; u-ria ; 
ku-ria ; ha-ria 



-cozi, -cose 
-nco (co-nco, -nco, 

Hu-u or nhu-u ; 
ha-wa or 
uha-Tva ; 
hu-ti or nhu-ii ; 
hi-i or nhi-i ; 
hi-ri, &'c. ; 
ha-ya, &°c. ; 
hi-ki, hi-vi, 



U-re or uo-re ; 
wa-re or 
nawa-re ; u-re 
or ue-re ; i-re 
or ue-re ; ri-re 
or na-rire ; 
ya-re or 
naya-re, ^'c} 



Bad 


-i-ha. 
■i-hile 


-i-ha 


■e-ha 


•bi 


•e^ha. •bi 


•e^ha, we^ha. 
-kakco 


Black 

Female 


-hitu or fita 
-ke 


-titu 
-ke. 
•gcole 


-titu 
•ke. 
•gcole. 


... 


•titu. -iru 
-cekulu, -ce 


-iru 
■ke 


Fierce, sharp, 


•kali 


M-buguma. 
-kali 


M-buguma 
•khali 


•kali 


-kali 


Adalawa. 
-kare 


bitter 
Good 


•ncoga 


•ncoga. 


•ncoga. 


•swamu 


•swamu 


-bcoha 


Great 

Little 


-kulu 
-dcodco 


•gcoya 
•kuru 
•dcodco 


•swamu 
-kulu 
•dcodco. 

-ngeke 


•dcodco. 
•ana 


•kulu 
•dcodco 


-kulu 
-dudia 


Long 


-n-hali, -hali. 
•tali 
•lume 


■tali 


-tali 


... 


•tari 


-leha. 
-tali 


Male 


•lume (dume). 


-lume. 


... 


•liime. 


-lume 


Old 


•kulu. 
•dala. 


•beberu 
•vele 


-gcosi 

-gcosi. 

■dala 




•gcosi 


-cozi (Mw-cozi 

or -cosi 

(M-cosi) 
ere-nkundu 


Red 


-vyele 
•dunhwu 


•duiihu 


•domyco 




•dunkhu. 
•dunu 



The latter forms are somewhat suppositious. 



GROUP G: THE USAGARA-UGOJGO) LANGUAGES 



151 





23- 


23 a. 


24-24 b. 


24C-g. 


25. 


26. 


English 


Dzalamco 


Kami 


Kaguru and 


Southern 


Gcogco 


Irangi 






23 b. Ki-xutu 


Northern 


Sagara 




26 a. Ki- 






23 c. Ki-ruguru 


Sagara 






umbugwe 


Rotten 




■gata 


■dcoda 




-imbi 


-vira 


Short 


-guhi 


-guhi 


-guhi 




-fupi 


-kuhi 


Sick 


■tamu 


■tamu 


-tamu 


... 


-tamwa 


-Iwala. -Iwaiye 


White 


-zelu 


-zeru 


-eru, -jeru 


... 


-eru, -zeru, 
-geru 


-eru 


Above, up, on 


U-cana ya 


U-canya 


Ku-canya. 


Cany a. 


Canya, 


M-weri. 


top 






Ku-langa 


U-langa 


ku-canya 


Ku-toliti ? 


Before 


Ku-longcozi ya 


Ku-longcozi. 
Ku-mwandi 

(23 b) 


Ya-longcola 


Ku-mwandco 


Ku-mwandi 


Mbele. 
Mhele 


Behind 


Ku-cugu kvva-. 


Ku-cugu, 


Ku-nyuma 


Ku-mbele. 


Ku-mbele, 


Nyuma. 




Ki-scogco ca 


Ku-ciscogco 




Ku-ciscogco 


Ku-nyuma, 
Ku-mgongco 


Sigya 


Below, down 


Ha-si 


Ha-si 


Ha-si 


Ha-si, Ha-nhi 


Ha-si 


Aha-si 


Far 


Ku-tali 


Ku-tali 


Ku-vali, 


Ku-tali. 


Ku-tali. 


Ko-le, Ku-le. 








Ku-hali 


Aku-la 


Pirimu 


Uxu-ata 


Here 


A-ha, A-hanco. 
Baha 


A-ha, A-hanco. 
Baha, Bahco 


Baha 




Ha-ha 


A-ha. 
A-hco 


In, inside ... 


Mumco. Mu-na, 


Mu, Mco. 


Mu-, -nda-ni. 




Mu- 


?Mu-. 




M-ua. Mg-ati. 


Muna, Mumco. 
M-le, M-li. 
Mu-gati 


Ku-nda-ni 






-mu, -i. 
M-beri 


Middle 


Ku-gati. 
Ha-gati 


-gati (Ku-gati, 
Ha-gati) 


Ha-gati 




Ku-fanika. 
Ku-gati. 
Tu-rika 


Ku-gati ? 


Near 


Behibehi 


Behi 


Behi 


Behi 


Behi. Kariasi 


Behi 


Outside ... 


Ku-nze ya 


Ku-nse, Ha-nse 


Ku-nje 


... 


Ku-nze 


Ki-werwi 


Plenty, many 


Bw-andcj. 
•ingi. N-hani 


-iiigi. N-hani 


Lu-ganeo. -ngi. 
-mnco 


•ngi 


nji (Me-nji) 


-cozi ? -munco 


There 


Kukco, 


A-haja, A-kuja. 


Kudia. 




Kuria. 


-cokco. Pare 




Ku-kudya. 


Bahco 


A-kuneo 




Kukco 






A-hadya 












Where? ... 


A-hi? 
Kwahi ? 


Kuli-hi.' 
Mw-ani ? 
Kw-ani ? 


Hcoki? 


... 


Li-kwi ? 
Cili-kwi ? 


Ha-i.' 


No! 


Bule! 


Bule! Sibfco! 


Ndawa ! 


... 


Ifco ! Ncina ! 
Asima ! 


Wco! 


Not {with verb. 


Si., hu-, ha- 


Si. Si-, hu-, 


Si-, -si-. 




Si- 


Si-, -si-. 


as prefix, in- 


(hatu, ha.m-, 


ha-, ^fc. 


Khali- 






Ku-leka 


fix, or stcfflx) 


ha-wa). 
Si-ku- 


Inali 











To 

„ beat 

„ buy, sell 
„ come ... 



, cut 
dance 
die . . . 
eat 
give 



Ku- 
-tcowa 



Ku- 
-tcoa 



•gula 

•eza, -iza, 
-idza, -vika 

■kanha 

-fa 

•ja, -dyaj^la 
-enka, -inka. 
•gcolela 



•gula 
-lawa. -iza 

(-izco ! = 

come /) 
-tema 

-fa 
•dya 

-iiika, -inha. 
-gcolela, -ga 



Ku- 
•tcoa. 

-halika 
•gula 
•idza, -isa. 

-lawa 

-tema. -senga 

-vina 

•fa 

-dia 

-inka 



Ku- 
•tcoa. -kcopa, 
-kcoba 
-gula 
-idza 



•pa 



Ku- 
-katcowa. 
-tcowa 
-gula 
■za, -zala 



•tema 
-dawala 
•fwa 
-ria 
-scola or 

-kascola. 

-pa. -pera 



Ku- 
-coma 

-cola 

-ja 



•tema. -kera 
-vlja ? 

-rya 
•ha 



IS2 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



23. 
Dzalamu 



23 a. 

Kami 

23 b. Ki-xutu 

23 c. Ki-ruguru 



24-24 b. 

Kaguru and 

Northern 

Sagara 



24 c-g. 
Southern 
Sagara 



To 



go... 



kill 



Ku- 
-genda. 
-ccola 



-kuma 



Ku- 

■genda. 
■ka 



„ know ... -manya. -jua. 

-tanga 
„ laugh ... 
„ leave off, -leka. 
cease -asa 

„ love, want -londa 



■kcoma 



•manya 

-seka 
-leka 



■londa. 
-tugcola 

„ see ... -ona. -Icola -ona. -Iwla 
„ sit, remain, -kala, -sigala -kala 

abide 
,, sleep ... -basa, -w^asa. -g<ona 

-guna 
„ stand, stop -ima. -ima 

be erect -gcolcoka 

„ steal ... -iba -iba 



Cu- 


Ku- 


■luta. 


■luta 


-genda. 




-tamba 




(travel) 




■kuma 


, 



•manya 



-seKa 
-leka 


... 


•enda 




■langa 
-kala, ■sigala 


-ikala 


-gcona. 
■sisila 




-ima 




-hija 





25. 

Gcogbl 



26. 

Irangi 

26 a. Ki- 

umbugwe 



Ku- 


Ku- 


-jenda 


-eta, -ita. 




-tamanya 




■tamba 




(travel) 


-kcopcole, 


■hwla 


-pcola. 




•nenga 




-zua 


■manya. 




-tanga 


... 


-seka 


•reka 


-reka 


■wenda. 


-enda. 


-saka 


-saka 


-wcona 


-una 


-kala 


■ikala 


-gcona 


-lala 


•wima, -ima 


-ima 


-hidza 


-iva 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN KI-DZALAMO) 

Preprefixes present in a specially demonstrative or pronominal sense. 

Class I. Um-, Mu-, M-, Imu-, Im- (m, umu, yu-, y-, i-) ; 2. Wa-, Iwa- (wa) ; 3. Um-, M- (umu-, m-, 
u') ; 4. Imi^, Mi- (imi-, i) ; 5. — , Di^ (di, j) ; 6. Gama^, Ma- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Iki-, Ki- (ki, c') ; 8. Ivi-, 
Vi- (vi, bvi); 9. In- (Im-), N- (M-), N-, Ny- (n-, n-, ny-, i) ; 10. Dzi-, Zi-, In- (Im-), N-, »■, Ny- (dzi 
or zi,n-,T\y-); li. Lu- (lu) ; 12. (wanting); 13. (wanting. Ki- replaces Ka- as diminutive) ; 14. U- (u) ; 
15. Ku-, Gu- (ku) ; 16. Ha-, Ba- (ha, ba) ; 17. Mu^ (mu, m). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN KAMI AND XUTU 

No preprefixes except in Class 3. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (m, mii, gu-, u-, ka-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Umu-, Mu-, M- (m-, mQ-, nw-, u) ; 4. Mi- 
(mi-, y-, gi, i) ; 5. — , Li-, Di-, I-, Zi- (li, di, 1', j') ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga, g') ; 7. Ci-,Ki-, C- (ki, ci, c') ; 8. Fi- 
or Pfi-, F'- (fi, f) ; 9. — , N- (M-), W- (— , n- (m-), n-, i) (//. sometimes. Class 6) ; 10. — , Zi-, N- (M-), 
N-,Ny- (zi, z', n-,ny'-) ; 11. Lu- (lu) (//. Classes 10, 4, and6) ; 12. missing; 13. (missing, except in Xutu 
numerals); 14. U- (u) (pi. same as Class 4); 15. Ku-, Gu- (ku) ; 16. Ha-, Ba- (ha, ba) ; 17. Mu- (as 
preposition only). 



' A . Worms (see Bibliography) also gives di- as a concord for the ^rd Class with a plural mi- ; perhaps 
by confusion with the augnientatives mi- and Ax- (No. 5). 



GROUP G: THE USAGARA-UGOJGa) LANGUAGES 153 

PREFIXES, &C„ IN SAGARA DIALECTS 

(Slight trace of preprefixes in No. 5.) 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu, m, yu-, u-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. M-, Mu- (mu-, m-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i) ; 
5. — , I-, Igi-, Izi-, Zi-, Di- (di, li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Ki-, Ci-, C- (ki, ci, c') ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. — , 
N- (M-), W- (n-, i) (//. sometimes, Class 6); 10. Zi-, N- (M-), N-, Ny-, S'-, Siny'- (zi, u) ; 11. Lu- (lu-) 
{pi. Classes 6 and 10); 12. missing; 13. missing, except in numerals; 14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 
16. Ha-, Ba- (ha, ba-) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN GOOGO) 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu, m, u-, yu-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M- (m-, mu-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-) ; 
S. — , I-, Zi-, Li- (li, di, ri) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Ki-, Ci- (ki, ci) ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. — , N- (M-), W-, Ny- 
(n-, i) ; 10. — , N- (M-), W-, Ny- (n-, zi, z') ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; 12. missing ; 13. (in numerals only) ; 14. U- 
(u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Ha- (ha); 17. Mu- (as preposition only). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN IRANGI 

No preprefixes except in No. 5. 

Class I. Mu-, Mu-, M- (m, mu, u-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, Mco-, M- (m-, mu-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, 
i) ; 5. Iri-, R-, I-, — (r', ri, i) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya, a) ; 7. Ki-, Ci-, C- (ki, c') ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. — , N- 
(M-),W-,Ny- (n-, i); 10. — , N- (M-), N-, Ny- (n-, j', ji) ; 11. Lu-, Leo- (lu) ; 12. (missing); 13. Ka- (ka) ; 
14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku-, Kco-(ku); 16. Ha-, Pa- (ha, pa) ; 17. Mu- (preposition) (-mu, -i shortened from -ni). 



23. Dzalamco is spoken in Uzaramco, between the Upper Kingani and the Lower Rufiji rivers. 

23 a. Kami, 23 b. Ki-xutu, and 23 c. Ki-ruguru are spoken in Ukami, immediately west of the 
Middle Kingani river, north-west of Uzaramco and south of Uzigula (Uzeguha). Ki-xutu is the southern 
dialect of Kikami and is spoken in the basin of the Upper Kidunda-Kingani. Ki-ruguru is the speech 
of Uluguru, west of Uzaramco. 

24-24 b. Kaguru and Northern Sagara. These dialects are spoken in northern Usagara in 
the basin of the Upper Wami (Rubehco), east of Ugcogco and west of Uzigula, excluding Uluguru. 

24 c-g. Southern Sagara dialects are spoken in south and south-east Usagara, south of the Upper 
Wami river and north of the Ruaha. The Ngwila dialect is probably spoken south of the Ruaha opposite 
the Ndunda territory. 

25. Gcogco is spoken in Ugcogco, west of Usagara, east of Itumba and Unyamwezi, south of Nyaturu 
and Sandawi. 

26. Irangi is spoken in Irangi and Buruiigi, north of Ugcogco in the north-eastern basin of the Bubu 
river. The Ki-umbugwe dialect is spoken in an isolated patch (Umbugwe) immediately south of Lake 
Manyaza, 3° 45' to 4° South latitude. 



2 7. Hehe 

28. Pcogorw a«^ Maheiige 



GROUP H 

THE UPPER RUFIJI LANGUAGES 

29. Sangco (Rori, Safwa) 31. Gangi 



30. Bena 

GROUP I 

THE LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 



31a. Bunga 





32. Ki-matumbi 3 


2 a. Ki-ndengerekca 


32 b. Ki-rufiji 




27. 


28. 


29. 


30- 


31- 


32. 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorco and 


Sangco 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. 
Ki-ndengerekco 


Adze 


Nemco 


... 


... 


... 


... 


M-basco ? 
N-deseo 


Animal, wild 


Ny-ama. 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 




N-yama;ma-f . 


beast 


Li-kcoku, 
-iicdkco 










Li'kcokco 


Ant 


Ny-arafu. 
Sisina. 
Nya-kongco. 
I-nemi ; 
ma-temi 


Salafu. 
Sungu. 
M-ce; 
wam-ce. 
Nam-tuta 








Lu-pamba ; 
m-pamba. 
Lu-angala ; 
angala. 
Meya; 
mi-meya 


Ant, white 


Lu-huwa ; 


Sua ; wa-sua 


... 




... 


Lu-nyaunyau. 


(termite) 


ny-uhwa. 
Lu-mehe 










Li-nenena 


Ape (chim- 




... 






... 


... 


panzi or 














gorilla) 














Arm 


Li-wcokco ; 
mi-wwkco 


Li-ukcd 


Gu-vcoxco, 
Mu-wcokco or 
M-cokco ; pi. 
ma-wcokco 


Mu-wcokco 


M-wcokco 


Lu-bcokco 


Arrow 


Lu-dibulco. 


M-sale. 


Mu-sari ; 




... 


Nn-ale 




Ki-Sunyco. 


Li-wancj 


mi-sari 






(Mw-ale);//. 




(Mw-ifwa = 










mi-ale 




arrow-head ) 












Axe 


Vega. Nemca. 
Li-huka. 
Li-gimirco 


Li-wagco 


N-hemu ; 
ma-temu 


... 


... 


Li-wagco ; ma- 


Baboon ... 


Li-puma or 
M-5ma. 
I-kabiya 


E-yani 


... 


... 




Li.yani ; 

ma-yani 


Back 


Mu-gongu. 
Lu-ngata 


N-gongco. 
M-bere, 
Cim-bere 


Mu-gongco 


M-gongeo 


M-gongco 


Pa-sanja 


Banana ... 


Ki-kcoco. 
I-ncowco 


N-kcou ; 
Zifi-kcou 


N-khco 


... 


... 


N-gcobco ; 
ma-kcobco 


Beard' 


Nuza. 
N-defu 


Lu-lefu 


... 


... 


... 


Lu-leu, N-deu, 
Ki-leu 


Bee 


N-zuki 


N-juki 


In-yusi 






N-yuci.', 
U-yutsi 


Belly 


Li-reme or 


M-tima. 


U-tumbu, 


I-nda ; 


Ku-tumbco ; 


N-dumbco 




I-lemi ; 


U-tumbu 


I-tumbu 


Nyi-nda 


ma-. 






ma-leme. 








Yi-nda; 






Lu-fu. 








mayi-nda 






U-tumbu 








(31a) 




Bird 


N-dege, 
Ka-dege. 
Ny-uni 


M-pongco 


Iny-uni 


Ny-uni ; ma -f 


N-dege. 
Degi 

(31a) 


Ki-yuni ; pi. 
i-yuni 



GROUPS H AND I : UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 155 



English 



27. 
Hehe 



28. 

Peogorco and 

Mahenge 



29. 

Sangco 

(Rori and 

Safwa) 



30- 
Bena 



31- 

Gangi, 

31a. Bunga 



32. 

Ki-matumbi 

32 a. 

Ki-ndengerekco 



Blood. 
Body . 



Bone 



Borassuspalm 

Bow 

Bowels 

Brains 
Breast (man's) 



Danda 



Mu-vile 



Li-zege or 
Ki-sege 



Breast 
(woman's) 
Brother ... 



Buffalo 
Bull ... 



Buttocks 
Canoe.. 



Cat 



Charcoal 
Chief ... 



Child ... 

Cloth ... 
Cold ... 
Country 
Cow ... 



A-zima. 

Ki-dibulco 
I-nda. 

Lu-tumbu ; 

n-umbu 
W-coscola. 

W-ongongo> 
Ma-mbaga. 

Ki-kua (= in 

beasts) 
I-wele, I-were ; 

ma-w^ele 
M-nununa. 

Mw-ana-kw-etu 

Lumbu-lie. 

M-longco (a 

relation) 
M-bcogco. 

Sikirco ^ 
Jfambakwa 



Li-daku 
Ci-lyoj. 

I-windi. 

Ki-pcogco 
Li-paka. 

Nyau 

Kala ; ma + 
Mu-twa. 

M-temi 

M-lugu 
Mw-ana. 

C-ali 



Mw-enda 

In-gala. 
Sisimoi 
In-nyi, E-nyi 

M-buguma. 
Seiiga 



Mu-azi 
N-cimba 



Ci-fupa. 

Ci-hondco 
M-kuma 

U-pindi 

Vyamu-nda. 

Ci-seke. 

Lu-kutu 
W-ongto 

Ci-fua 



Mu-wili. 
Gu-vili {pi. 
ma-vili .') 



Ki-wuta 



Ma-wele 

M-haca (also 
sister) 



Ny-ati. 

M-b«gco 
M-pongco 



Li-takco ; ma- 
W-at<o, m-atoj 



N-kanco. 
Siuzi 

Ma-kala 
M-tua. 
M-koni 

Mw-ana 



N-giico 

Ma-hundi 

M-lima 

Ng-ombe 
e-kolu 



Ki-fula ; fi- 



I-wele ; ma- 

Lu-kcolco. 
Mu-nununa 



I-kida ; ma-. 
Khambaku 



Ru-watco 



Lu-paka ; //. 
mm-aka or 
mi-baka 



Mw-ana. 

Mw-ain|si. 

(Mu-hinja = 

daughter. 

C-ana = son) 
Mw-enda 

Mm-eh(o or 

Mm-epco 
I-nhi 

M-buguma 



Mu-nununa ; 

wa- 



M-gcoloj or 
M-kulu._ 
Mu-nununa 
(31a) 



Mw-ai, Mi-ai 
(Mi-azi) 
Y-ega 



Ki-upa 

N-nala ; 

mi-lala 
M-pinde ; 

mi-pinde 
Li-tumbu 



Bw-ongo 

Ki-uba, 
Paki-uba 

Ma-bele 

Nuna 



Nj-ati 



I-senga i-lume I-seinga i-lume. 
N-ombe 
n-dumi (31 a) 



M-nyacd 



Mw-ana 



I-senga 
n-dala 



... 


Ma-takco 




Li-yume. 
Nyau 


Mw-ana. 

M-fwana(3ia) 
{see Zulu) 


Yumbe, 

Jumbe. 

M-pindoj 
Mw-ana ; 

b-ana. 

A-lau 




N-gubco ; 
ma-gubco 
-ima 


N-ombe 


Nima. 
Ki-lambco 


m-pinga. 
I-senga 
m-pinga. 
N-ombe 
m-kahanco(3i a) 



iS6 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



27. 
Hehe 



28. 

Pcogorco and 

Mahenge 



2g. 

Sangco 

(Rori and 

Safwa) 



30. 
Bena 



31- 

Gangi, 

31a. Bunga 



32. 

Ki-matumbi 

32 a. 

Ki-ndengerekco 



Crocodile ... 



Date palm... 
Day 



Devil, evil 
spirit 



Mamba or 

I-mamba ; pi. 

ma-pamba 
M-kindw 
Mu-nyi. K-irco. 

Ki-gconco. 

(Lu-isa = 

daylight) 
I-scoka 



Mamba 



Lu-kindu 

E-jtia. Li-siku. 
(M-lungu 
go-pala = day- 
light) 

E-hcoka 
Lu-dewa : ma- 



Doctor (medi- M-lagusi^ 

cine man) 
Dog ... . 



Donkey 
Door 

Dream 

Drum , 

Ear 

Egg 

Elephant .. 
Excrement 



Face, fore- 
head 
Fat, oil ... 

Father 

Fear 

Finger 

Fire 



Im-bwa, 
Ka-bwa. 
Igu-bwa ; ma- 

Dcogcowi 
M-lyangco. 

Lw-izi 
N-dcotco or 

I-lcotto 
N-duzi or 

In-dusi 

Li-sikiza. 
I-twi ; ma-tviri 
Li-kanga 



M-ganga 

Nanga. 
(M-bwawa = 

wild dog) 

M-punda 
Mu-liangco 

N-dcotco. 

N-sawco 
Li-gcoma 



Pa-munsi. 
Lu-siku 



Lu-kwati. 
M-kahaba 



Xa-bwa, 

Im-bwa. 

I-korcowa $. 

M-barusi 
N-dcogcowe 



N-dcotco ; sin- 



Li-pepe. 
E-kutu 
Li-gi 



N-dembwe. 

N-dembco 
Ma-pi, 

Ma-fi 



Ey6 L-Uico ; m-ihco 



N-tembco 

Ci-kutu. 
Lu-puekco. 

Ma-ii 
L-isco ; ma-SCO 



E-twe 

Susu ; 

ama-susu. 

Li-xanxa ; 

ama- 
Jongwa. 

N-zcovu 



L-ihco 



Usco. C-eni. Kum-ehco ; 

I-palasco Kuma-sco am-ehco (//.) 

Ma-futa. Ma-futa Ma-futha 

Ma-pama 

Dada, Dade. Tati. Dada. 

Isco. U-sco-gco. U-heseo 

Ise U-Sco-gwe 

Mu-hwehwe. Li-coga 

I-duega. 

M-lcotco 

C-ala ; fi-ala C-ala, vi-ala Ki-dori 



I-funya ; ma- I-kungu or 
I-kisi. 



Im-bwa 



I-kcoka (31a) 



Nyaka-bT^a. 
I-galco ; ma- 
(31a) 



In-dcogcowe N-dcogcowa 



N-gwena ; 
ma-kwena 



Li-suba or 
Li-tscoba 



M-bepco 



N-ganga ; 

ama-ganga^ 
M-bwa ; 

ma-pwa. 

Li-pumbe ; 

ma- 
M-bunda 
N-nyangco ; 

mi-liangco 
N-dcotco 

(Ku-lcota) 
Li-sindco. 

Li-lunga. 

N-gcoma 
Li-kutu; ma- 

Li-pinga 



N-dembco ; 
ma-tembco 

Ma-i 



Iz-ihco ; m-ehco Iz-ihco ; m-ehco. Li-yco ; m-ingco 
L-esco ; m-esco 
(31a) 

Kum-inyco. 
Ki-bungi 
Ma-iita 



Dada 



I-sikidza; ma- I-gutwe; ma- 



M-otcj 



M-otco 



M-otco 



Motco 



Tata. 
Tate 
(31a) 


Tate ; ba-tate 
Ki-tati ; 
aki-tati 




Bw-eoga 


Motco 


Lu-kontsi, 
Lu-konji ; 
n-gontsi. 
(Li-gumba = 

thumb) 
Mw-otco 



' -lagua=/c heal with medicine. 



GROUPS H AND I : UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 157 





27. 


28. 


29. 


30. 


31- 


32. 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorco and 


Sangeo 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekco 


Fish 


I-zwi. Somba Somba 


N-swi 






Omba ; ma- 


Foot 


M-gtilu. 
Lw-ahca ; 
m-ahco or 
nz-ahb) 


Li-gulu. 
Lu-sayu 


M-gulu 


M-gulu 


M-gulu 


Lu-gulu. 
Lu-ayco [sole) 


Forest- ... 


Li-kungu. 
Li-hala. 

M-hulu. 
M-situ 


U-punguti. 
(Lu-hcole = 
tall forest.) 
M-bagu 


Mw-ihaka 






Mw-itu. 
Mi-tela 


Fowl 


N-guku ; 
Temba 


N-kuku 


N-guku 


... 


N-guku 


N-guku 


Frog 


C-ura, Ki-iila 


Nama-nycoma 






... 


Ky-ula ; pi. 
y-ula 


Ghost 


Lu-he. I-nala. 
I-so>ka 


E-hcoka ; 
M-oyco 




... 






Giraffe 


N-diinduru or 
N-iindulu 


... 




... 




... 


Girl, maiden 


Mu-hinza. 


Mu-hinga. 


>■• 


Mu-hinza, 


Ci-gcoli. 


M-minja ; 




Mw-aruka 


Mw-ali. 
M-cengu 




Ki-hinza 


Mu-hinza 


ab-inja or 
a-inja 


Goat 


M-ene or 


M-buzi. 


Im-heni ; pi. 


M-buzi 


M-peeni. 


M-bui 




M-eeni. 


M-ene 


zim-. Or 




M-buhi ; ma- 






Ki-pene 




M-peeni, 
M-meni 




(31a) 




„ (he) ... 


BoiBLgco or 
Pongcii 


M-pongco 


I-pongco 


Pongco 


I-vulata. 
M-buhi 
m-lume (31 a) 




„ (she)... 


Lcogcota 


M-buzi e-kolco 


Lcogcota 


M-buguma 


M-buguma. 
M-buhi 
m-kahanco 


... 
























(31 a)^ 




God 


N-gulwi. 


M-lungu ; //. 


Mu-lung^. 


Mu-lungn. 


Mu-lungu 


N-nungu 




Mu-luiiigu 


wam-lungu 


N-rui, 
N-gurui 


N-guluwe 






Grandparent 


Kuku. 
Pape 


M-buzi 






.*■ 


U-kulu. 

(M-buya = 
grandmother) 


Grass 


Li-scoli. 
Ma-hamba 


Lu-tundha ; 
tundhu 






... 


Ma-nyei 


Ground 


N-nyi. 
Lu-hanga. 
U-longco 


N-tambu. 
Mu-hanga. 
Pa-zi 






.. . 


U-tcopi? 


Ground-nut 


Li-ngcogco. 
Li-ngalanga. 
N-zugu 


Li-rawi 


... 




... 


N-tesa. 
Li-ycobe 


Guinea-fowl 


Wanga or 
N-ganga; pi. 
ma-kanga 


Khaiiga 


Li-xanga 


... 




Li-kanga 


Gun 


Hute 


Huti 


... 




... 


Kcolcopindco 


Hair 


Fwili, Fwiri 


Vuiri 


Im-fuile; pi. 
same or 
zim-fuile 


Lu-vuile 


Lu-vuile ; 
m-vuile 


Ny-wili 


Hand 


I-ganza 


Li-cokco. 


Umu-wcokco ; 


Mu-wcokco 


Mu-wcokco. 


Lu-bcokco. 






Ci-gaza 


ama-. Ili- 
ganja; ama- 




M-k<onco(3ia) 


Ki-ganja 


Head 


MQ-twe, 


M-tui 


Umu-thwe ; 


Kumu-twe ; 


Kumu-twe;ma-. 


M-twe ; 




Mu-ttiwe 




imi- 


mamu- 


Ci-mundila ; 

vi- (31 a) 


mi-twe 



158 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





27. 


28. 


29. 


30- 


31- 


32. 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogoru and 


Sangco 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekoj 


Heart 


Niimbula. 
Mu-tima 


M-oyco 






M-oyto. 
M-tima 


Heel 


Ki-singanco 


Ci-stokiinca 


... 




Ki-nginco 


Hide .;. ... 


N-gingco 


Lu-kuli 


N-kwembi 




N-g«i. 
Li-kingci). 
Li-sambara 


HUl 


Lu-tanana 


Ci-gongu. 
Ci-dugudugu 


I-tunda 


I-tunda 


Ki-tumbi 


Hippopotamus 


Fuco. 


Huhu. 


... 


... 


Ki-bongco. 




Lumondco. 


N-dcamondco 






N-dcomondco 




I-ttunondco 










Hoe 


I-gimirco 


C-vika. 
E-huka 


I-kumburu 




Li-jembe ; 
ma-. Li-gela; 
ma-. 


Honey- 


W-uki 


N-juki 






B-fisi 


Horn 


Lu-pembe 


Ma-gcoli {pi.) 


... 




Li-peri ga. 
Lu-pembe 


House 


Ny-anda. Cu&j N-umba 


I-tembi, 


I-jumbi ; ma- N-anda. 


Ny-umba. 




{small hut). 




Tembe. 


I-heiige ; ma- 


Liy-umba. 




Kai. 




Iri-tembe 


(31a) 


(Ki-umba = 




Ny-umba. 








nest.) 




Tembe. 








Mm-ambe ; 




I-jumbe 








mi-bambe 


Hunger 


N-sala. 

Mu-sale 


N-jala 


Jenxa (?) 
In-zala 




N-jara 


Husband ... 


Mny-iktozi. 

Mun-gwzi 








N-cengco; 
a-cengco. 
Na-lume ; 
ana-lume 


Hyena 


Sakanga 

{spotted). 
Fifi {striped). 
N-segumbi 


M-tcote 
{spotted). 
M-duba, 
M-dula 

{striped) 


Fisi, N-fisi 




N-tcote 


Iron 


C-iima ; 


C-uma 


C-uma or 


C-uma C-uma 


Kij-uma ; 




fy-uma. 




Ci-cuma 




y-uma 




Ki-uma 










Island 


Ki-gunguli 


Ci-jinci. 
E-gunguli 


Iri-siwa 




Ki-silwa 


Ivory 


Lu-pembe ; 
m-embe 


N-tembca 


... 




Lu-pembe ; 
m-bembe 


Knee 


Li-fugamilco or 
I-fugamira> 


Lu-niingiinu 


... 




Li-yuwa ; 
ma-yuwa 


Knife 


I-mage, 


Ci-mage. 


Magi 




Ki-imbe. 




Li-mage 


Ci-fimbco. 
Ci-himbe 






Lu-erabe 


Lake 


I-temela. 
Mu-tanda 


Li-tanda 


I-lamba. 
Iny-anja 




Li-tanda 


Leg 


M-gtilu, 


Lu-kconcokconco 


M-guru 


M-gulu 


Lu-gulu. 




Li-gulu 


Li-ondu 






Lu-koiigconu 


Leopard ... 


Ki-duma 


Duma 


Duma 




Ki-ubi or 
Ubi 


Lion 


Ny-alopala 


Simba 


Ny-alopala 




Imba 


Lips 


M-lcomco 


Li-rcomco 


.. . 




Mu-kanco; mi- 


Magic 


U-hawi 


U-ganga 


... 




(Ku-lcoga = to 
bewitch) 


Maize 


Ma-zabeli or 


Ma-jani 


Ma-jaberi 




Ma-rombe 




Ma-sebere 













GROUPS H AND I: UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 159 





27. 


28. 


29. 


30. 


31- 


32- 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorco and 


Sangto 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndeiigerekco 


Man 


Mu-nu, 


Mu-ndhu 


Mu-nhu. 


Mu-nhu; wa- 


Mu-nhu ; 


Mu-ndu ; 




Mu-nhu ; 




Umu-nhu ; 




wa-nhu. 


ba-ndu. 




wa-nhu, 




aba-, awa- 




Mu-ndu {31 a) 


Mu-analume 




wa-nu 












Man, vir. ... 


M-gcozi. 
Mu-waha 


M-palu 


Umu-geozi 


••• 


. . . 


N-cengco = 
husband ; 
a-cengco (//.) 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Medicine . . . 


Mu-gcoda 


M-gtota. 

M-tera 




... 




N-tela ; mi-. 
N-tende. 
Li-pcosco 


Milk 


Li-ziwa 


Ma-ziwa. 
Ma-wele 


Tu-piyco 


... 


... 


Li-bele 


Monkey ... 


N-gedege or 
N-kedeke 


Ka-biri. 
E-ripa 






... 


N-dumbili. 
Ki-tumbili. 
N-jei 


Moon 


Mw-ezi. 
M-lenge. 
M-kcomi 


Mu-ezi 


Mw-ezi 


M-lenge 


Mw-edzi. 
M-lenge (31 a) 


Mw-ei. 
Lw-ei 


Mother ... 


Ycowa, Yuwe. 


Maco. 


Yuwa. 


Yuawa 


Mama. 


Mau. Ki-mau. 




Wgina or 


Uncj-kco. 


Nine-so) 




Mau (31 a) 


Nyo-ngco 




Nina. 


Unoj-kwe 












Nyco-k(o 












Mountain ... 


Ki-dunda 


Lu-goiigco ; //. 
nongco 


Dunda or 
Ki-dunda ; vi- 


... 


■ *• 


Ki-tumbi. 
Li-tumbi ; 
ma-tumbi 


Mouth 


Mu-lcomto 


Ci-kanua. 
M-lumco 


Mu-lcomco. 
Ru-mirto 


Mu-lcomco 


Mu-leomco 


N-kanco 


Nail (of finger 


Lu-nycowe. 


N-konci 






... 


Ki-cobco ; 


or toe) 


N<jo-nerco ; 
tcL)-nerco 










y-cobco 


Name 


Li-tawa 


L-ina. 
Li-tahu 


I-tagwa ; ma- 




I-tagwa 


L-ina ; 

mal-ina 


Navel 


Lu-dungu 


N-kufu. 
(Lu-komba = 

string) 


... 




... 


Ki-ku 


Neck 


Singu. 
Ki-scogco 


Singu 






... 


Ki-koi. 
Ingco 


Night 


K-il», 


C-iru. 


Pak-irto. 




... 


K-ilco. 




Pa-kila> 


Pac-iru 


Lu-siku 






(Pali-bendco = 

darkness) 


Nose 


M-iila 


M-pula 


Im-pula ; zim- 


M-pula 


M-pula. 
Lu-pepela 

(31a) 


M-pulco ; 
nia-pulco. 
Li-pulco; ma- 


Ox 


Gida. 
Senga. 
N-azco 


N-koncolco. 

Masai (Arai.). 
N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


I-senga. 
N-ombe (31 a) 


- * * 


Paddle ... 


Mu-tera 


N-kavi 


Ru-xafi 


... 






Palm wine, 


U-gimbco 


U-jimbi 








U-wimbi 


beer 














Parrot 


Li-tui 






... 




N-gwalu ; 
ma-kwalu 


Penis 


Ki-dondto 


M-bcolco 


... 






... 


Pig 


N-gubi 


N-tumbi 


... 


» 




N-gube ; 
ma-gube 


Pigeon 


N-gunda. 
N-siwa 


N-gundi. 
N-ciwa, 
N-dziwa 


... 




• ■• 


N-dutu 



i6o 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





27. 


28. 


29. 


30- 


31- 


32- 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorco and 


Sangco 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekco 


Place 


Panco. 

Ki-wungu 


Pa-kaya, 
U-kaya. 
Pantu 


... 




... 


Pandu 


Rain 


N-dconya. 
Ifugu. 
Tconya 


I-vula 


N-hconya 




... 


Ula 


Rat 


M-buku. 
M-bewa. 
Gcole. 
Gongongco 


M-beya, 
Ka-dwirco 








Ki-puku. 
N.gule ; 
ma-kule 


Rhinoceros 


I-mera, M-ela 
or Li-pera 


Tupa 


... 






... 


River 


Ru-aha. 
Lu-nginalco. 
Mu-kcoga 


Lu-eni. 
Lu-cemba 


M-ktoga 






Lu-kemba 


Road 


I-nazi, N-gazi • 
ma-gazi. 
Ka-kazi. 
I-kuya 


N-jira 


In-zila 






N-dila 


Salt 


Mu-nyco 


Mu-nu {a little 
= Tu-nii) 


Mu-nyu 


... 




Mwi-nyco 


Shame 


In-yconi 


Zconi 


N-sooni 


... 




OOni 


Sheep 


I-ncolco ; 
ma-kcolco. 
Ki-kcoleo 


Jfolco.^ 
M-fungamco 


N-khcolco 




Li-nondi 




Shield 


N-gwembe 


Ci-kcopa 








Li-pende 


Shoulder . . . 


Li-wega. 
Lu-kombe ; 
nombe 


Ma-wega 


... 






Li-pamba ; 
ma-bamba 


Sister 


Mu-haza 


M-haja m-dala Lumbu. 


Mu-hadza 


Mu-hadza. 


N-numbu ; 








Mu-hasa 




I-lumbu (31a) 


a-lumbu. 
N-kuwe 


Skin 


Ki-gcalya 


M-papha 


... 






N-gcoi. 
Lu-kanda. 
Kingco 


Sky 


U-langa 


M-lungu. 
Li-kusi 


Iri-wingu 


... 


U-langa 


Ku-nani, 
Pa-nani 


Slave 


M-fugwa. 


M-anda 


M-fugwa. 


M-lelelwa ; wa 


M-fugwa. 


M m-anda ; 




Ma-teka. 




M-khami 




M-sutu {31 a) 


ab-anda 




Mnya-wiingi. 














M-leluwa 












Sleep 


Tulco 


M-pcocota. 
(Ku-gonja = 

verb) 


■*• 


• »• 




Ki-gconco, 
Lu-gconco 


Smoke 


Ly-usi. Li-susi Li-cosi 


... 




... 


Li-oi 


Snake 


N-scoka 


N-jcoka 


Iny-oxa 




... 


Li-pili. 
N-kuya 


Son, boy ... 


M-swamu. 


Mw-ana. 


C-ana. 


Mw-ana. 


Ki-songcolco. 


Mw-ana 




Mame. 


M-zereroj. 


Mw-ana 


Ka-kwa. 


Mw-ana 


na-lume.^ 




(c/.-swamu = 


= Mu-dimi 


ci-lume. 


midzi 


m-lume. 


Mwu-hungoj ; 




good) 




M-songcolco. 
N-dimi 




Mfw-ana 
mka-lume 
(31a). 
Li-ziuha 

(31a) 


ba-hungco 


Song 


W-imbco, 
Lu-imbco ; 


Sambcj 


Lu-jimbco ; 
n-jimbeo 


... 




Lu-yimbci3. 
Mw-ambco; 



ny-imbco 



GROUPS H AND I : UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES i6i 





27. 


28. 


29. 


30. 


31- 


32. 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorco and 


Sangco 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekco 


Spear 


Li-sala. 
N-goya. 

Mu-gooha 


M-gcohco 


M-harara 


... 


Ki-lenge 


Spirit, soul 


Niimbula. 
Lu-he ; nze-he 


M-oyco. 
M-lungu ; 
wam-lungu 


... 




... 


Star 


Ny-enyezi. 


N-tondco 


N-tondwe. N-tondwe 


N-tondwa. 


Lu-tondwa ; 




N-scota 




Vi-nycota (//.) 


Nya-redzi 


n-dondwa 
Lu-tcow-ana 


Stick 


Lu-gcoda. 
Lu-ambo>. 
Lu-fimbco. 
Lu-kwegco 


Mu-humbati 


I-gcoda. 
N-kwegco 


N-khwekco 


Bco-kcola 


Stone 


Li-ganga. 
Li-hwahwa 


Li-bue 


Di-nganga; 
ma- 


... 


Lu-ala 


Stool 


Ki-gcoda. 
Ki-degu. 
Ki-tengco 


Ci-gcota 


... 


... 




Sun 


Li-zcowa 


M-jence 


Li-dztiva Li-jtia 


I-dzua 


Li-luba 


Tail (of a 


Mu-kira 


Lu-cira 






N-kila 


mammal) 












Tear 


Li-hcpzi or 
Lu-ihcozi ; 
pL mi-hcozi 


Li-scozi 


... 




Li-coli ; pi. 
m-coli 


Testicles ... 




N-toiagi ; zin-. 
Kambako 


... 


... 


N-dongco 


Thief 


Mu-hizi 


M-kewa. 
Iwa 




... 


Ma-jibi ; 
ba-jibi. 
Mu-i ; ba-i. 
Ny-ibi 


Thigh 


Ki-ma. 
Ki-werco 


Li-paja 


... 


... 


Ky-ima. 
Li-bandco 


Thing 


Ki-nu 


Ci-ndu 


Xi-nhu ; 
fi-nhu 




I-libe, 
Ki-libe. 
Ki-dibe 


Thorn 


Mw-ifwa or 
Mu-fwa 


Lu-sonthco 


... 


... 


Mw-imwa 


Tobacco . . . 


Sayco. 
N-dyani 


Tumbakco 




... 


Tumbakco 


To-day ... 


Na-miinyi, 
Ne-ngconi 


Lerco 




Lelco 


L-inco 


Toe 


C-ala 


C-ala 


... 


... 


Li-gumba 


To-morrow 


Mi-lau, 
Imi-rau 


Ci-lau 




... 


Ma-lau 


Tongue ... 


Lu-limi. 


? Li-rimi 


Lu-limi. Lu-limi 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi ; 




Lumi-angu 




Uru-n;iri ? 




n-dimi 


Tooth 


L-inco. 
Li-gegwa 


L-inco 


L-inco Iz-inco 


Iz-inco. 
M-scokcole 
(31a) 


L-inco ; m-inco 


Town, village 


Lu-sitco. 


U-kaya 


Mu-zi 


Kaya, 


N-cengco, 




I-ringa. 






I-kaya 


Tsengco. 




M-ji, Kaye 








U-kaya 


Tree 


Li-biki, 


Mu-ti. 


I-gcoda. 


M-gcoda 


N-tela ; 




Mu-biki. 


M-tera. 


I-pipi. 




mi-tela. 




M-gcoda 


Ci-biki 


Iri-piki, 

or Umu-pixi ; 




N-kongco ; 
mi-kongco 


nn • 






ama-, imi- 









Twins 



Wanya-wendani Ma-wira 



Ma-paga 



l62 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



27. 
Hehe 



Urine . . . 
Vein ... 

War ... 



Ma-tunzi 

N-dera ; 
ma-dera 

Li-galu. 
Nondco 



Water ... Lu-lenga 



Well, spring, Ki-pera 

source 
White man 
Wife 



Wind 

Witch 
Witchcraft 
Woman ... 



Womb 
Wood (fire' 
■wood) 

Yam 

Year 

Yesterday.. 
Zebra 

One 

Two 



Three. 

Four . 

Five . 

Six 

Seven. 



Mu-zungu 
M-dala. 
Mw-aha 



Im-epoj. 

Wala. 

I-gudwa 
Mu-hawi 



M-dala. 
Mu-dzima 



Kuma ' 
Lu-sigala ; 
n-sagala 



Mw-aka 

Li-gulcd 
Sengere 

? Monga. 
-mui 
•wili, -wiri 



•datu 



-tai, -tei 



•hanca 

Mu-tanda. 

Mu-tandatu 
Mu-fuiigati 



28. 

Pcogorco and 

Mahenge 



29- 

Sangca 

(Rori and 

Safwa) 



3°- 
Bena 



31- 

Gangi 

31 a. Bunga 



32. 
Ki-matumbi 

32 a. Ki- 
ndengereku 



Ma-kwezcj 



M-kondua 
{■warrior). 
Ma-kondoj. 
U-kali 

Ma-ji 

Ci-sulu. 
E-negu 
Mu-zungii 
M-dala 



M-pepto. 
Li-yega 

M-ganga 

U-ganga 

M-dala 



Ma-letiga 



Mu-zungu 
M-dala 



Ma-lenga 



Mu-zungu 
Mu-ka 



Ma-renga. 

Me-se (31a) 
I-sima 

Mu-zungu 
Mw-ehe. 

M-kahanci> 

(31a) 



Mu-dala. 
M-jima 



Mu-dala ; wa- 



M-tima 
M-baco. 

W-gcodi, 

Tu-geodi 

C-aka ; vy-aka 

Li-cu 
M-punda 



-mco. (monga U-moiiga. 

= other) -mwe. -mco 

-wili -wili (Si-wili) 



M-pinga. 
M-kcodzi. 
M-kahanco 
(31a) 



Mw-aka ; mi- 



Mcdsi 



Pili, -wili 



•tatu 



M-cece. 
-cece 

Mto-hanu or 

■hanco 
Mco-hanco 

na(li)-m€o 
Mco -hanco 

(ma)-wili 



•tatu or 
(Si-tatu) 
thathu 

■na (Wa-na, 
Si-na) 

-sanco 

M-tanda 

-na na-datu 



Mcosi. 

Weka (31 a) 
•bill, -wili 

(Ka-bili). 

Scona (31 a) 
-tatu (Ka-tatu) -tatti (Ka-tatu). 

Wa-lila (31 a) 



Ma-kcojcd, 

Ma-kcozco 
Mu-kcole ; 

mi-kcole. 

N-gcoleng<ole 
N-gondco 



Ma-tsi 

Ku-lose 

N-jungu 
N-nwawa ; 

pi. a-lwawa. 

N-yumbco; //. 

a-yumbco 
M-bepco 



Mw-abi ; 

b-abi 
(Ku-lcoga = to 

bewitch) 
N-w^awa. 

Ny-umbo>. 

Ki-lumbu 

{bride) 

Ny-ancu. 
Anyu. 
N-deketu 

Caka, Saka, 
Fa-saka 
L-iseo 



-bill 



-tatu 



•tai (Ka-tai) -ne (Ka-ne). -n-cece,-n-cene 



-hanco 
(Ka-hanco) 
M-tanatco 



M-fungati 



M-cece. -dai 

(Ka-dai 31a) 
-hanco. Fundco 

(31a) 
M-tandatu. 

M-t4 (31 a) 
M-fungati. 

M-fti (31 a) 



Mw-anco 

Mw-anco na 
(yu)-mco 

Mw-anco na 
bill 



' Ki-kuma = vagina. 



GROUPS H AND I : UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 163 





27. 


28. 


^9- 


30- 


31- 


32- 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorco and 


Sangco 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekco 


Eight 


Mu-nana 


Mco-hanto 
(ma)-tatu 


M-nana 


M-nana 


M-nana. 
Mu-nana 
(31a) 


Mw-anco na 
tatu 


Nine 


I-gonzi, 


M(o-hanco 


Sanco na 


I-kenda 


I-kenda. 


Mw-anco 




I-gonza. 


m-cece 


wa-na (or 




Mu-fwanco 


na n-cece 




I-kenda 




si-na) 




(31a) 




Ten 


I-cumi, 


Li-rongto 


I-iumi or 


I-fundika ; ma- 


I -kumi. 


Nongco gu-mco 




I-kyumi. 


li-mco. -kumi, 


I -cumi 




Li-hundu ; 


(pi. mi-longco) 




I-funduka 


-cumi, or 
Li-cumi 






ma- (31 a) 




Eleven 


I-kyumi na- 


Li-cumi na 


I-iumi 






Noiigco gu-mco 




mui 


(li)-mco 


pa-canyali-mco 






na yu-mco 


Twenty ... 


Ma-cumi, 


Ma-rongco 


Ama-iumi 


Ma-fundika 


Mi-longco 


Mi-loiigco 




Ma-kyumi 


ma-wili or 


ga-wili or 


ma-wili 


mi-wili. 


i-bili 




ga-wili 


Ma-cumi 
ma-wili 


Simariri 
munhu (to 
stand up one 
man !) 




Ma-hundu 
scona 




Thirty 


Ma-kyumi 


Ma-rongco 


Simariri 


Ma-fundika 


Mi-longco 


Mi-longco 




ga-datu 


ma-tatu 


munhu, 

pa-canya 

i-cumi 


ma-tatu 


mi-tatu. 
Ma-hundu 
ma-lila (31 a) 


i-tatu 


Forty 


Ma-kyumi 


Ma-rongco 


Simariri 


Ma-fundika 


Ma-longco 


Mi-longco 




ga-tei 


m-cece 


wanhu 
wawili 


ma-tai 


mi-ne. 
Ma-hundu"' 
ma-dai (31 a) 


in-cece 


Fifty 


Ma-kyumi 


Ma-rongco 


Ma-cumi 


Ma-fundika 


Mi-longco 


Mi-longco 




ga-hanco 


mco-hanco. 
(Ma-rongco 
mco-hanco na 
limco = sixty, 
and so on) 


ga-sanco or 
Simariri 
wanhu 
wa-wili 
pa-canya 
icumi. 
(Simariri 
wanhu 

watatu = i-z.r/>' 
and the other 
decades on the 
same plan) 


ma-hanco 


mi-hanco. 
Ma-hundu 
ma-fundco 
(31a) 


i-anco 


Hundred ... 


I-gana 


Ma-rongco 


Wafile wanhu Ci-gana 


Mi-longco 








cumi or 


wasaneo 




mi-hanco. 








Ma-cumi 


(there died five 




mi-longco 








ma-cumi 


men!). Also 
I-gana. 




mi-hanco, 
di-merera 




Thousand... 


Imbirima 


... 






... 




I, me, my ... 


Nene. 


Nene. Ne-figa. 


Y-iine. Mia. 


Ne-ene. 


Ne-eni. Ne-figa 


Ne-figa. 




Ndi., N.. 


Na-, N- (M-). 


Ni-, N-.^ 


N-, Ni-. ^ 


(31 a). 


Ni-. 




•n-, -ni-. 


-n-, -ni-, -m-. 


•n-. -a-iigu 


-n-. -a-ngu 


N-, Na-, Ni-. 


•ni-, -ny.. -n'. 




-a-ngu 


-a-ngu 






-n-, -ni-. 
-a-iigu, 

-a-ne-iiga 


-a-ngu 


Thou, thee, thy 


Wewe. Bewe, 


Gwe-iiga. Gwe! 


0-iwe, COwe. 


We-we. 


Gwegwe, 


We-iiga. We ! 




Bee. 


Gu- 


U-, Gu-. 


U-, Ku- ? 


Wewe, 


U-. 




U-. 


•gu-. -a-kco 


•gu-. -a-kco 


-ku- ? -a-kco 


Gwe-nya. 


-ku-. -a-kco 




■ku-. -a-koj 








Ku-, U-, W-. 
-ku-. -a-kco, 

-a-gwe-nya 





164 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





27. 


28. 


29. 


3°- 


31- 


32. 


English 


Hehe 


Pcogorco and 


Sangco 


Bena 


Gangi 


Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekco 


He, him, his 


Yuyco, Uyu. 


A-yu. 


Yuyu. 


U-yu. 


A-yu. Yu-no), 


Yu-embe. 




A-, I-. 


Ka-, Ga-, Yu-. 


Ya-, A-. 


Ya-, Ka-. 


Yuyoj. 


Yu-, A-. 




•mu-. -a-kwe 


-m-. -a-kwe 


■mu-. -a-kwe 


-mu-? -a-kwe 


Ka-, Ya-. 

-mu-. -e, 

-a-kwe, 

-a-yu-nco 


•kumu-. kum'-, 
-kun. -a-ke 


We, us, our 


Hwehwe or 


Twe-nga. 


Au-se. Yu-se. 


Xwexwe. 


Twetwe. 


Twe-iigco. 




Xwexwe. 


Tu-. 


Ti-, Tu-. 


Tu-. 


Twe-figa(3ia). 


Tu-. 




Tu-. 


-tu-. -e-tu 


-ti- or -tu-. 


-tu-. -e-tu 


Tu-. 


-tu-. -i-tu 




•tu-. -e-tu 




-e-su 




-tu-. -e-tu 




Ye, you, your 


Nyenye, 


Mwe-figa. 


Yu-mwe. 


Nyenye. 


Mwemwe. 


Mwe-figa, 




Nyenyu, 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 


Mwe-nga. 


Mwe. 




Nye-re. Mu- 


-gu — ni ^, ace. 


-wa-. -e-nyu 


-wa- ? -enu 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 




■wa-. -e-nyu 


•enu 






? -wa-. -e-nyu 


-kwa-. -inu 


They, them. 


Wawco, I-wco, 


A-wa. 


Wawo. 


Awco. 


Awa. 


Bembe. 


their 


I-wa. 


Wa-. 


Wa-, Ba-. 


Wa-. 


Wa-. 


Ba-. 




Wa-. 


-wa-. -aco 


-wa- or -ba-. 


-wa-. -awM 


•wa-. -awco 


-kwa-. (-a-be 




■wa-. -aco 




•awca 






= their) 


All 


Mbe— li (-li or 
•ri represents 
'is',' are'). 


-ose-re or -cose 


■ose. -ona 


-ose 


-cose, 
-coha (3 1 a) 


Omwike. 
•ote, -cote 




Mbe-fi-ri = all 












things {Class 














8). Mbe-wa-li 












= all men 














(Class 2) 












This, these 


U-yco, i-wa; 


A-yu, a-wa ; 


... 


... 


A-yu, a-wa ; 


N— yu,aawI^ 




u-gu, u-g«, 


a-gu, a-i ; 






<S^f. 


a — ba „ 2 ; 




i-gi ; i-li, i-ri. 


a-li, a-ga; 








m— gu „ 3, 




i-ga; i-ki. 


a-ci, a-vi ; 








mi— yi „ 4 ; 




i-fl; i-ye, 


a-i, a-zi ; 








li-li „ 5, 




i-zi ; u-lu ; 


a-lu; a-tu; 








ma— ga„ 6 ; 




u-tu ; i-ka ; 


a-ka ; a-u ; 








ki— ci „ 7. 




na ; u-ku ; 


a-ku ; a-pa ; 








i-yi „ 8; 




i-pa 


a-mu 








n— yi „9>io; 



That, those 



Yu-IA, wa-li ; 
gu-lA, gi-rd; 
li-rA, ga-14 ; 
ki-r^, fi-rd ; 
i-rd, zi-rA ; 
lu-U; tu-ld ; 
ka-li ; \i-\A. ; 
ku-r^ ; pa-Id 



U-Iia, wa-lia ; 
gU'lia, i-lia; 
li-lia, ga-lia; 
ci-lia, vi-lia ; 
i-lia, zi-lia ; 
lu-lia ; &=€. 



11; 
12; 

13; 
14; 
15; 
16 



-la (yu-la, 
wa-la ; u-la ; 

&'c.) 



lu— lu 

tu— tu „ 

u— u „ 

ku — ku „ 

pa— pa „ 
-nco (yu-nco, 

ba-nco, &'c.) 
■lya (yu-lya, 

ba-lya; gu-lya; 

&'c. : and 

yuyu-lia, 

baba-lia ; 

gugu-lia, &'c.) 



Bad -anange-fu, -kcomu -bi. >ke-ha 

-co-fu. -e-ha ? 

• The gu- particle is an infix, the -ni a suffix, " The word-root comes between, where the dash is placed. 



e-ha. 
■wi'pa (31 a) 



baya. -bcou. 
Nyata 



GROUPS H AND I: UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 165 



English 



27. 
Hehe 



28. 

Pcogoroo and 

Mahenge 



29. 

Sangco 

(Rori and 

Safwa) 



30- 
Bena 



3i- 
Gangi 

31 a. Bunga 



32. 
Ki-matumbi 

32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekco 



Black 


•titu 


•titu 


•titu 


Female 


-m-dala. 
•buguma 


-e^dala 


•hinja 


Fierce, sharp, 


•kali 


•kali^pa 


-kali. 


bitter 






-teni 


Good 


•nco-fu. 


•here-pa. 


•noj-fu 




-n<a-ga 


Nco^ga. 
Nama. 
(•swamu = 

beautiful) 




Great 


-kcomi. 
(-kula = to 
become big) 


•kulu 


•kcome 


Little 


•dcddco 


•didi. •dididi 


-dudcd 



Long 
Male 

Old 



Red ... 
Rotten 
Short... 
Sick ... 

White 



•tali 



•tari 



•tali 



■kambakwa. 


•epalu 


-ci-lume, 


•lume. 


•gcozi. 




■dume 


•kcozi. 


•Vina, 






•wma 








gcogcolco 




M-kulu. 
•mtua. •tcoka. 
-e^kcalcj 




dunu 




•cere 


-n^duhu 


gata 




•puere 


■ >• 


fupi 




•fupi 


•fufu 


tamwa 




■luala. (U-tami 

= noun) 


... 


■eru. (■ 


era = 


•eru 


•bala-fu, 


to become clean. 




■ewara-fu 


■white) 









■hinza. 
•dala 



•nco-fu 





-m.bili, -pi 


kudzi. 
■kahanco(3ia) 


pilia 
-kongwe, 
-gongeoe. 




-awa 


... 


•kali 


nojga, 
Ka-no>ga 


•ncogau. 
-ki-bcota. 
K5ti 



•dcodco 



•tali or -tati. 

■le-fu (31a) 

•lume, •dumi 

(31a) 



•eru, -jeru 



•kulu 



•tsene, •tsini. 

•tsake. 

Ki-pela 
•lasco (mu-lasco 

= u-nasco) 
-lume ; 

-na-lume 



•goi 



•kele 
•bcola 
•ipi 
•tamwe. 

-luile 
-u (mw-u, ba-ii, 

mi-u, &'c.). 

-lya. 

Ku-meta 



Above, up, on Pacanya 
top 



Pampindi, 
Ku-mpindi 



Before 



Behind 



Below, down 



Far 



Here 



Mu- or 

Ku^longcolco. 

Ku-mihco ku- 
Ku-mbele, 

Pa-mbele. 

Ku-mgoiago 

ku- 
Panyi. 

Pasi 

Pa-tali, 
Ku-tali 

I •pa. Paha, 
Baha. Kconco 



Kco^rongcolco, 
Ku^longcolco 

Ku-mberi. 
Ci-mberembere 



Canya 



Ku-mwandi, 
Ku-longcodzi 

Ku-nyuma 



Pazi. 
Pi-fungco 

Ku-tari 



A^pa, Ha-pa 



Pa-nzi. 
Pa-si 

Ku-tali 



Baha 



Canya 



Ku-ntalco 



Kuci-scogco, 
Ku-mbele 



Ha-si, 
Pa-si 

Ku-tali. 
Pa-gi 



Ku-canya. 

U-langa. 

Ku-mbindi 

(31a) 
Ku-mundi, 

Ku-mwandi 

(31a) 
Ku-mphele, 

Mu-mbele 

(31a) 

Ha-nkhi. 

Ha-si. 

Pahi (31a) 
Ku-tali. 

Ku-taluka 

(31a) 
Hanco. Panco 

(31a) 



Ku-nani, 
Pa-nani 



Nungi. 
Mungi 

N-cugu, 
Ku-sugu 



Pai 



Ku-lipite. 
Ku-talu 

Papipi. Apa. 
Papco 



i66 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


27. 
Hehe 


28. 
Pcogorcj and 


29. 
Sangeo 


3°- 
Bena 


31- 
Gangi 


32- 
Ki-matumbi 






Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekco 


In, inside . . . 


Mu- 


Mu- 


Mu- 


Mu- 


Mu-. Mu-lia. 
Mumco. Ndani. 
-bi {neg. ' not 
in ' is -bui) 


Middle 


Pa-gati, 
Mu-gati 


Pa-kati 


Pa-kati pa 


Ha-gati 


... 


Near 

Outside ... 


Pipi 
Kw-ibala or 


Pa-behi 
Ku-nja. 


Behe 


Pipi. I-palupi Behi 


Pa.pipi 
Pa-nyangco, 




Ku-iwala 


Ku-sa. 
Pa-nja 






Pa-ntsa, 
Pa-nja 


Plenty, many, 


(jOlco-fu 


Vua. 


•nji 


•ngi 


Segege. 


much 




Tangala 






-anatsima. 
-ingi. 
-ytolcj-ka. -yai 


There 


Ku-la, Pa-la. 


A-kco. 


Uku 


Kula 


Kulya. 




Uku 


Palia 






Palya 


Where? ... 


-iya? -i? 
(Ku-iya or 
ku-i ? mu-iya 
or mu.i ? piya 
or^V.) 


•ojci? 






•kwaku ? 


No! 


Ndala ! 
Ndema ! 


Ndala ! 




Ndala! 


Ntupii 


Not {with verb, 


Si. Nd4. Si-, 


Na- {impera- 


Ndali 


Nu 


-lili or -liri {neg. 


as prefix, in- 


S'-,-si-,-s'-(a// 


tive) ; -na- 






suffix) ; -btoi, 


fix, or suffix) 


persons) ; 


{not yet). 






-kwaku (32 a. 




Si— nda; Si— 


-ndiri. -hera 






32 b) ; -ki — lili 




la {not yet) 


{suffixes) 








{rare) ; -ka-, 



To 



beat 

buy, sell 
come . 
cut 

dance . 

die 
eat 
give . 

go... . 

kill 
know . 



Ku- Ku- 

-tcoa, -tcdwa -kwnia 



•hemela. -gula 

-za 

-tema 

-heziga 

-fwa 

■dakula. -lia 
•pa, -pela, 
-pera 
•hera. -luta 

•wvila-ga 
•uzera. 

•kagula. 

■tambula. 

•manyi {in 

a negative 



•kcopa 

-iza 

•dumula. 

-tema 
•wina-. 

sambcd 
-fua, -hwa 
-dia 
•pa 

•genda 

•kcoma 

•maana. 
(■maani = 
/ know not) 



Ki-, Ku-S Kwi- 
•thowa 

•gula 

•iza, -jinza 
•dtimora 


Ku- 
-tua 


Ku- 

•tojwa. •tula, 
-hutula 
•gula 
•idza. .bwera 


Ku- 
-kumbwa 

t -pima 
•isa 
•tema. 
-pingwa 
•ina 


•fwa 

•lia 

•pa. •pela 


•ifa 
•lia 
•pera 


■fwa, •fa 
-lia. -memena 
•gawila 


•wa 
•lya 
•peya 


•jenda. •ruta 
•ula-ga 


-luta 


•luta. 
•hamba(3la) 


•enda,^yenda 

•buka 
-k<oma 
•manya. 

-kutaiiga 



sense only) ' 
' According to Last and Meinhof the ku- prefix is often ki- in Sangciu. 



i. e. ' Not to know '■ 



GROUPS H AND I : UPPER RUFIJI AND LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES 167 





27 




28. 


29- 


3°- 


31- 


32- 


English 


Hehe 


Poogorco and 


Saiigeo 


Bena 


Gangi, 


Ki-matumbi 








Mahenge 


(Rori and 
Safwa) 




31 a. Bunga 


32 a. Ki- 
ndengerekco 


To 


Ku- 




Ku- 


Ki-, Ku-, Kwi- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ laugh ... 


•heka 




•seka 


•hexa 


•hexa 


... 


-kweka 


„ leave ofiF, 


■leka 




•leka 


•lexa 


... 




■leka 


cease 
















„ love, want 


-enda. 


•kera 


-lira 


-gana. 
•naigela. 
-sikura 




... 


-penda 


,, see 


-ona. - 


Icolera 


•ona 


•bona, •wona 


... 




•bcona. •Icola 


„ sit,remain, 


•kala 




•ikaala. 


-kala 


•kala" 


•kala. 


•dama, 


abide 






•kawa. 
-lifuga 






•tama 


-tama 


„ sleep ... 


•gcona 




-gconya 


-igcona 






•gconya 


„ stand.stop, 


■ima 




•gcolcoka 


•imilila. •ima, 


-wima 


-wima. 


-yima. 


be erect 








-jima 




-gcolcoka 


•gcolcoka 


„ steal ... 


■hiza 




•iwa 


-ija 






•yiba 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN KI-HEHE 

Virtually no preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu^, M- (mu, m, u-, yu-, y'-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mil-, M- (mu-, ni-, gu) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, gi) ; 
5. Li^, I-, — (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga, gt-) ; 7. Ki- (ki) (plural sometimes in No. 6) ; 8. Fi^, Vi- (fi, vi) ; 
9. — N- (M^), N-, Ny (n-H) (plural often in No. 6) ; 10. — , N^ (M-), N-, Iny-, Ny, Nze^ (zi, z') ; 1 1- Lu^, 
Nco- (lu); 12. Tu- (tu) (perhaps plural to 11 sometimes); 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 
16. Pa-, Ba-, I^pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu^ as preposition only ; 18. Igu^ (in one or two words like ' Igu^bwa'). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN PWGORO) 

No traces of preprefixes except in 9th Class. 

Class I. Mu., M- (mu, m, gu-, gw-, yu, u-, ga-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. M-, Mu- (m-, mil-, gu) ; 4- Mi^ 
(mi-, i, y-) ; 5. Li-, £•, I- (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Ci- (ci) ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. In- (Im-), N-, — (n-, 
i); 10. Zin., Zi- (zi); 11. Lu- (lu) {pi. Nos. 10, 4, and 6); 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U- 
(u) ; 15. Ku- Gu^ (ku) ; 16. Pa^ (pa) ; 17. Mu^ (mu-). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN SANGOi 

Preprefixes present in some classes. 

Class I. Umu- Mu- (mu, ju-, gii- f) ; 2. Aba^, Awa^, Wa-' (ba, wa) ; 3. Umu-, Mu- (mu-, gu) ; 
4. Imi-, Mi^ (mi-, gi) ; 5. Iri-, Ri-, I-, Li-, Di- (ri, li) ; 6. Ma-, Ml- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Xi-, Ki- (ii, ki) ; 
8. Fi-, Vi- (fi or vi) ; 9. In- (Im-), In-, Iny, N-, — (n-, ji); 10. In-, &c., and perhaps in some dialects 
Zin- or %\n- (h or si, n-) ; 11. Lu- or Ru- (lu, ru) ; I3. Tu- or Thu- (tu) ; 13. Xa- or Ka- (ka) ; 
14. Wu-, Bu-, U- (wu or bu) ; 15. Ki-, Kwi-, Ku^ or Gu- (ki or ku) ; 16. Pa^ (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 

■ Va^ according to Meinhof; -which symbol means that the consonant varies between B and W. 



1 68 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES, &C., IN BENA, GAWGI, AND BUWGA 

Slight traces of preprefixes in Nos. 9 and 10. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu, yu-) ; 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, gu) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, gi ?) ; 5. I-, 
Izi-, Li- (li) ; 6. Ma. (ma-, ga?) ; 7. Ki-, Ci-, C (ki, ci) ; 8. Vi-? (vi ?) ; 9. I-, In- (Im-), N-, N-, Ny- 
(i, n-) ; 10. (same as 9); 11. Lu- (lu); 12? probably absent; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku- 
(Gu-) (ku) ; 16. Ha- (ha) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN KI-MATUMBI 

Traces of preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, N-, Mm-, Nn- (mu, yu-, u-) ; 2. Ba-, Ab'-, Aba-, A- (ba) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N-, Nn-, 
— (n-, mu-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i, -yi) ; 5. Li-, — (li) ; 6. Ma-, Ama- (ma-, ya or ga) ; 7. Ki- (ki) ; 8. I- 
(yi-, i); 9. N- (M-), Ny- (n- (m-), yi, i) ; 10. N- (M-), Ny- (n- (m-), yi, i) ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; .12. Tu- 
(tu); 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 



27. Hehe is spoken in Uhehe ; the country in East Africa between the 9th degree of South latitude 
on the south and the main stream of the Middle Ruaha on the north ; between Mahefige and Upcogorco 
(the Upper Rufiji) on the east and the Safigto country on the west. 

28. Pcogorco and Mahenge are spoken in the Mahenge and Pcogorco countries, south of the Lower 
Ruaha, west of the Rufiji-Luwegu, north of the Upper Luwegu, and east of Uhehe and the Upper Rufiji. 

29. Saiagco (Rori and Safwa) is spoken in the long strip of Usangto (a portion of which is sometimes 
called Urori). Usangm is bounded on the east by Uhehe and Fuagi ; on the south by Ubena and the 
head-streams of the Great and Little Ruaha ; on the west by Usafwa and the upper course of the Mpimbo 
river ; and on the north by Ugogco and Itumba and 6° 30' of South latitude. 

30. Bena is spoken in Ubena and Lupembe, bounded on the north by Usangco, Fuagi, and Uhehe, 
on the west by Ukinga and the north Nyasa mountain country, on the south by Uparigwa and 9° 30' 
South latitude, and on the east by Matumbi, Uhehe, and Fuagi. 

31. Gangi and 31 a. Bunga are spoken south of Upcogorco, in the basin of the Luwegu and Maraii- 
gandu affluents of the Rufiji ; east of Donde and north of the Magwangwara (Bangconi-Zulu) and of the 
Wazutu or Wasutu. 

32. Ki-matumbi is spoken in the coast region between the Lower Rufiji and Matandu rivers, east of 
the Donde and Wafigindoo countries. West Matumbi (quite isolated) is spoken in a small area between 
the Pitco and Ruhinje (Upper Rufiji) rivers, south-east of Ubena, south-west of Maheiige-Upajgora), 
between South latitudes 9° and 10°. Kindengerekco and Kirufiji are northern dialects of Matumbi very 
little known. 



GROUP I 

THE LOWER RUFIJI-RUVUMA LANGUAGES {continued) 
33. Mwera. 33 a. Ki-donde 34. Makonde. 34 a. Mavia (Mabiha) 

GROUP J 

THE NORTH RUVUMA AND NORTH-EAST NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



35. Sutu (Ma-nundi)i 
35 a. Ki-matengco 



36. Pangwa 

37. Kese or Kisi 



GROUP K 

THE UKINGA LANGUAGE 

38. Kiiiga 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


i1- 


38- 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 

35 a. Ki- 
matengco 


Paiigwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 


Adze 




? Ka-wedw 


Li-vagco 




Aka-wagco 


Aka-zunu ? 


AnimaljWild 




Ny-ama. 


Ny-ama. 


1-nhanco 




E-nanu ; 


beast 




Li-cene 


Ki-kcokoj 






i-nanu(-kanu) 


Ant 


... 


N-jalahu; din- 


Li-nyagunyagco. 
Halaco. 
Hyungcohyungco 




Di-gongorco ; 
ma- 


Eli-dunungu ; 
ama-. Eli- 
halasu ; ama- 


Ant, white 




U-cece 


Li-kere. 


... 


... 


Um-mehe ; 


(termite) 






M-ehe. 
Ng-umbi. 
M-keke (35 a) 






emi-mehe 


Ape 


• >• 












Arm 


M-kconco ; mi- 


Ku-kconoj ; ma-. 
Un-kconco ; 


Li-wcokco or 
Ku-wcokco 


Ili-bcoxco 


Ki-wcokco ; fi- 


Eki-vcokco ; 
ama- 


Arrow 


M-pamba 


mi- 
Li-hyonga ; 
ma-. M-umba; 
mi-umba 


L,i-hoiiga ; ma- 


... 


Ru-cinji ; 
n-jinji 


Un-dasco ; 
emi-lasco 


Axe 


Li-wagco; ma- 


M-bedco ; 
dim-bedco 


Li-wagoj, 
Li-vagco ; ma- 


... 


Iri-wagco {or 
Di-) ; ma- 


En-zunu 


Baboon ... 




N-yani; wa + 


Li -yani or 
Li-jani 




Di-jani 


En-yani. 
Eli-jani. 
E-nele,Li-kele 


Back 




Kum-ongco or 


M-gongco or 




N-gongco. 


Ufi-gongco ; 






Ci-cconyco 


N-gongco 




Ki-wunu 


emi- 


Banana 




Jfcoww ; di -f . 
Wtohcovco. 
I-nconco; di- 


Li-tcoki 




Di-kombwe 


En-6vco ; 
ifi-ovu. Eli- 
kovco ; ama- 


Beard 




Ci-leu. 
U-rinda. 
Ci-revu. 
Ci-dambe 


Ki-njwemba. 
In.deu 




Ru-refu ; n-defu 


Ulu-lesu 


Bee 


... 


Ny-uci or 


N-juki ; pi. 


In-juxi 


Lu-, Du-, or 


Ulu-juke; 






Ny-uusi 


in-susi. 
Lu-yusi 




Ru-juki ; pi. 
n-juki 


in-zuke 


Belly 


• '* 


Ci-tumbco 


Li-reme. 
Mu-nda. 
Lu-tumbco 


'•* 


Di-deme ; ma-. 
Ma-tumbco 


Eli-tumbu 



The correct prommciation may be Zutu. 



170 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35 a. Ki- 
matengoj 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 


Bird 




Ny-ehe ; 
wany-ehe. 
Ny-uni ; wa + 


N-dege. 
Ki-yuni ; 
hi-yuni (35 a) 


... 


Ki-dege ; vi- or 
fi- 


Eki-dege; isi- 


Blood 




Mi-adi (pi) 


Mw-azi or 
Mw-ahi 


... 


Mw-azi 


Un-kisa 


Body 




Li-wimba. 
M-iri 


Mu-vili. 
Higa 


Umu-bili 


Um-bere 


Um-ana ; 
emi-hana 


Bone 


... 


Li-wangwa ; 

ma- 


Li-fupa. 
Li-jege 


... 


Ki-fupa 


Eki-tsege ; 
isi-tsege 


Borassus palm 


... 


Mu-ngore 


M-kcoma 


• •• 


M-kcoma 


>•• 


Bow 


U-pinde; ma- 


U-pindi 


U-pindi ; //. 
m-pindi 




U-pende 


Ulu-Yonde ; 
ini- 


Bowels 




Ci-mbende? 


Ma-tumboj 


• ■• 


... 


Uvu-tumbto 


Brains 


... 


.** 


W-ongco 


■ •• 


W-ongco 


Uvw-oiigco 


Breast (man's 


... 


Pam-tima 

('■near the 

heart'). 

Ci-huwa 


Ki-vimba. 

N-gaiiga 


Xi.fuba 


Ki-fua 


Eki-pambaya 


Breast 


... 


Ma-wele (;>/.) 


Ma-wele 


Ih-bele 


Di-were; ma- 


Eli-vele; ama- 


(woman's) 














Brother ... 




N-dugu. 


M-dongo ; 


... 


M-benawi, 


Um-atsa [from 






N-ungu, 


wa-longca 




Ba-benawi 


the root 






N-unu, 








■hatsa). 






N-ungconi. 








Un-nuna ; 






M-nongco ; 








ava- 






wa-long<a 










Buffalo ... 




Ny-ati 


N-jati, 
Li-yati 


Im-bcogco 


N-jati 


Em-bcogco. 
Ugu-bcogco 


Bull 




N-ombe 
m-numi 


N-kunzi. 
N-kambakcii 




N-ombe 
li-kambakco 


E-nambakco 


Buttocks ... 


••• 


Ma-takco 


Ma-takco 


Ama-daxco(//.^ 


Ma-dakco ; di- 


Ama-dakco 


Canoe 


Yi-tumbi 


Ki-pepe or 
Li-pepe ; 
vi- or ma-. 
Ri-pepe (34 a) 


Uatoj, 
Hw-atu ; 
mi-yatu 




Bw-atco ; 
ma-watco 




Cat 




M-aka ; wa -1- . 
M-inja (34 a) 


M-lamu. 
Li-hycomi. 
M-buyali. 
Ka-namanga 


Ixi-phaxa 


Ka-namanga ; 

tu- 


En-yavu 


Charcoal ... 




... 


... 


Ili-xala 


... 


Eli-kala 


Chief 


Yumbe 


M-kulungwa. 


Mu-twa. 


... 


Mu-tiia ; 


Uii-kuludeva. 






Umu (34 a) 


Li-k«si 




aba-tiia 


Un-twa 


Child 


... 


Mw-anyace ^ 


Mw-ana ; 


Umw-ana 


Mw-ana ; 


Um-wana ; 






N-di5gto. 


w-ana 


, 


ab-ana 


av-ana. 






Mw-ana. 








Umm-enza ; 






Nunu 








ava-henza 


Cloth 


N-guoa 




N-guwco or 
In-g^wu. 
Ny-ura. 
Li-hya 




N-gcowco 


Eki-lundco. 
Un-salwa 


Cold 




M-ehto 


M-pepco, 
Im-bepco, 
Ki-pepco 


... 




E-nala (-kala) 


Country ... 




Ci-lambco. 
Ri-kaya (34 a) 


M-lima 


Iny-hi 


N-dema 


Eki-lunga. 
E-iii (-ki) 



1 \]-nya.cs = childhood. 



GROUPS I, J, K: RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NYASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 



171 





33- 


34. 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Ma via or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35a.^Ki. 
matengco 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Cow ... ... 




N-ombe 


N-ombe 


I-senga. 


N-ombe 


E-senga. 








fi-ginda. 


In-dama ^ 


n-dara 


Em-buYuma 








Yu-nkoru. 


{heifer) 












Li-tcoli 








Crocodile ... 




N-wena. 
Ci-rembe 


Li-gwina or 
Lin-gwina 


... 


N-gwina 


... 


Day 




Li-dvia ; ma-. 
Ma)-hi 


Li-gcjnco. 
Li-suwa. 
Mu-hi. 
{\-vaxa.\. = day- 

light) 


Ulu-siku 


Di-gconco 


Eli-tsuva. 

(Pamu-nyi = 
daylight) 


Devil, evil 




Li-huka ; ma- 


Li-hcoka ; ma- 


... 


Di-rongco 


Um-lungu ; 


spirit 












emi- 


Doctor (medi- 




... 


N-ganga ; 


Umu-ganga 




Un-tunanya ''■ 


cine man) 






wa-ganga 








Dog 




Li-bwa. 


Gar CO. 


Im-bwa. 


Iri-bwa. 


Em-bwa 






Wawanga ; 


Im-bwa, 


(Axa-bwa = 


Nyaka-wa 








wa+ or 


Yim-bwa, 


S7nall dog) 










Navanga 


Li-bwa 












(14 a) 










Donkey 




N-jowe ; 
din-jcowe 


M-bunda 




M-bonda 


Eli-gcodcovwe. 
E-munda 


Door 




Lu-idi ; 
din-jidi (//.). 
Nangwa 


M-lyangco or 
N-diangu 




N-diangco 


Un-diangco. 
Ulw-itsi 


Dream 




N-dcotco 
(■Icota = verb) 


N-dcotco? 
(-Icota) 


-Icotha 


Di-rcotco 


Ama-yconasivi 


Drum 






N-coma or 
In-gcoma ; 
pi. hifi-gcoma 




N-oma 


Eli-kule. 
I-nengela. 
En-gatinga 


Ear 


Ku-tu ; ma-tu 


Ku-tu ; ma-tu 


Li-kutu ; ma- 


... 


Ri-kutu 


Em-bulu-ku-tu 


Egg 


... 


Li-i ; ma-i. 
Ka-i ; tu-i 


Li-kanga ; ma-. 
Li-humbi ; ma- 


Ili-xanha 


Di-fumbi 


Eli-kana 


Elephant ... 


N-dembco 


N-embco, 
Un-emboj ; 
//. in-embco 


N-demboj 




N-dembco 


E-tsungwa 


Excrement 




Ma-wi, 


Ma-fi or Ma-hi. 




Di-fi, 


Ama-kcotu. 






Ma-vi 


Ki-ndco-tco-hi 

{35 a) 




Ma-fi 


Ama-daba 


Eye 


L-ihco ; 
m-ehco 


L-ih&) ; 
m-ehco 


L-Jhco ; m-ihco 


Il-ih(o ; 
am-ihco 


Id-ihco; am-ihco 


El-ihto ; am-ihco 


Face, fore- 




Kum-ehco. 


Pam-ihco 


... 


Kuma-sco 


Eki-bake {fore- 


head 




C-eni 








head) 


Fat, oil ... 




Ma-huta or 
Ma-iita 


Ma-futa or 
Ma-huta 


Ama-futha 


Ma-futa 


Ama-suta 


Father 




Wawa. 
Tata 


Dadi, 

A-tati 






U-dada ; 
ava-dada 


Fear 




U-opa 


W-coga 




Bw-coga 


Ulu-dwadco 


Finger 


N-gtohe 


C-ala. 


Lu-konje, 




Du-konji ; 


Ulu-konze ; 






Ci-konco. 


Lu-kondzi. 




n-gonji 


i-nonze 






Yu-kombi 


Lu-wumba 












(34 a) 










Fire 




M-otco 


M-otco 




M-otco 


Umw-otco 


Fish 




In-swi. 
Hiomba; di-l- 


Somba or 
Homba 




Somba 


E-somba ; ini- 


* Axa-dama = cnlf. 


2 There is 


possibly also the word Umu-lagutsi/?'o;« the verb 


-lagula. 



172 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





33- 34- 


35- 


36. 


37. 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a, Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Ma via or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 

35 a. Ki- 
matengco 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Foot ... 

Forest 

Fowl .. 
Frog .. 

Ghost.. 



Giraffe 
Girl .. 

Goat .. 



„ (he) ... 
„ (she) 

God 

Grandparent 

Grass 

Ground 

Ground-nut 

Guinea-fowl 

Gun 

Hair 

Hand 

Head 

Heart 

Heel ... ... 

Hide 



Li-ulu ; 


Mu-gulu. 


ma-ulu. 


Ku-guru ; ma-. 


Lu-ayco ; dinj-. 


Lu-nyaco 


Ri-dcodco. 




Li-kambatu 




Mny-itu. 


M-hitu. 


Nundu. 


Ki-tesa. 


Mw-itu 


Li-sati. 




Li-pululu 


Nuku; wa + 


N-kuku In-huxu 


C-ula; vy-ula 


Li-nycotco. 



Na-haku ; 

wanama- 
M-budi ; 

dim-budi 
Li-bebehu 
M-budi 

n-kongwe 
Nam-panga. 

Moria. 

Nungu 
Wiwi ; wa + 



W-ahi or 
Gw-ahi ' 



N-tesa or 

N-teca 
Nanga 
Ri-iiti 
U-wimbco 

M-kconoo. 
Un-kconoj ; 
ma-. Li-anda. 
Pa-ianja 

M-twe or 

Mu-tu 
M-tima ; mi- 



Ly-ula ; 
m-ula (35 a). 
Li-ungula 
M-fuki. 
Ki-wuta ; 
i-wuta (35 a) 

N-sikani 

M-ene. 

M-buhi (35 a) 
Li-pongco 
M-buguma. 

N-ginda 
Mu-lungu. 

N-dungu 

Hukuru S. 
M-buya. 
Papa p 

Many-alii 

M-lima. 

M-sisi 
Li-lawi 

Li-cundu 

Huti 

N-jwiri. 

Li-yunzu 
Ki-wcokto . 

Ki-ganja 



Limu-lungu. 
Mami-lungu 



Ili-ganja 



M-twe. Mu-tu Umu-twe 

or U mu-tu 
M-tima ; mi- (Mun-tima = 

liver) 



Ci-hinginco Ki-tende. 

Wyungunyungu Ki-hingini 
Dabala. Ki-kumba 

Ma-pco; di + 



Lu-ayco, 
nj-ayco 



Ma-behe 



N-guku 



Mu-rongco 



M-ene 



Mu-rungu 



Diny-asi 

Di-dcapi 

Di-rawi 

Di-cundu 

N-dusu 

Di-junju 

Ki-ktofi 



Mu-tu 

N-dumbura. 

(Un-tima = 

liver) 
Ki-sekeseke 



Ulw-ajoo ; 
inz-ajco 



Eli-hanzi ? 



E-nuku ; 
ini-kuku 



Um-pepco; ava^ 

Um-enza 

Em-ene 

Em-ongu 
Em-buguma 

Uii-guluve 

U-kuku t. 
U-papa 5 

Eliny-asi 

Eki-lunga. 
E-ni 



Ulu-juwili 

Eki-vanza. 
Eki-vcokco 



Un-twe 

E-numbula. 

(Un-tima = 

liver) 
Eki-seveja ; isi- 



' Old Bantu : Bu-asi. 



GROUPS I, J, K: RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NY ASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 



173 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35 a. Ki- 
matengco 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Hill 




Li-cinga ; ma-. 


Ka-dunda. 


• • • 




Ulu-nyika ; 






M-rima 


Ka-tumbi ; 
hi-tumbi 

(35 a) 






i-nyika 


Hippopotamus 




Namondco 


N-dcomondco 


IJ'ubco 


Domondoo 




Hoe 


. . . 


Li-yembe 


Li-gera ; ma- 


... 




Eli-kumbulco 


Honey 




Uci 


Uci 




W-uki' 


Uvw-coke 


Horn 




Lu-pembe. 
Lim-embe 


Li-nyerco. 
Pembe 


... 


Di-nyerco 


Eli-palasa. 
Ulu-suga 


House 


Ny-umba. 


N-ande. 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba. 


Ny-umba 


Eny-umba. 




Y-umba {big) 


I-nandi. 
N-duli (34 a) 


N-anda 


Ixi-ny-umba ; 

ifi- 




E-saka. 
Eli-heve 


Hunger 


... 


N-dala. 
N-dcoba (34 a) 


N-jara 


In-jala 


Nj-ara 


En-zala 


Husband ... 




N-nume ; 
wa-lume. 
M-twau {thy) 


N-dumi, 
A-lumi. 
Ny-ongcolco 

(35 a) ^ 






Uii-gtosi, 
Un-Ycosi 


Hyena 




Nana or 
Li-nana 


Li-tunungu, 
Li-pundwa 
(spotted). 
Li-luhekalera, 
Li-hekera 
{striped) 


I-flfi 


Bondera 




Iron 




Ci-tali 


C-uma, 
S-uma (35 a) 




Ki-uma 


Eki-uma. 
Un-dapco 


Island 




Ki-tingwe. 
Li-tanda 


Ki-sengerere. 
Ki-lumba 

(35 a) 




Ki-rwa 




Ivory 


... 


N-embto. 
Li-wenwa 


L-inco la 
n-dembco 




Ru-pembe 


... 


Knee 


... 


Li-lundi 


Li-fugamis&j. 
Li-yugwa 




Di-pefu 


Eki-sugamilco 


Knife 


Ki-maye, 
Ci-maye 


Ci-pula 


Ki-pula. 
Ki-peni 




M-pamba 


Um-mage 


Lake 




Li-tanda 


Li-tanda 




... 


Eli-lamba, 
E-nyanza 


Leg 




Ku-tilu ; ma-. 
M-balu. 
Li-dcodco 


Li-bondto. 
Ku-guru. 
Lu-weza (35 a) 




Ki-rundi 


Eki-lunde. 
Un-s5ni 


Leopard . . . 




Huwi, 
Li-huwi, 
Juhi 


Li-huwi. 
In-sui 




N-torcome 


Eli-duma. 
(Eli-bwi = a 
chitd) 


Lion 


... 


Himba, 
Li-himba. 
In-tumi 


Li-himba. 
Li-bonj(o 




.. . 


Elibonzu 


Lips 




Lu-yeye ; 


N-dcomco ; 


Umu-ltomoj ; 


N-dcomco ; mi- 


Un-dcomco ; 






ndin-jeye. 


mi-lcomu 


imi- 




emi-lcomco 






Lu-ltomco ; 














di-lcom<o 










Magic 




U-hiawi, 
U-hawi. 
(Ku-lcoha = to 
bewitch) 


U-cawi or 
U-hawi 


Uwu-hawi 


Wu-hawi 


Uvu-havi 


Maize 


... 


Efi-gedia. 
Di-muri 


Ma-rombe, 
Ma-lombi, 
Ki-lombi 




Di-rombe 


Ama-tsebele 



174 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a . Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35 a. Ki- 
matengu 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Man 


Mu-ndu ; 


Mu-nu; wa-nu 


Mu-ndu ; 


Umu-nbu ; 


Mu-ndu ; aba- 


Umu-nu ; 




wa-ndu 




wa-ndu 


aba-nhu ^ 




ava-nu 


Man, vir. ... 




M-uume ; 
wa-lume 


M-gcozi. 
M-kambakco 






Uii-gcosi ; ava 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 




Ny-ama 


Eny-ama 


Medicine . . . 


M-tera 


N-tela 


M-tera. 
Ki-biki 




N-thende 


Un-tuguva. 
Un-tunaya ^ 


Milk 


< • • 


Ma-were 


Lu-ziwa. 
Lu-visa 


... 




Ulu-kamco. 
Eli-tsiva. 
(-kama = to 

milk) 


Monkey . . . 




Ny-ima. 
Ci-nengco 


M-tumbiri or 
Li-tumbili 




M-bwengco 


E-nilili ; 
ini-kilili 


Moon 


... 


Mw-edi 


Mw-ezi or 
Mw-ehi 


Umw-edzi 


Mw-ezi 


Umw-etsi 


Mother ... 




Hiyi; 

wa-hiyi. Tuyi 
Na-ncole. 
Ma-nycokwe 
(34 a) 


Mau. 
A-nyongco, 
Nyongorco. 
Nycokco. 
Nina 






U-juva ; ava- 
(Uvanycokco 
= thy —. 
Uvanyina = 

his — ) 


Mountain ... 




Li-cinga. 
Mu-angco. 
Ci-cungco. 
Li-tumbi(34a; 


Ki-dunda. 
Ki-tumbi 




Ki-dconda 


Eki-dugala 


Mouth ... 




Ka-nywa. 
Cika-nywa 


N-kanu. 
N-dcomco or 
M-lcomco 


... 




Un-dcomco 


Nail (of finger 




Di-nombe(//.) 


Lu-zipco. 




Ki-cog<o 


Ulu-konze, 


or toe) 




U-kombe 


Suwu ; hi-iiwu 






I-nonze 


Name 


L-ina 


L-ina 


Li-hina 




Di-hina ; ma- 


Eli-tavwa 


Navel 




N-ungu ; di-f 


Lu-kufu or 
N-kuhu 






Ulu-tumbu 


Neck 




Li-kcoti; {pi.) 
difi-gcoti 


Singco or 
Hingu 


I -singco 


Singco 


Un-singco. 
Efi-gcosi 


Night 




C-ilco. 


K-ilco or 




K-irco, 


Ek-ilco. 






(Ci-hi = 


I-kilu. 




Pak-irco 


(Uvu-titu = 






darkness) 


(Lw-ihi = 
darkness) 






darkness) 


Nose 


... 


M-ula; di + 


M-enerco. 
lm-bulu(35a) 






E-menco 
(-penco) 


Ox 




N-ombe 


Li-boyi. 


I-senga. 


N-ombe. 


E-senga. 








N-kawi. 


In-dama 


Li-kambakco S 


Un-gide. 








N-ombe. 






Eii-gwada 








N-tondcola 








Paddle 


... 


... 


Ng-ahi ; 
in-gahi 








Palm wine, 




U-alwa («fl/2V« U-gwimbi 






Uvu-gembe 


beer 
Parrot 




beer) 


Li-kwalu 









Penis 
Pig 



N-guluwe ; N-guruwe or 
din + . Li-gurtiwi. 

Im-petumwa Li-pangco 



M-borco 
N-guruwe 



En-gube. 
Efi-gwehe 



{bush pig) 



Ili-nhu = tall fellow. Ugu-nhu = hulking fellow. Aka-nhu = little man, in Pangwa. 
There is in Kinga the verb -lagula, which has to do with witchcraft medicine. 



GROUPS I, J, K : RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NYASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 



175 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 

35 a. Ki- 
matengw 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Pigeon 

Place 

Rain 

Rat 

Rhinoceros 

River... ... 

Road 

Salt 

Shame 

Sheep 

Shield 

Shoulder . . . 
Sister 

Skin 

Sky 

Slave 

Sleep 

Smoke 

Snake 
Son, boy ... 



Pa-ndu 



Mu-wanda; wa- 



Li-deia 



Pa-hali. Pa-wa. 

Ma-hala. 

Pa- 
M-bula. 

M-nung^. 

Mu-lungu 

(34 a) 
Li-kula. 

Gingondto 

M-ela; di + 

or wa + . 

Ci-cohto (34 a) 
Lu-hundi. 

Mu-tco (34 a) 

N-dila. 
In-dira (34 a) 
Mu-nyu 

Li-tonyi, 
Li-hyconi 

Nondcolcd. 
Kondcd {34 a) 

Li-Tvala ; ma- 
Nununa. 
N-umboj 



MapcD ; di + . 

Y-aml3ala 
Li-wingu. 

Ku-canya. 

Di-iindi 
M-ntone ; wa- 

Lu-concd 



M-hyongo>;mi- 
In-ycoka. 
I-piri 



N-gunda. 

Li-jiwa, 

N-jiwa or 

In-ziva 
Pa- Ki-kunja. 

U-tamu 

M-vula or 
I-hula 



Im-fula, 
Axa-fula 



Li-panya. 

Li-kuli. 

Im-buku 
Ki-pembere 



Lu-kemba. 

Lu-si. 

Ma-gasi 
N -jira 

Mw-inyto. 

Hi-hungu 
Suni or 

I-hconi. 

Li-hamu 
M-berere or 

Lim-belele 
Ki-kcopa 
Li-vega ; ma- 
M-lumbu, 

N-dumbca 



Lu-kanda 

Li-zuru. 

Ku-nani. 

M-bingu 
M-sutu ; wa-. 

M-banda ; wa- 
Lu-gunco 
Ly-MSi, 

Li-uhi. 

Li-hycohi 
Li-ycoka 



In-jila. 
Axa-jila 



Iny-hconi 



li-cosi 



In-jcoxa 



M-nemba; wa-. Mw-ana. 
Imw-ana M-songorco 

i-nume 



N-jewa 

Pa-iigonco 
I-fura 

Di-kenje 
Ru-scokeo 



N-jera or 
N-dera 



Di-nosi, 
Mi-nosi 



N-dumbu. 
Ba-rumbu 



Ki-kuwa 
Ku-kianya 



En-uta (-tuta). 
En-gundya 



E-sula 



Em-beva 



Ulu-gasi ; 

in-gasi. 

Eki-hulu 
En-zila 

Umw-inyeo 

I-suni 

E-iicolco 

En-gwembe 

Eli-vega 

Um-atsa. 

U-mama. 

Un-nuna. 

(Vu-na>nu = 

sisterhood) 

Ku-kyanya 



Ru-goneo 
Di-usi 


E-tul« 
Eh-usi 


Idi-jcaka. 
Ma-ycoka 

Mw-ana. 


Eli-lalwe 

(■dalwe). 

Ulu-j«ka ; //. 

in-zcoka 
Un-swamba.' 


N-songoreo 


N-dume 



' Un-swamb-'angco = my son. Un-swamb-'co = thy son. Un-swamb-e = his son. Un-swamb-itu = our son. 
Un-swamb-inycj = your son. Un-swamb-avco = their son. 

N 2 



176 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

TVIabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35 a. Ki- 
matengco 


Pangwa 


Kese orKisi 


Kinga 


Song 


Li-imboo ; ma- 


Lu-himco ; di-. 
R-imbco (34 a) 


Lu-kimco. 
Ny-imbco. 
M-hambco 


... 


Uru-emboj 


Ulu-embco 


Spear 




M-kuci ; mi-. 
Ci-ndimbco. 
Ri-umco. 
Li-hionga 

(34a). 
Mu-nya 


M-kondco. 
N-kcoha 




N-gcoha 


Eli-gcoha; ama-. 
Efi-gcoha 


Spirit, soul 






... 








Star 


... 


Nondwa ; di + . 


Lu-tondwa ; 




N-dondco. 


Ulu-tondwe. 






Ci-nondi 


n-dondwa 




Ru-tondoj 


I-nondwe 






(34 a) 










Stick 




Ka-lawi ; tu-. 
Ci-koiia). 
Simbco. 
I-ncogco (34 a) 


M-sagi. 
N -donga. 
Lu-hyatu ; 
hyatu 


Ulu-fimbco 


N -sagi 


E-sonzco. 

Un-saga. 
Ulu-saga 


Stone 


Li-ganga 


Li-anga or 
Ri-anga ; 
ma-ianga. 
Li-wia, 
Ma-wia (34 a) 


Li-ganga. 
Ili-wu 




Li-ganga 


Eli-ganga 


Stool 






... 




... 


Eki-tamelco 


Sun 




Na-mayu. 
Ri-diia or 
Li-dtda (34 a) 


Li-juwa or 
L-yuwa 


Ili-dzuba 


Di-juwa 


Eli-tsuva 


Tail (of a 


• • • 


In-cira, 


M-kira or 


Umu-xila 




Uii-kila 


mammal) 




N-cira 


N-kila 








Tear 




Mi-codi [pi.) 


Li-hcoli ; ma- 


Mi-hcodzi (//.) 


Li-hcosi 


Ulw-ihotsi 


Testicles ... 




Ri-mumba 






Di-tongco 


... 


Thief 




M-wiwi. 
Ifiku-iwa 


Mw-ivi or 
Mw-ihi 




Mu-heji ; aba- 


Um-etsi 
(-hetsi) 


Thigh 


... 


Ci-ya 


M -hungula 




... 




Thing 


• •■ 


Ci-nu ; vi-nu 


Ki-ndu ; 


Iki-nhu ; pi. 


Ki-ndu ; 


Eki-nu ; 








hi-ndu or 


ifi-nhu 


fi-ndu 


isi-nu 








vi-ndu 








Thorn 


... 


Mw-iwa 


Mw-ifa, 
Mw-iha ; 
mi-ha 




Mw-ifwa 


Un-tula ; emi- 
Un-twinyco ; 
emi- 


Tobacco ... 




OOria 


Li-mbakco. 
Li-hcona 




N-gambco. 
Di-hona 


E-sajo> 


To-day 


Lel« 


Lelco. Nerco 


Lerco. Li-linu 




Ler«, I-rerco 


E-lelco 


Toe 


... 


Ci-konco 


Lu-konje Iwa 
mu-gulu. 
Lu-gumba 




... 


Ulu-konze 


To-morrow 




Lu-undu 


Ki-rau 




Ki-raweo 


Ki-lavco 


Tongue 


... 


Lu-limi or 
Li-limi 


Lu-limi ; 
i-nimi 




Lu-konji, 
N-gonji 


Ulu-limi 


Tooth 


L-inca> ; m-enco 


L-inco 


L-inco; m-inco 




Ir-inco 


El-inco 


Town 




Kay a 


Mu-zi. 
Li-kaya 




A-kaya 


Uvu-tsenge. 
Isi-jumba, 
Eli-tsumbe 


Tree 


M-kongco ; mi-. 


N-tela. 


M-tera. 




Di-behe. 


Um-beki, 




M-tera 


I-nandi, 
M-nandi, 
Mu-landi ; 
mi-landi 


M-koiigco. 
Ki.biki 




N-thende 


Eli-beki. 
Un-tuyuva 



GROUPS I, J, K : RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NYASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 



177 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36- 


37- 


38- 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Ma via or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35 a- Ki- 
matengcij 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 


Twins 




Ma-ha. 
W-ana wa 
ma-ha 


Ma-papa or 
Ma-paha 


... 


Di-pasa ; ma- 


U-nyali-pasa. 
Uvamvvi-pasa 
(both in singu- 
lar sense) 


Urine 


... 


Ma-kwedu 


Ma-kcocto. 
I-mahi 


... 


Ma-kojoj 


... 


Vein 


... 


... 


Umu-sipha 




Un-sipa 


War 




N-ondtij. 
Hondco 


^-gondco 


... 


N-gondo> 


Uvu-tavangwa 


Water 


... 


M-edi 


Ma-gasi. 
M-asi 


... 


Ama-ji 


Ama-vasi 


Well 


... 


<•• 


Vlw-eru wa 
ma-gasi. 
Ki-liwa 


Ixi-sima 




... 


White man 


M-xungu 


... 


... 


... 


Mu-sungu 


Un-sulagu ; 
ava- 


Wife 




M-dyau {thy). 
M-mahi ; wa- 


M-dala. 
M-bumba. 
Mama 


... 


M-gori; ba- 


Un-dala. 
Un-wehe 


Wind 




M-mepco ; 
di-mepcp 


VI-pung<o. 
Ki-pepw. 
M-hwahi 


Im-hepha> 


M-bepu 


Em-epw. 
Eki-sula 


Witch 


.>■ 


M-hyawi 


Vl-cawi. 
M-hawi. 
M-ganga 


Umu-ganga 


Mu-hawi; ba- 


Um-avi ; 
ava-havi 


Witchcraft 




U-hyawi 


U-cawi 


... 




Uvu-havi 


Woman . . . 


N-koiigwe, 


M-mahi ; wa-. 


M-dala. 


Umu-dala ; 


Un-dara ; ba-, 


Un-dala. 




Yuan-kongwe; 


Un-kongwe 


M-bumba 


ava-. (Mu-ki- 


awa- 


Um-enza ; 




wa-kongwe 






dala = little 
woman ; pi. 
va-ki-dala) 




ava-henza 


Womb ... 




Li-reme 






... 


Wood (fire- 


. .. 


Lu-kuni Sagala. 




[m-bawu 


Iny-Agala 


wood) 






Handzu 






(-hagala, 
-sagala) 


Yam 


... 


... 




... 


Ki-tuu 


. .. 


Year 




Mw-aka. 
C-aka 


Vlw-aka 


Umw-axa 


Mw-aka. 


Umw-aka 


Yesterday... 


. .. 


Li-d<a, Li-ndoj Gorco. Li-zu 


... 


Gorw 


I-Yolo 


Zebra 


... 


Li-punda or 






Em-unda 








M-bunda 








One 


•mw 


-mco 


monga. -mco, 
Yu-mco 


■mwi (Ji-mwi) 


Ka-mw 


•pamatu 


Two 


■will 


-bill, -biri 


will 


-wili (Dzi-wili) 


Tu-were 


-veli 


Three 


•latu; i'tatu 


-tatu (N-atu) - 


datu, -tatu 


-datu 

(Dzi-datu) 


Tu-datu 


-datu 


Four 


-xexe 


N-cece. m-cece or 


-na (Dzi-na) 


N-cece 


-ni 






Mu-cece 


N-dzesi 








Five 


Ng-ancs, 
•ganco 


My-anco, -anco. • 
Mu-anco (34 a) 


danco 


-hanco (Dzi-) 


Tu-hanco 


-hanco 


Six ... ... 


-g-anco na 

(gu)-mco 


Ny-ancij na 
i-mco 


banco na 
monga 


Mu-tanda 


Tu-lintanda 


-n-tanatu 


Seven 


-ganca na will 


Ny-anoj na 
m-bili 


iianu na will 


Heneka 
mu-hana 


Tu-limhanos 


•lekela-ku- 
pamato) 



178 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36- 


37 


38- 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 

35 a. JCi- 
matengco 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 


Eight 


•ganoj na 


Ny-anto na 


banco na datu 


Mu-nana, a/so 


M-hanco na 


-nana 




tatu 


n-atu 




Heneka 
k-coha (k-eoha 

= ' over all ', 
' superior ') 


tu-tatu 




Nine 


•ganoo na 


Ny-anca na 


-banco na 


Fundika 


M^banco na 


-budika-ku- 




xexe 


n-cece 


m-cece 


mu-hana ' 


n-cece 


pamatco 


Ten 


Kumi 


Kumi 


ECumi 


Fundika k-coha Ccomi 


Ki-tsigco, also 










and Ma^budi 




Un-devulco ; 
pi. emi- 
16vulco 


Eleven 




Kumi na i-mco 


Kumi na yi-mu 


Ki^dzigco.^ 
(22 = Ki^dzigco 
ka^vili. 33 = 
Ki^dzigco 
ka^datu) 


Ccomi na 
ka-mco 


Ki-tsigco-na' 
pamatco 


Twenty ... 


... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




Ma^kcomi 


Ki-tsigco 






ma-wiri or 


ma-wili 




ga-were 


ka-veli 






Ma-kumi 














m-eli 










Thirty 




Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


... 


Ma-kcomi 


Ki-tsigco 






ma.tatu 


ma-tatu 




ga-datu 


ka-datu 


Forty 




Ma-kumi 
n-cece 


Ma-kumi 
n-dzese 




Ma-kcomi 
m-cece 


Ki-tsigco ka-ni 


Fifty 




Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




Ma-kcomi 


Kitsigco 






ny-aneo or 


ma-banco 




m-hanco 


ka-hanu 






mamu-anco 










Hundred . . . 




I-gana 






Ma-kcomi 
ga^likcomi 


Emi-levulco 
kitsigco 


Thousand . . . 




... 










I, me, my ... 


Ne-y<o. 


Mi-pa. 


Ne-nga. 




Ne-nga. 


U-ne. Ne. 




N-. 


N-, Mb-. 


Ne-, Ni-, N-. 




N-,Ni'-. 


Nd'-, Nde-, 




■ni-, -n-. 


-n-,-gu-,-ngu-.= 


-ni-,-n-. -a-iigu 




-n-, -m-. 


Ndi-, Ndi-. 




-a-ngu 


-a-ngu 






-a-ngu 


-ne. -ni". 
-ny-. -a-ne, 
-a-ngco 


Thou,thee,thy 


We-yco. 


We-pco. We. 


We-nga. 




We-nga. 


Uve. Ve. 




U-. 


Wara-ka>. 


Wewe. 




U-. 


Vu-, U- 




•ku-. -a-kco 


U-. 

-ku-. -a-kco 


Yu-w^e. 

U-. 

-ku-. -a-kco 




-ku-. -a-kco 


-ve. -ku-. 
-yco, -ve, 
-a-kco 


He, him, his 


A-yeowa. 


Nane. Nahie, 


Yuyu. Mw-ene. 


-a-ke, -a-jco 


Ycora. 


Umw-ene. 




A-. 


Nanye. 


A-, U-. 




A-. 


A-, I-, Ju-. 




■m-, -mu-. 


A-, I-, Ya-. 


-m-. -a-ke, 




-mU". m-. 


-mw-ene. -m-. 




-a-kwe 


-we- -mu-, 
-m-. -.a-ke 


-ene 




-a-ke 


-mw-. -ye, 
-ene 


We, us, our 


Twe-yco (?) 


We-pa. 


T we-nga. 


. ,. 


Twe-nga. 


U-vwe. Vwe. 




Tu-. 


Were-tu. 


Twetwe. 




Ti-. 


Vwevwe. 




-tu-. -etu 


Tu-, Ti-, T-. 


Tu-. 




•tu^?, •ti^? 


Tu-. 






-tu-. -etu 


•tu-. -etu 




-a-itu, -itu 


-tu-. -a-vwe 
or -itu 



' Klamroth gives -bana, not -banco. Apparently ' -bana ' ( Mu-bana) means ' side ', ' on one side ', and ' Heneka ' 
' leave out from the others '- 

' The peculiar numerals o/"Pangwa are explained by Klamroth as connected with finger notation, vide p. iqz of 
his ' Kurze Skizze ' {Mitt. Sem. Or. Spr., Vol. X). ^ Mavia (34 a). 



GROUPS I, J, K : RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NYASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 



179 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Mavia or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 

35 a. Ki- 
matengco 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Ye, you, your Mwe-yco. 
Mu-. 



They, them, 
their 



Mu-. 
■wa-. 



-enu 



Wa-na ? 
Wa-. 
-wa-. -waco 



Mwe-po). 
U-miie. 
Mu-. 
-wa-. -enu 

Wa-nanco. 
Wa-ya. 
Wa-. 
-wa-. -aco 



Mwe-nga. 
Nyenye. 
M-, Mu-. 



We-ne. 
Wa-. 
-wa-. 



Mwe-nga. 
Mu-. 
•ba- ? -inu 



Ba-ra. 
Ba- (Wa-). 
-wa-. -a-wco 



U-nye. Nye. 

Nyenye. 

M-, Mu-, N- 

-va-. -a-nye 

or -inyco 
Avene. Vene. 

Va- 

-voj. -va-. 

-ene, -avw 



All 

This, these 



That, those 



-coha 

A-yu, a-wa ; 
gu, a-gu, a-yi; 
a-li, a-ga ; 
a-xi, a-yi ; 
a-yi, a-yi ; 
? a-lu ; ? a-ka ; 
gu, a-vu, a-u?; 
a-ku ; ? a-pa 



-cohe 



-oha 



-onha 



A-yu-la, 
a-wa-Ia ; 
a-gu-la ; 



6-'f. 



A-yu, -yu ; A-yu, a-isra ; 
a-wa ; a-u, a-u ; &=€. 

a-i; a-li, a-nco; -la(u-la; wa-la; 
ci-no), vi-n(o ; <5i^f.) 
i-ncL), di-nca ; 
lu-na> ; tu-nco ; 
ka-nco ; u-nco ; 
ku-nco; pa-nio; 
mu-ncD 



■coha (? cosaka, 

? emphatic) 
Uyu, aba 

(awa) ; ugu, 

egi; eri, 

aga; 6^c. 



U-ya, wa-ya ; 
u-ya, i-ya; 
li-ya, a-ya ; 
ci-ya, vi-ya ; 
i-ya, di-ya; 
lu-ya ; tu-ya ; 
ka-ya ; u-ya ; 
ku-ya ; &=€. 



Yu-ra, ba-ra; 
gu-ra, gi-ra; 
re-ra, ga-ra ; 



Ve, vco; gcoco, 
gyco ; lyco, 
Yco ; kyco, 
syco ; jco, 
tsu> ; Ivrcj ; 
tw^co ; kcj ; 
vwco ; kwco ; 
pco : mwco ; 
gwco 

Uju, ava ; 
ugu, egi ; 
eli, aya ; 
eki, isi ; eji, 
itsi ; ulu ; 



aka ; 
uku; 
umu; 



utoj; 
uvu I 
apa; 
ugu 
Ujw-a, avco ; 
ugw-a, egy-cu, 

u-lya, va-lya ; 

gu-lya, i-lya; 

&=c. 
Juju, vava; 

gugu, gegi; 

is'c. 
Jujw-a, vaVM, 

NgTUJu, 
iig-ava ; 
ng-ugu, 
ng-egi ; 
ng-eli,ng-aga; 
ng-eki, ng-isi ; 
iig-eji, ng-itsi; 
ng-ulu; ng-utu; 
fig-aka ; 
ng-uvu ; 
ng-uku ; 
ng-apa ; 
ng-umu ; 
ng-ugu 



i8o 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





33- 


34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38. 


English 


Mwera 
33 a. Ki-donde 


Makonde 

34 a. Ma via or 

Mabiha 


Sutu or 
Manundi 
35 a. JCi- 
matengco 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 



Bad . 
Black . 



Female 
Fierce, sharp 
Good 



Great... 



Little 

Long 

Male 



Old 



Red ... 
Rotten 
Short... 
Sick ... 



-kulu 
•xukcd 



White 



•kiwa. -nyata -haki 



-a na-pi, -pi 



•titco. 
■pili 



•yiru. 



-n-gongwe. -i-dala. 

-mahi -m-buruba 

■kali ; -kali-pa -kali 

(to be — ) 

Cihi. (Ku-ncoa -maha 

= to be sweet, 

good) 

•kulu. -baha, 

Na-norcij -waha. 

-fi-kulungwa 

■cigi. -diokco -debe. -scokoi 



-bi-fu 

-thalamu. 
-thithu, 
n-hithu 



•xali 



-ncij-fu 



-be-fu 
-titu 



-n-dara 



-noo-fu 



•baha ; 
-gorongca 



-VI VI 

-titu 



-n-dala 
•talamu 
-nuga ; -nconu 

-m-baha 



•lehu 
-na-nume. 
N-dume 

-a tangu. 

ce-kulu, 

ce-kelu. 

Na-norco 
-a huwi 

-ipi, -wipi 
-Iwala. 

(U-lwala = a 

disease) 
-a nibe, -pe. 

-nahi. 

-helela {to 

be—) 



•tali 
•gcosi 

M-gcogcolco 



■CCdkcO. 



N-gambakca 



-dunu 
•kata. 
-fupi or 
-tamu. 
-rwara 



wcola 
-yipi 



•vola. 
-fuphi 



•bofu 



nandi -debe. 

Ki-sekele 
-tale 
-lume, N-dume. 

-gcosi. 

-kambaku 
-gcogcolco. 

•lala 



-dunu 
■vco-su 



•wara-fu. 
-huhu 



-futco 



■supi 
-tamu 



•vala-su 



Above, up, on 
top 



Before 
Behind 



Below, down 
Far 

Here 



In, inside ... 
Middle 
Near 



Mu-ha. 
Ku-canya, 
Pa-can ya 



McD-hyu 

Ku.hye or 

Kw-hye. 

Ku.nyuma 
Pahi 
Kucu. 

Ku-kala 
Panco, Pana. 

Wcopcapapa, 

Upcopapa 
M.kati. 

In-kati 
Pa-kati 



Pa-canya. 
Pa-nani 



Ku-longcolco. 

Pa-lungi pa- 
Kum-bele. 

Mu-nyuma 

Pahi 
Ku-tali 



Pasi, Phasi 



Kunco, Kuni. 

Pa-ni. 

Pamba 
Mu-gati, 

M-kati,P'.,Pa- 
Pa-kati 



A pa 
Mu-kati 



Pha-gati 



Na-nyenje Pa-pipi 



Pa-kyanya. 
Nena, 
Pa-nena. 
•oni (Mw-oni, 

Mbu-longol5 

M-bele 



Pasi 
-vu-tale, -tale 

Baha. 
Kuncd 

Umwa. 

Mu-gati 
Pa-gati, 

Ku-gati 
Pipi. Kw-ipi 



GROUPS I, J, 


K: 


RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NY ASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 181 




33- 




34- 


35- 


36. 


37- 


38- 


English 


Mwera 




Makonde 


Sutu or 


Pangwa 


Kese or Kisi 


Kinga 




33 a. Ki-donde 


34 a. Mavia or 


Manundi 














Mabiha 


35 a. Ki- 
mateiigco 








Outside ... 




Pa-nji, 
Pa-nda 


Mw-ibala. 
Kw-ibala. 
Ku-ndza 
Pa-ndza 






Ku-nzi, Pa-nzi 


Plenty, many 




N-ndi, -ndi. 
■uhe 


omehere. 
Vululu. -ingi 




-ingi 


-olosu, 
-ongosu, 
■origesu 


There 




Kuya. Paya. 
Kunu 


Qkco, Kula, 
Pala 




Para 


Palya. 
Kukco 


Where ? ... 




Kwaci ? 


Kwa 1 Ku ? 






Ndapi? -ku? 


No! 




Itamua ! 


Efco ! Nale ! 
NdA! 


... 


Dietu ! (-kana ! 
to refuse) 


Bakco! 


'Sot{withverb, 




Hi-, Hu-, Ha-, 


Na-. Sa- ? 




-ri (suffix). No 


Na-. Kita-. 


as prefix, in- 




Ha-tu, 6^c. 


-kutcoka 




negative pre- 


■° a. (negative 


fix, or suffix) 




■na- {subj.) 


{neg. verb, to 
abstain from), 
-ndeka 




fixes. Coin- 
pare Ki- 
matumbi) 


suffix for in- 
finitives, 
ficture, and 
imperative). 
JcL>— ga (not 
only) 


To 




Ku- 


Ku- 


Uxu- 


Ku- 


Uku- 


„ beat ... 




■kcoma. 
•tarega 


-tcowa. 
-puta 




... 


•tcova. 
-bitsula 


„ buy, seU 




•hyuma 


-gura. 
-lomba. 
-hemela 


*•■ 


-gura. 
-himera 


-gula 


„ come ... 




-ida 


-bwera. -hisa 


-ija 


-ica, -iza 


-itsa 


„ cut 




•kaiiana 


■tema. 
•hikita 


-vcola. 
-hoiigcola 






„ dance ... 




-wina 


-hina 




-jumba 


-kumbela 


„ die 




-hwa 


•fwa. -hwa 


-fwa. 

(Uxu-fwa) 


-fwa 


•swa 


„ eat 




-lya 


-lya 


-lya 


-ra 


-lya 


,, give ... 




•wina or 
■winya 


-pera. -pa-.' 
-hamba 




-pa 


-pa 


» go 




-hwena 


-genda 


-genda 


•weoka 


-beha. -vuka. 
-lata, -genda 


„ kill ... 




■ulaya. -lia 


-kcoma 






-bud a 


„ know ... 




■manya. 
■maiya 


•manya 


... 


-manya, 
■manye ^ 


-manya 


„ laugh ... 




-hyeka 


-heka 


-hexa 




-heka 


„ leave off, 




-leka 


-leka 




... 


-leka, -lekela 


cease 














„ love,want 




■penda 


-gana. -para 




•ronda 


-gana, -yana 


„ see 




•ona, -wona, 
-Icola 


-wcona. -lura 


-bwna 


-rcora 


-vuna. -lala 


„ sit,remain, 




-ikala or 


•tama 


-ixala 




-tama 


abide 




-kikala 










„ sleep ... 




•lala {lie 
down) 


-gun a. 
-gcozela 


•gcona (to 
sleep with) 




•gcona 


„ stand,stop, 




■hyimila. 


-yima 


-ima 




-ema. -simika 


be erect 




-takaluka 










), steal ... 




•iwa 


■hija. -yiwa 


... 


•hedya 


■hetsa 


' ^\x-rLy'\msi=not to give. 










i 


vaa.nye-ri = know not. Kese has negative verbs or auxiliary verbs like Ki-matumbi. 



IS2 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN KI-MWERA 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu, m-, ii-, yu-) ; 2. "Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, gu) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, yi, i-) ; 

5. Li-, Ji. ?, — (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Ci-, Xi-, Ki (?) (xi-, ii) ; 8. Vi- ?, I- (yi-, i) ; 9- N- (M-), N- 

(n-, i) ; 10. same as 9 ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; 12. ? ; 13. ? ; 14. U- (u-, gu ?, vu-?) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- 

(pa); 17. ?. 

PREFIXES, &c., IN MAKONDE AND MAVIA 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, N- (m-, mil, yu-, u-); 2. Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N-, Yu- (34 a) (m-, mu-, u) ; 
4. Mi- (mi-, i) ; 5. Li- (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a) ; 7. Ci-, Ki- (ci, ki) ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. N- (M-), N- (n-, i) ; 
10. Lin-, Ndin-, Din- (di, lin-) ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; 1 2. Tu- (tu) ; 1 3 . Ka- (ka) ; 1 4. U- (u) ; 1 5 . Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- 
(pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN SUTU-MATENGO) 

No preprefixes except in Nos. 9 and 10. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, N- (mu, m, yu-, u-) ; 2. "Wa- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N- (mu-, m-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, 
i) ; 5. Li- (li-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya-) ; 7. Ki- (ki-) ; 8. I-, Hi-, Vi- (hi-, vi-) ; 9. Yin-, In-, N- (M-), W-, Ny-, 
— (n-, i-) ; 10. I-, In-, N- (M-), »-,Ny-, Hy-, — (i- ?,zi- .') ; 11. Lu- (lu-) ; 12. missing in Sutu, Tu, Tw- 
in Ma-teiigw; 13. Ka- (ka-) ; 14. U-, Hvsr- (u-) ; 15. Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Pa- (pa-); 17. Mu- (mu-), A- 
honorific. 



PREFIXES, 5;c., IN PAWGWA 
Preprefixes present in full. 

Class I. Umu- (mu, ? gu-) ; 2. Aba-, Ava-, Awa- (ba-) ; 3. Umu- (mu-, gu) ; 4. Imi- (mi- ? gi) ; J. Hi-, 

I. ?, Ji- ? (11, ji ?j ; 6. Ama- (ma-, ga ?) ; 7. Ixi- (xi) ; 8. Ifi- (fi) ; 9. In- (Im-), (ji, j, n- ?) ; 10. ? Dzi- (dzi) ; 

II. Ulu-(lu); 12. ?; 13. Aka-(ka); 14. Ubu-, Uwu- (bu) ; 15. Uxu- (xu) ; 16. Pa-, Pha- (pa); 17. Mu-? 
(?); 18. Ugu-(gu.?). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN KESE 

Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Um-,Un-, Mu-, M.(mu, ?); 2. Aba-,Bco-(ba) ; 3. Um-, Un-, Mu-, M- (mu, ?) ; 4. Imi- (mi-, ?) ; 
5. Idi-, Iri-, Di- (ri, di) ; 6. Ma- (? Ama-) (ma-, ga ?) ; 7. Ki- (ki) ; 8. Fi- or Vi- (fi or vi) ; 9. In- (Im-), 
— , N- (ji, j, n- ?) ; 10. ? same as 9 ; II. Uru-, Ru-, Du- (ru) ; 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Aka- (ka) ; 14. Wu-, U-, 
Bu- (wu ?) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu-. 

PREFIXES, &c., IN KINGA 
Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu-, Um-, Un-, Un-, U- (um-, un-, -mw-, ju-, u-, ve) ; 2, Va- (va, vcu-) ; 3. Ufflu-, Um-, Un-, 
Un- (mu-, un-, gu, yu) ; 4. Emi- (emi-j-yi, i-) ; 5. Eli- (li) ; 6. Ama- (ama-, ma-, ya) ; 7. Eki- (ki) ; 8. Isi- 
(si) ; 9. Eni-, Eny-, En- (Em-), E- (en-, ji, i-) ; 10. Ini-, Iny-, Inz-, In-, E- (n- (m-), tsi, i-) ; 11. Ulu-, 
Uru- (lu, ru) ; 12. Utu- (tu) ; 13. Aka- (ka) ; 14. Uvu- (vu) ; 15. Uku- (ku) ; 16. Pa-, Ba- (pa, ba) ; 17. Mu- 
(mu-, m-, n) ; 18. Uyu- (yu). 

Also the Nya prefix, without concord. 



GROUPS I, J, K: RUFIJI-RUVUMA, NYASA, AND UKINGA LANGUAGES 183 

33. Mwera and 33 a. Kidonde are spoken in the hinterland of the Lindi coast district of German 
East Africa between the Mbemkuru river on the north and the Lindi or Lukuledi river on the south, 
and extending sporadically to the Ruvuma. To it seems to be allied the widespread but unrecorded 
dialect of the Wadonde, which extends from the Middle Rufiji and its Marangandu affluent on the north- 
west to the Mbemkuru on the south. 

34. Makonde and 34 a. Mavia or Mabiha are spoken in the coast regions of German East Africa 
and northern Portuguese East Africa immediately behind the Swahili sea-shore settlements ; between 
the Mbemkuru river on the north and the Msalu or Marari. 

35. Sutu (Manundi) and 35 a. Kimatengco are spoken in the Magwangwara or Afigtuni country of 
south German East Africa, north of the Portuguese frontier and Upper Ruvuma, south of Upangwa and 
the basin of the Upper Rufiji ; east of the Marangandu and the Mtetesi-Muhesi. The Wamatengoo 
extend their range to the east coast of Lake Nyasa, south of the Kisi coast-belt and Ruhuhu river. 

36. Pangwa is spoken in Upangwa, a very mountainous tract to the north-east of Lake Nyasa ; 
east of the Livingstone mountains and west of the Pitu river ; and south of the Bena and west Matumbi 
countries. 

37. Kese or Kisi is spoken on the north-east coast of Lake Nyasa from the northernmost point of 
the lake, southwards to the River Ruhuhu. 

38. Kinga is spoken in Ukinga, north of the north end of Lake Nyasa, south of the Upper Ruaha 
basin, west of Ubena and east of Nkonde and Ukukwe. 



GROUP L 

THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 





39. Ka-bwari. 39 a. Ki-lega^ 


42. Bemba (Ki-emba) 




40. Guha 






43. Lufigu 






41. Tabwa 




43 a. Mambwe 






39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a- 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 
(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Adze 


Ke-londa 


M-bajcij 


Ka-temco 


Im-bafi 




Ka-pasa 


Animal, wild 


N-ama or 


Ny-ama 


N-nama 


In-nama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


beast 


Ny-ama 












Ant 


Lu-asi; fi-asi 


M-basi. 


Mu-naco. 


Im-pasi. 


Kalandu 


Simu-nyemwe 






Bu-niegene 


M-pazi 


Awa-nangi 




N-kalandu. 
Im-pasi 


Ant, white 


Mu-swa. 


N-jcowa. 


Bu-swa 


Ulu-swa 


W-conyi 


U-coni 


(termite) 


Lu-sunga ; 


N-swa 










Ape (chim- 


sunga 
Scjkco 




N-scokto 


In-scakoj 


... 


... 


panzi or 
gorilla) 
Arm 














Ku-bcjkco; ma- 


Ku-bukto ; ma- 


Ku-bcokco 


Ku-wcokco 


1-kasa 


I-kasa ; ma- 


Arrow 


Mw-ambi ; mi- 
Ki-kenge. 
I-scoma (39 a) 


M-bi. M-ketco. 
Mu-sari ; mi-. 
N-sari ; 
mi -sari 


Mu-vwi 


Mu-fwi 


Umu-vwi 


Mu-vwi ; mi". 
Lu-kyetco ; 
fi-kyetco 


Axe 


M-basa. 


Ka-temco ; tu- 


M-bazco. 


Li-sembe. 


Im-pasa 


Im-pasa. 




M-bwacu. 




M-bavi. 


I-sembe ; ma- 




M-patoj. 




I-yuka. 




Li-zembe 






I-se ; ma-se 




Lu-kasu ; 














ii-gasu (39 a) 












Baboon 


N-gama 


Tcolue 


N-kwlwe 


Korcoe, 
Kolowe 


Kolue 


Kolue or 
Ya-kolcoe 


Back 


Mw-onO, 


N-gonoj or 


Mu-oiiga). 


Mu-sana. 


Mu-sana. 


Mu-sisi. 




M-ongco 


M-gongcj 


Mu-sana 


In-uma 


I-tundu 


I-tundu 


Banana ... 


Ki-co ; pi. bi-co 


Tcoka, Twke, 


Li-konde; ma- 


N-konde. 


Konde 


N-konde. 




Konde; ma + 


Tcoki; ma-l- 




Li-tMCe(/^az'/). 
I-tcoce {wild) 




{tree = Mu- 
fuka) 


Beard 


Lu-levu. 
Ka-levu ; 
Tu-levu = 

{hair of). 
N-delu (39 a) 


Ka-lesi ; tu- 


Lu-levu. 

Mu-efu 


Mw-efu 


Ki-lezu 


Ki-lezu 


Bee 


Nz-uki 


Ny-uki, 

Nj-uki 


N-zuki. 
N-zimu 


Ulu-^imu. 
Ici-papi 


In-zimu 


N-zimu 


Belly 


Vumu. 
I-kundu 


Gumco 


Li-vuma>. 

(Li-bu = Uver\ 


Di-fumco 


In-dilwa 


N-diliwa 


Bird 


Ka-n«ni ; tu- 


U-nojni ; mi-, 
Ka-nconi 


Ki-coni ; vi- 


Ki-ojni, 
Iki-coni. 
Ci-pele 


Ki-unyi 


Ki-uni 


Blood 


Mu-si. Ma-si 
(39 a) 


Mi-leoa, 
M-lcoha 


Mu-lcijpa 


Mu-lcopa ; mi- 


Uw-azi 


Uw-azi 


Body 


Mu-biri 


M-bili 


Mu-bili 


Mu-wiri 


Mw-idi 


Mw-ili 


Bone 


Fua ; ma + . 
Ku-ha (39 a) 


Kuja or 
Kudza ; 
ma-kuja 


Li-kuza. 
Li-fupa 


Li-fupa 


I-fupa 


Fupa 


Borassus palm 


Kuku 


Belewili ; ma + 


Ka-bilibili 


Mu-ko>ma 


Mu-kojma 


Mu-kcoma 



' Kilega, as spoken near Lake Tanganyika., is akin to Kabwari ; but it is really little else than No. 144. 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



i8s 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwa 


Bow 


Mw-eitco ; mi- 


Bu-ta 


Bu-ta 


Wu-ta, 
Ubu-ta 


U-lapwa; ama- 


U-lapwa 


Bowels 


Mi-la 


Mi-la 


N-da. Ma-la 
(Bu-la) 


Ma-la 


Ma-la ya 
limun-da 


Ama-la 


Brains 


Ma-ka. 
B(o-kese(39a) 


B-ongo 


Bu-ongco. 
Tomfwe 


I-tompwe 


Tompwe 


Uw-ongco 


Breast (man's) 


Ki-ari 


Ki-ali 


Ki-fuba. 
N-kulco 
Li-bere ; ma- 


Ki-fuba 


Ki-fua 


Ki-fua 


Breast 


Bele ; ma + 


Bele 


I -here ; ma- 


I-ede ; ma-ede 


... 


(woman's) 














Brother ... 


Mw-an'-itu. 


Mw-an'-etu. 


Ki-nsanga, 


Umu-nyina. 


U-lupwa ; pi. 


Mw-ina, 




Mu-butwa. 


M-umi. 


N-dum-ya, 


N-dume 


n-dupwa. 


Mu-nyo- 




Mu-tamba 


Mu-kingu 


Mw-ine, 
N-dum-escL), 




Mw-ina 




Buffalo ... 


M-co. M-bcoco 
(39 a) 


M-cogco 


M-bcoco 


Im-bcoeo 


Im-bcoco 


Im-bcohco 


Bull 


Mu-tungula 

(39 a) 






... 




M-pambasi 


Buttocks ... 


Ma-tak«. 
Ma-kuma 
(39 a) 


Ma-takco 


Li-takoj. 
Mu-pani. 
M-putu 


Im-puti. 
Ma-takco 


Ma-takco 




Canoe 


Bw-atoj; m-atca 


Bu-atco 


Bw-atco, 
Kabw-atco 


Bw-atco 


U-atco 


Uw-atco 


Cat 


Ka-nyab«. 
Mw-era (39 a) 


N-yavu 


Ka-mensi. 
Ka-paka 


M-paka. 
Sumbwe. 
I-ccona 


N-yau 


N-yau 


Charcoal ... 


... 


... 


Li-fita 


Umu-fita 


... 


Ma-kala 


Chief 


Mu-twa.le. 
Numbi. Mu 
Icohwe (39 a) 


Kcdlco 


Li-kulco. 
Im-fumu 
Mu-sumba 


Im-fumu 


Mw-ene; a-ene 


M-fumco ; 
a-fumco. 

Mw-ene 


Child 


Mw-ana. 
K-ana. 
M-alaika 


Mw-ana 


Mw-an-ike or 
Mw-a'-ike. 
Mw-ina ; pi. 
b-ena 


Mw-ana, 
K-ana ; pi. 
utw-ana 


Mw-ana; ana 


Mw-ana ; ana 


Cloth 


Mw-enda. 


Mw-enda 


N-salu. 


In-salu. 


In-salu 


In-saru. 




N-guvco 




My-enda 


Ici-rundu 




Mw-enda. 
Mw-era 


Cold 


M-pekco, 
M-pehco 


M-behco 


Mu-pepca. 
Ka-sama 


Im-pepco 




M-pepco 


Country ... 


Ki-balco ; bi-. 
Mu-ziu. 
Bu-sambu 


I-nzi 


Ky-alco 


Ici-alco. 
Im-panga 


M-panga 


In-si. 
M-panga 


Cow 


N-ga 


N-ome 


N-gombe 


N-ombe. 


In-ombe 


N-ombe 




n-gazi-ana. 




Ii-k(ota 


Kombe. 




ya-nki. 




M-kaci wa 






lii-kcota 




N-dama 




n-ombe 










(heifer) 


Crocodile ... 


N-wena. 
N-andu, 
N-gwenua 

(39 a) 


N-wena 


N-hwena 


In-wena 


Ifi-gwena 


In-gwena 


Date palm... 


Ka-pue 


... 


Mii-tende 






... 


Day 


Bu-su, Lu-su ; 


Bu-sigi ; //. 


N-siku. 


Uwu-piku ; //. 


VV-anda ; 


Mw-anda. 




ma-su (//.). 


ma-sigi. 


Kuba {=tlay 


- in-piku 


pi. m-anda 


Mu-sanya. 




Mu-zuba 


Mw-ijuva 


light) 






N-sangalala 




(= light). 










[daylight] 




I-lumbu; ma 


- 












(39 a) 













1 86 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





T. 39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a- 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemha 
(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Devil, evil 


I-dima ; 


M-kisi 


N-gulu. Ki-wa 


Ki-nkala. 


Ki-wa ; vi-wa 


Ki-wa 


spirit 


ma-rima 






Ici-banda. 

Mu-pasi. 

Ki-wa 






Doctor (medi- 


Mu-fumco 




Mu-nanga 


In-naiiga. 


Si-nanga 


Si-naiiga 


cine man) 








Si-iianga 






Dog 


Ka-bwa or 
Im-bwa 


Kam-bwa ; tu- 


Ka-bwa 


Im-bwa 


Sim-bwa 


Sim-bwa 


Donkey 


Kapa. 
M-punda 


N-genga 


W-ankenka ; 
pi. baw-. 
Ka-balwa. 
Kikco^ 


In-dcokwe. 
M-pelembe 


N-dokoi 


N-dogcowe 


Door, door- 


Ki-vi ; hi-. 


N-jianco ; mi-. 


Mu-lyaiigco. 


Mw-inpi. 


Ki-sasa 


Ki-saza ; 


way 


Mw-anco 

{doorway). 
Mu-kinda 
(39 a) 


Ki-limba 


Ki-bi. Ki-izi 


Ci-wi or 
Ici-bi 




ki-sekco 


Dream 


Ku-lcota. 


K-ilco; bi-. 


Ki-lcotco. Ka-lco Ki-rcotco. 


Ki-lcotco 


N-dcotco 




N-ja>ci 


N-dcotco 




Ulu-)cotco 






Drum 


N-cjma or 
N -goimco. 
Mu-lile 


N-coma 


N-coma 


N-eoma 


Iii-gcoma 


N-gcoma 


Ear 


Ku-tui. 
I-twi 


Ku-tii ; pi. 
ma-tu. 
Ku-tui 


Ku-twi 


Ku-twi 


Ku-twi 


Ku-tui 


Egg 


I-ye. C-ayi; 


Uji ; ma-uji. 


Li-yi ; ma-yi. 


Di-ni 


Di-enza ; ma- 


Li-ensa ; 




pi. m-ayi 


Husi 


Li-teta 






m-ensa 


Elephant ... 


N-zcovu. 
N-jcou (39 a) 


N-ycogi 


N-zcovu 


In-scofu 


In-zcovu 


N-zcovu 


Excrement 


Ma-vi. Tu-bi 


Tu-ivi, Tu-bi 


Tu-vi 


Ama-fi 


Ama-vi 




Eye 


D-iscj; m-esco 


L-isco 


Li-nsco 


Di-nsco 


Di-nsco 


Li-nsco ; 
ma-nsco 


Face, forehead 


M-esco. 
Ki-ene 


Ku-kieni, 
Ku-merco 


Lu-kebu. 

M-ensco 


Kum-ensco 


Kuma-sco 


Kuma-nsco 


Fat 


Ma-futa. 
Ma-kuta(39a) 


Ma-kita 


Ma-futa 


Ama-futa 


Ama-futa 


Ma-futa. 
Ma-ncona 


Father 


Tata- (wane). 


Tata. Seo, Se, 


Tata. Ta-we 


Tata. W-isco, 




Tata. Sco, 




I-^o. I-pa-ke. 


er-t-. ? Tutu 


= 7?iy ; Sco or 


W-isi 




I -si 




Ba-tata. 




Wi-sco = thy ; 










Bi-po {both 




Se, Wi-se = 










these latter pis. 




his ; Si-twe = 










and honorific 




our ; Si-nwe 










sing.) 




= your; Si-bo^ 
= their 








Fear 


Bu-coba, 
B-coba 


Bw-enyco 


Ki-tinco. 
(Ku-tina = to 
fear) 


Mw-ensco 


In-tete 


N-tete 


Finger 


!\Iu-nwe. 


Nwe ; mi-nwe. 


Mu-nwe 


Mu-nue. C-ala; 


Umu-nue; 


Mu-uwe 




Mu-sai ; mi- 


M-nye 




ifi-ala 


mi-nue 




Fire 


Ka-ia. Tu-iya 


Ka-ia 


Mu-lirco 


Mu-iirco 


M-otco 


M-otco 


Fish 


Swi. 

Me-vera {pi.) 


Ny-ama 


Li-sabi. 
Ki-kulu 


I-sabi, 
Li-sawi 


In-sui 


N-swi 


Foot 


Ki-kasa. 


Ki-kasa ; bi-. 


Ku-ulu. 


Lu-kasa 


Iri-gazco {pi.) 


Lu-azco ; 




Ki-limba ; vi-. 


Ku-guru 


Ma-ulu 






iii-gazco 




I-tindi (39 a) 












Forest 


Ki-bila. 
Numbe 


Mw-itu. 
Ki-tundu 


Mw-itu 


Mu-situ 


Mu-situ 


Lu-tala 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



1S7 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


13- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 
(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Fowl 


N-gcokco 


N-gcokto 


N-kcokco 


Iri-ktokco 


In-keokco 


N-kcokco 


Frog 


Ki-ula 




Ki-ula 


C-ula 




Ki-ula 


Ghost 


Mu-zimu ; mi-. 


N-kisi"; mi-. 


Ki-zwa. 


Mu-pasi 


Mu-pasi. 


Mu-pasi 




Ki-kuli 


Naya; 
bi-nyaga 


Mu-pasi ; mi- 
{ancestral 
spirit). 
N-gulu (evil 
spirit) 




Mu-zimu. 
Mu-za 




Giraffe 






Twiga 


I-ci-Iiama-luba 




N-wiya 


Girl 


Numa 


M-pakasi 


Ki-nundwe. 
Mu-kaziyana 






Ka-ki. 
Mu-kaziana 


Goat 


M-iizi. 
M-buci (39 a) 


M-uji. Buzi ; 
ma-buzi 


M-buzi 


Im-buzi 


Im-buzi 


M-buzi 


„ (he) ... 


... 




Ka-pwata. 






Sawe 


„ (she)... 
God 






M-pumbwe 








Ka-bezia. 


Ka-bejea. 


Leza. Leza- 


I-lesa, Li-lesa. 


I -leza" 


Mu-luiigu. 




Firie. 


M-pungu. 


ma-langu 


Umu-lungu 




Leza 




Ny-ambi 


Lezii 












(39 a) 












Grandparent 


N-guku. 


Ba-kuli. 


Ba-kcote. 


Fi-kolwa. 




Kuku. 




Ba-kalukisi 


Ba-kcote 


Ba-kuku 


Awa-kcola. 




Sco-kulu, 




ipl-) 




Vi-kcolwe. 
Ba-kulu 


^i-kulu, 

gco-kulu, 

W-ipi-kuIu 




Isi-kulu 


Grass 


M-ani. 
Lu-suku 


Y-asi. Ki-asi ; 
bi- 


Bi-kusi 


Ki-ani. Ifi- 


I-scote 


I-scote. 
Ka-sanza 


Ground 


Lcoba 


Ma-bue 


Bu-longco. 
Ma-lcoba, 
Ma-lundco 


Mu-sidi 


i-vn 


Mu-sili. Pa-nsi 


Ground-nut 


Ka-zuzu. 
Ka-lima 

(39 a) 


Ka-jugiia 


M-balala 


Ifi-kalanga. 
In-piama 


M-balala 


M-balala 


Guinea-fowl 


Kanga. 
N-ganga, 
Manga (39 a) 


Kana 


Li-kanga 


Di-kaiaga, 
N-kanga 


I -kanga 


Kanga 


Gun 


Bundusi. 
Ke-bwvye 

(39a) 


Bunduki, 
N-gcohco 


M-futi. 
Ki-pcolcopcolco. 
Bu-ta 


M-futi 


M-putu 


M-putu 


Hair 


M-vuire. 
Suki (39 a) 


Ny-uwele, 
N-jili 


Lu-vwili. 

Mu-sisi 


Mu-sisi 


N-yele 


N-yele 


Hand 


Ki-anzanza. 
Kco-bcukco. 
Ki-basabasa. 
M-anja (39 a) 


Mw-iswe ; ma- 
Ku-bojkco 


Mu-nwe. 
Ki-zanza. 
Ku-bcokco 


Lu-pi ; ma-pi 


I-kufi 


I-kasa 


Head 


Mu-twe 


Tue 


Mu-twe 


Mu-tue 


Mu-twe ; mi- 


Mu-twe. 
N-kcotco 


Heart 


Mu-tima 


N-tima 


Mu-tima 


Mu-tima. 
(Um-weco = 

life) 


Mw.enzco. 
(I-tima = 

liver) 


Mw-enzco. 
(I-tima = 

liver) 


Heel 


Ki-sukulu. 


Ka-sindag51co. 


Ka-singinco. 


Ka-tende ; 


Ki-ntunta 


Ki-ntunta. 




Ka-bili-bili 


Ka-sindagulu 


Ka-sinzilco 


utu-. 








(39 a) 






Ici-tende 






Hide 


L-u. Ki-sava 


Ki-leiiga. 


M-papa. 


Umu-kupco. 


. . . 


Ki-kwera. 




vi-(39a) 


Ki-sewa 


Ki-kanda 


Im-papa. 
Ifi-kanda 




M-papa 








' Lezi = clouds. 







i88 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a. 




Ka-bwari 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 


Lungu 


Mambwe 




39 a. Ki-lega 






(Ki-emba) 






Hill 


Ki-rimbi. 
Lu-uba (39 a) 


Lu-gulu. 
Mu-tenda 


Ka-pili 


Ulu-piri 




Ka-mwamba 


Hippopotamus 


N-uvu, 
N-guvu (39 a) 


Ny-igi 


Ki-cofwe. 
M-vubu 


I-pcofwe. 
Im-vuvu 


In-kambwe 


Ki-vtiu 


Hoe 


Lu-kasu 


Lu-kasu 


Lu-kasu 


Ulu-kasu 


Ulu-kasu 


I-se; ma-se 


Honey 


B-uki 


B-uki 


B-uki, Bu-iki 


B-uci 


U-gyi 


Uki 


Horn 


Di-a ; m-eya. 


Lu-ega ; 


Li-sengco ; 


In-sengco 


Im-pembe 


Pembe. 




Lu-iya; ng-iya 


me-ega 


ma-sengco. (Cf. 
I-sefiga, ox) 






N-tandala 

{spiral) 


House 


N-zu; ma-f. 
N-dabu ; 
ma-labu. 
Ke-scosco, 

M-scosco (39 a) 


Sibco. 
N-dzese; 
ma-zese 


N-sesi. 
N-ganda. 
Mu-tanda 


N-anda 


N-anda 


N-ganda 


Hunger 


N-zala 


Ny-ala 


N-zala 


In-sala 


N-zala 


N-zala 


Husband . . . 


I-be ; bai-be 

(39 a) 


M-palume 


M u-lume 


... 


... 


Mu-kalamba. 
lya 


Hyena 


Ci-mbwe. 


Ki-mbwi ; bi- 


Ki-mbwi. 


Ki-mbw^i. 


Ki-mbwi 


Ki-mbwi. 




Ki-mbwi 




Lu-sumpa. 

Lu-pula- 

ii-kalamu 


Buya. 

Ci-nsokcota. 

Ici-nsumpa 




A-sugutu 


Iron 


Ki-uma. 


Ki-geala, 


Ki-ela. 


Ki-eala. 


Iki-eala ; 


Ki-era 




Ki-kale 


Ki-gera 


Mu-tapco 


U-luiigu 


vi-eala 




Island 


Ki-lila. 
Ki-kila 


Ki-lela 


Ki-lira 


Ki-rira. 
Ci-siwa 


Ki-dila 


Ki-lila 


Ivory 


Di-a or Li-a 


Me-nco ga 


L-ina lya 


I-dinco lya 


D-inco la 


Pembe zia 




lye n-zcovu. 


n-ycogi 


n-zcovu 


n-scofu 


in-zcovu 


n-zcovu 




Mu-banga 












Knee 


U-vui. I-lu. 
Ma-vui. Ma-lu 


Si ; ma-sl 


Li-kufi 


Di-kufi or 
Li-kcofi 


Kco-kcola 


Kco-kcola ; raa- 


Knife 


Mw-ele ; mi-. 
Ki-wabi. 
Lu-baco ; 
m-bau (39 a) 


Lu-hete. 
K-ele ; 
tw-ele 


Mu-ere 


Mw-ele. 
Umu-pene 


Mw-ele 


Mw-ere 


Lake 


Ki-riba 


N-duyi, 
N-gcokco 


Bu-biza, 
Ki-ziba, 
Ki-lambe, 
Y-embe, 
N-kcokco 
( Tanganyika) 


Ici-pula 


Li-emba 


Lu-si. 
Li-emba 


Leg 


Kulu. 
Mu-indi. 
I-tindi (39 a) 


Ku-gulu 


Ku-ulu; ma- 


Mu-konsco 


Kulu 


Ku-ulu. 

Mu-ulu 


Leopard ... 


N-we 


N-ge; fi-gwe 


Ka-mfuma 


Im-bwiri 


Nangu 


I-nangu. 
Ka-mboto 


Lion 


N-dambwe 


M-tambwe 


N-kalanga 


In-kalamu 




Ki-sama 


Lips 


Mi-lcomco {pi.) 


Mi-rcomco (//.) 


Mi-lcomco {pi.) 


Mu-rcomco 


Mu-lcomco 


Mu-lcomco 


Magic 


Bu-lcozi. 
N-gisi. 
Bu-law 


Bu-ganga 


Bu-lcozi 


Bw-anga. 
Ubu-lcopi 


Uw-aiiga 


Uw-anga. 

(Mu-lcozi = 
magician) 


Maize 


Ki-saka. 

Ma-saiigu. 
C-ebele (39 a) 


Ki-saka 


Ki-sange, 
Ny-ange 


I ny-ange 


Ki-saka 


Ki-saka 


Man 


Mu-ndu ; 


Ndu ; ba-ndu 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu; a-ntu 


Mu-ntu ; a-ntu. 




ba-ndu 




ba-ntu 


ba-ntu 




(Ukalamba = 

manhood) 


Man, vir. ... 




M-palume 


Mu-lume 






M-onsi. 
Ka-lume 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



189 



Oil palm ... 

Ox 

Paddle 
Palm wine, 
beer 
Parrot 

Penis 

Pig 

Pigeon 
Place 



nostril ) 
Ki-azi Ki-gadzi Li-tofige Ku-imbu. 

Takwawa 
N-ombe ; ban- N-ombe 



Wga ye-lume. N-ome. 
N-ombe (39 a) (Y-analume) 

N-kai. N-gafi Li-kafl 

Bw-arwa 



Ma-liia 
N-gusu 
Mu-lua 

Nulube 
Ka-pele 
Ha-ndu 



Bw-arwa 

N-gusu 

Bolco 

N-guluwe 

N-gunda. 
N-jiba 
A-nzi 



Ka-suku 

Lu-tcotwe. 
Bu-kandi.' 
Bu-kala 

Ka-pcoli. 
N-gulube 

N-kunda 



Umu-kafi 
Ki-bale. 

Mu-tondoa 
Ki-rongco. 

Mu-cence 
Bu-kala, 

Ici-kala 

Ka-pcoli 



Ki-azi 
Y-onsi 

N-zamba 

Kusu 

Im-bolo) 

Ka-poli 
N-kunda 



N-kunda. 
Ci-pele 

A-pa. I-calco. Palia, Pa- 
Pa- 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a- 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Meat 


N-ama 


Ny-ama 


Nn-ama 


In-ama 


Iny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Medicine ... 


Bu-laco 


Mi-ti 


Buii-anga. 
Mi-ti 


Umu-ti 


... 


Mu-lembeo 


Milk 


... 


Ma-bele 


Ma-bere 


Ulu-kama. 
Lpiba 


... 


I-ziya. 
(Ku-kama = 

to milk) 


Monkey ... 


Ka-kene 


Ng-ema. 
N-kima 


M-penge. 
M-bele 


Mu-penje. 
In-cima 


Safigye 


N-kima 


Moon 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-eji. 
Kw-ejji 


Mw-ezi, 
Kw-ezi. 
(Lu-samto = 
moonlight) 


Mw-ezi, 
Mw-epi 




Mw-ezi 


Mother ... 


... 


Maju. 


Ya-iigu. 


Ma-yco, 




Ya-iigco. 






Nyco-ko). 


Nco-k(o. Nina. 


Nto-kco, 




Nico-ko). Nina 






Nana. Nina, 


Nine-twe 


Nyina. 










&■€. 




Mama. Na- 






Mountain ... 


Mw-ala 


N-tandco. 

Lu-gulu- 
lu-kata. 
N-guru 


Lu-pili 


Lu-piri ; 
im-piri 




Mw-amba 


Mouth 


... 


Ka-nya, 
Ka-nwa 


Ka-nwa 


Aka-nwa 


... 


Ka-nwa 


Nail (of finger 


Nz-ala 


Lu-ala; m-ala 


Li-zala, 


W-ala, Lu-ala, 


liig-ala (//.) 


K-era ; tu-era 


or toe) ... 






Lu-ala 


Du-ala ; //. 
fig-ala 






Name 


I-zina 


Zina, S-ina 


L-ina, Li-zina 


I-pina, 
Li-zina 


I-zina 


Zina 


Navel 


• •• 


. >. 


Mu-tcotco 


Umu-tcotco 


N-kombto 


N-kombco 


Neck 


Kcosi 


N-gineo 


Mu-kcosi. 
N-kcot<a 


Mu-kojpi 


N-singco 


N-singco 


Night 


N-esu. 
(Ki-rima = 
darkness.) 
Bu-tu ; ma-tu 


Bu-sigi, 
U-fuku. M-jto. 
(Mu-fitco = 
darkness) 


Bu-siku 


Bu-siku 


U-siku 


U-siku 


Nose 


... 


J-ulu. 
Mu-hembe 


Mu-oona ; mi- 


Um-tona. 
(Ici-punda = 


M-pumto 


M-punco 



N-gazi 
Ng-ombe 



Panu, pa- 
' Ki-bola = a man with a poor penis, impotent. Lu-bcola means a sting; Li-bcola = a testicle. 



M -bolco 



Ka-pori. 

Mu-ngili 
N-kunda 

Pa- 



19° 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





.. 39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Rain ... ... 


M-vula 


M-ila. M-bila 


M-vula 


Im-fula 


Im-vula 


M-vula 


Rat 


M-beba 


Li-nde; ma-nde 


M-puku 


Im-puku 


Ku-sulu 


M-bea. Kuza 


Rhinoceros 






Ki-pembele 


Ici-pembere 


... 


Tupa 


River 


Mw-ela 


N-kone ; fil. 
mi-kone. Lu-ji. 
Mu-tutoj 


Ki-ezi, 
Mw-ezi. 
Mu-mana 


Mu-mana. 
Ic'-ambepi 


L-uzi ;, ijg-uzi 


L-uzi 


Road 


In-zila 


N-yUa 


N-gila, 
N-zila 


In-sila 


N-zila 


N-zila 


Salt 


... 


M-kele. 
Mu-nyu 


Mu-kele 


Umu-cere. 
Umu-fumbco 


... 


Mu-silya. 
Mu-kyere 


Shame 






Bu-sconi 


In-sconi 


N-sconi 


N-sconi 


Sheep 


Mu-kcoko3 


N-kcokw 


Mu-kcokco. 
M-fwere 


Im-panga 


M-fuele 


Fwere 


Shield 


N-gavu. 
N-abo) (39 a) 


... 


N-gabco 


... 


... 


Ki-syangu 


Shoulder ... 


... 




Ki-kcope. 
Li-kombe 


Uku-bea. 
Ici-kcope 




Ki-iye 


Sister 


N-gazi 


N-gazi 


Kazi-amw-ine 


lii-kapi. 
Umw-ina 
Mw-inyina. 

Mu-viala 


Kazi ya 
mw-ine 


Kaki 


Skin 


Ki-reiiga 


Ki-lenga 


Lu-anza ; 
iig-anza 


Ifi-kanda. 
Ici-papa 


Im-papa 


N-kcoa. 
M-papa. 
Mu-kwera 


Sky 


Ma-iilu. 


Gulu, Yulu. 


Mu-yulu 


Ifi-kuba. 


I-yulu. 


I-ulu 




I-yubu 


(Lezi = cloud, 
God) 




Mesa, 
I-leza 


(I-kumbi = 

clouds) 




Slave 


... 


M-jya 


Mu-zyco. 
Bu-kcolco. 
Ka-lume 


Umu-pya. 
Ka-polo 




Mu-zya 


Sleep 


Ka-lco 


Tu-lu 


Tu-lco. Kuna 


Tu-lco, Utu-lco 


Utu-lco 


Tu-lco 


Smoke 


Mu-si 


L-ingi ; m-ingi. 
Mw-inki 


M-unsi, 
Ky-unsi 


If-unsi, C-usi 


C-unsi 


Ki-unsi 


Snake 


Nz-coka 


N-ycoka 


N-zcijka 


In-scoka 


N-zcoka 


U-zcoka 


Son, boy ... 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana lume. 


Mw-ana lume 


Mw-ana- 


M-onsi. 


Mw-ana. 






Mvv-anike 




m-wa-ume. 
(Umw-aice = 
boy) 


(Ak-anya ; 
utu- = boy) 


Mw-ankye. 
Mu-rumendu 


Song 


Lu-imco ; pi. 
ny-imoj 


Lu-imco ; fl. 
ng-imcj. 
Lu-imbco 


Lu-imbco 


Lu-imbco ; pi. 
iny-imbco 


Ulu-imbco 


Lu-imbco 


Spear 


Fumco ; ma- 


Simu, Fumu 


Li-fumca 


I -fumco 


I-sumco 


I-sumco 


Spirit, soul 


... 


M-kisi 


Mu-tima. 
Mu-pasi 


Ub-umi. 
Umu-pasi 
In-tanda 


... 


Mu-pasi 


Star 


Ka-i3m ; 


Ka-mbalambala 


Lu-tanda 


In-tanda 


Lu-tanda 




tu-ulu 


Ka-ngemogemco 










Stick 


N-gojni 


Ka-bubi 


Ka-pini, 
Ka-mama, 
Lu-bangco 


In-kcota. 
lii-kontco 


N-tuwa 


... 


Stone 


Bue. 

Ma-bwe 


Bue or 
Di-bwe ; 
ma-bwe 


Li-bwe 


Di-bwe 


I-we 


I-we 


Stool 




Ki-wala. 
Ki-hcona 


Ki-pcona. 
Ki-tebe 


Ici-puna 




Ki-limba 


Sun 


2^uba 


Juba, Juva 


Kcoba. 
Ka-zuba 


Ka-suba 


Aka-sanya 


I-ransi 


Tail (of an 


Mu-kila 


M-kila 


Mu-kila 


Umu-cira 




Mu-sinda 


animal) 















GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



191 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


■43- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Tear 


Lu-scozi 


Li-scozi ; me- 


Li-nswzi 


Idi-nscosi, 
Mu-nscozi 


Li-nscozi 


Mu-nscosi 


Testicles ... 


Bcolcd 


Ma-uli 


Ma-peke. 
Ma-bcola. 
Li-puli ; ma- 


Ma-wcolcij. 
I-tcole. 
I-gwampa 


Ma-tulu 


I-tulu 


Thief 


Mw-ivi ; 


Mw-ibi ; 


Mw-ivi. 


Mu-nco. 


Mu-pupu 


Mu-ivi 




b-evi 


b-ebi 


Ki-ponda 


Pompwe 






Thigh 


I-bimbi (39 a) 


... 


Li-tanta. 
Li-tebero) 


I-tanta. 

Ulu-tungu 


Im-pamba 


Lu-tungto. 
M-pamba 


Thing 


Ki-ndu ; 


Ki-ndu ; 


Ki-ntu, 


Ki-ntu; ifi-ntu. 


Ki-ntu 


Ki-uma ; 




bi-ndu 


bi-ndu 


Ka-ntu 


Ic-uma 




vi-uma 


Thorn 


Mw-iwa 


Mw-iba 


Mu-unga 


M-unga 


M-unga 


M-unga 


Tobacco ... 


Fwanga 


N-jungeo 


N-suiikco. 
Fwanka 


M-fwaka 


Fwaka 


Fwaka 


To-day 


Bu-na bu-su 


Bu-legulu 


Lenu, Lel&j. 
N.dakai 


Lelu 


I-lelco 


Lelco 


Toe 


Ki-ala 


Ki-ala. 
Lu-nco; ma-nco 


Mu-nwe 


Ki-kondo3. 
Ci-kumco 


Ki-kandco 


Kandco ; ma + 
Ki-kandco ; vi 


To-morrow 


... 


J"^ 


Lu-kere. 
Ma-irco 


Ma-irco 


Mu-tondco 


Ka-tondco 


Tongue 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi ; 
in-dimi 


Lu-limi 


Tooth 


D-inco ; m-eno 


L-into 


L-inco 


D-inco 


D-inco 


L-inco ; m-inco 


Town 


Lu-zi ; pi. n-zi. 
M-ua {for 
M-bua) ; 
pi. ma-bua 


N-gutu 


Mu-zi. 
N-kutu 


Mu-si 


Umu-zi 


Mu-zi 


Tree 


Ki-ti; bi-ti 


N-ti ; mi-ti 


Mu-ti, 
Kimu-ti. 
Ka-sala 

{bush) 


Mu-ti, 
Ci-ti 


Mu-ti 


Mu-ti 


Twins 


Ma-asa 


Ma-asa 


Ma-pasa. 
(Li-pasa 
= twin). 
M-pundu. 
(Nam-pundu 
= mother of 
a twin) 


Bam-pundu 


Ma-pasa 


Yam-pundu 


Urine 


Ma-SCO 


Ma-sco 


Ma-su 


Ma-su 


Tunzi 


Ma-tunsi 


Vein 


... 




Li-sipa 


Ulu-kcole. 
Umu-pipa 


... 


Lu-kcole 


War 


Bi-ta 


Bii-luba 


Bu-kali 


Fi-ta, Vi-ta. 
In-kondco 


Mu-sika 


N-kondco. 

Vi-ta 


Water 


Ma-zi 


M-ema. 
Ma-dzi, 
Ma-ji 


M-enda. 
M-enzi 


Am-ensi 


Ma-nzi 


Ma-nsi 


Well 


... 


(Lu-ji = pool) 


Ka-tcobw. 
Ki-ima. 
Ki-lindi 


I-fwe, I-tapa. 
Ici-sima 


... 


Ki-ziya 


White man 


Mu-zungu 


N-dzungu ; 
ba-dzungu 


Mu-zungu 


Mu-sungu 


Mu-zungu; a- 


Mu-zungu ; a- 


Wife 


N-kazi-ana 


N-kasigoj 


Mu-kazi. 
Mu-kwlco 


Mu-ka. 
Mu-kasi 
or -kazi. 
Mu-kcolco 


Wa-ne (?) 


Um-tiki 


Wind 


M-be<a 


N-yava 


Mu-ela 


Im-pepeo 


Um-uza 


Um-uza 








' Cf. Lu-ganda. 







O 2 



192 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 
(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


Witch 


Mu-lcozi. 


Neogi, 


Mu-lcozi ; ba-. 


In-ulu, 


Mu-lcozi 


Mu-lcozi 




Mu-fiuncij 


M-lojgi ; 
ba-ncogi 


N-dcozi 


In-giilu. 
Mu-lcosi 






Witchcraft 


Bu-lcozi. 
N-gisi 


Bu-lcogi 


Bu-lcozi 


Wu-lcosi, 
Ubu-lcopi. 
Ubu-panda 


Uwu-lcozi 


U-lcozi. 
Uw-anga 


Woman ... 


M-kazi. 
(»mna = 

■virgin) 


M-bakaji. 
M-pakasi 


Mw-anakazi 


Mu-kasi. 
Umu-sange 


Mw-^nakyi 


Mw-^naki 


Womb 




Ki-nyco. 


Kongwe, 




N-diliwa 








N-kongwe(= 


I-nyco (= also 












also vagina). 


•vagina). 












Limi (foetus) 


Li-fumco 






Wood (fire- 


N-guni 


N-guni 


N-kuni 


I n-kuni 


N-kwi 


N-kwi. 


wood) 












N-si 


Yam 


Ki-zumto. 
Ki-kulu 


Ki-gatpi 


Ki-lungwa 


Ki-rungwa 


Ki-rungu 


U-lungu 


Year 


Mw-aka 


Ki-mula 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Mw-aka 


Yesterday... 


Mu-kese 


Bu-la-bu-sigi 


Lu-kere. 
Ma-irco 


Ma-irco a-dia 


Mu-tondco-lia 


Mu-tondco 


Zebra 


Ki-twasi 


N-damwe. 
N-gcolco 


N-galika 


Ki-bycobyeo. 
M-kcolcotco 


Ki-ngalika 


Li-nka, 
Ki-orwa 


One 


-mwe 


•mco 


-umco 


-mco 


-mwi ..or 
-umwi 


W-enga, -onga 


Two 


-biri 


-wiri 


-bill 


-bidi (-wiri) 


■idi 


-iri 


Three 


-tatu 


-tatu, -satco 


-tatu 


-tatu 


-tatu 


-tatu 


Four 


-nne 


-na 


-na 


-nne 


-ni 


-ni 


Five 


-tanco 


-tanco 


-sanco 


-sanco 


-sanco 


-sanu 


Six 


M-tanda 


N-tanda 


Mu-tanda 


Mu-tanda 
tfrVili- 
m(o-tanda 


Mu-tanda 


Mu-tanda 


Seven 


N-dui 


Ki-lcowa. 
Mu-sambco 


Ki-lcoba 


Apa-i-nye- 
apa-itatu. 
Yi-sanco na 
viwiri 


Ki-ne ru wari 


Ki-ni-m-bali 


Eight 


Mu-nana 


Mw-anda 


Mu-anda 


Ki-ne. Ko-nse- 
konse 


Ki-nani 


Ki-nani 


Nine 


Kenda 


Habula. 
Ki-tema 


Fundi 


Fundi, 
lu-bali. 
Pabula 


Fundi 


Fundi m-bali 


Ten 


Kumi 


Kumi 


Li -kumi 


I -kumi or Li- 


I -kumi 


I -kumi 


Eleven 


Kumi na -mwe 


Kumi na 


Li-kumina-mco 


I-kumi na 


Kumi na 


I -kumi na 






ka-mco 




i-mco 


i-mwi 


w-enga(-onga) 


Twenty ... 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi a-iri 


Ma-kumi 




i-biri 


ga-were 


a-bili 


a-bidi 




ya-iri 


Thirty 


Mi-longo 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




i-tatu 


ga-tatu 


a-tatu 


a-tatu 


a-tatu 


ya-tatu 


Forty 


Mi-longco 
i-nne 


Ma-kumi ga-ni 


Ma-kumi a-na 


Ma-kumi a-nne 


Ma-kumi a-ni 


Ma-kumi a-ni 


Fifty 


Mi-longco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




i -tanco 


ga-tanco 


a-sanco 


a-sanco 


a-sanco 


a-sanu 


Hundred ... 


Zana. 


Zana. 


Ki-nunu. 


Mw-anda. 


Mw-anda 


Mw-anda 




Lu-kama ; //. 


Lu-kama 


Li-kumi na 


Umw-andco 








ii-kama (39 a) 




n-zala 








Thousand ... 


Ki-nconco 


? 


? 


Em-pco^comco 


J 


? 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



193 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a. 


English 


ICa-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


I, me, my . . . 


Nene. 


Nene. 


Nene. 


Ne-wco, I-ne, 


Nene. 


Nene. 




Na-, N-. 


Na-, N-, Ni-. 


Ne-, N-. 


Ne-b(o, Nine, 


N-. 


N-. 




-n-. -a-ne 


-n-,-ni-. -a-ne, 
-a-mi 


-n-. -ne 


Ne-ka. 

N-. 

-n-, -ndi-. 

-a-ndi 


-n-. -a-ne 


-n-. -a-ne 


Thou, thee, thy 


An-ue, 


Giie. 


Wewe. 


I-we, We-bo). 


Wewe. 


Wewe. 




0).. 


0)-. 


We-. U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 




-ku-. -cobe 


-ku-. -cowe, 
-coge 


-ku-. -cobe 


-ku-. ■ube,-cobe 


-ku-. -a-kco 


-ku-. -a-kco 


He, him, his 


U-ria. 


Gu-jco. 


Ozu, (jO-lya, 


Uyu. 


Wi-dia. 


We. 




Wa-, A-. 


Wa-. 


We-ne. 


U-, A-. 


Wa-. 


A-, Wa-. 




-m-, -mw-. 


-mu-. -ege 


U-, A-. 


-kwe. -mu-. 


-mu-. -a-kwe 


-mu-. -a-kwe 




-a-e 




■mu-. -a-kwe 


-a-kwe 






We, us, our 


Be-twe. 


Be-twe. 


Fwefwe, 


Fwe-b(o. 


A-fwefwe. 


Sweswe. 




Tu-. 


Tu-. 


Fwe-boo. 


I-fwe. 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 




-tu-. -etu 


-tu-. -a be-twe 


Tu-. 
-tu-. -etu 


Tu-. 

-isu. -tu-. 

-esu 


•tu-. -itu 


-tu-. -itu 


Ye, you, your 


Be-nwe. 


Be-nyi. 


Mwemwe, 


Mwe-btt). 


Mwemwe. 


Mwemwe. 




Mu-. 


Mu-. 


Mwe. 


I -mwe. 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 




•ba- ? -enu 


-ba- ?, -mu- ? 
-a be-nue 


Mu-. 

-mu-,-mi-,-ba-. 

-enu 


Mu-. 

-inco. -mu-. 

-enco 


-mu-. -inu 


-mu-. -inu 


They, them. 


Babco. 


Babco. 


Baba, Ba-Iya. 


Babco, Wawoj. 


Aeo. 


0). 


their 


Ba-. 


Ba-. 


Ba-. 


Ba-. 


A-. 


A- or Ya-. 




-ba-. -babco 


-ba-. -a bebco 


-ba-. -bco 


-ba-. -bco. 
-a-bco 


-a-, -a-co 


-a-, -ya-. -a-co 


AU 


-ose 


-onze 


-onse 


-onse 


-onsi 


-ensi, onsi 


This, these 


US, baba ; uu. 


Guju, baba ; 


Uzu, aba; &^c. 


Uyu, aba ; 


Wi, aa ; u, 


Wiwi, aa ; 




ii ; didi. 


guju,giji;(Sr-<;. 




uwu, iyi ; 


ii; &■(. 


uu, ii ; dr^c. 




gaga .' ; kiki, 






ill, aya ; ici, 








bibi; &=€. 






i& or iyi or i^i; 
ulu ; utu ; 
aka ; ubu ; 
uku ; apa ; 
umu (uwu) 






That, those 


U-lia, ba-lia ; 


Gu-Ha, ba-lia ; 


U-lia, ba-lia ; 


Uvco, abco ; 


Wi-dia, a-dia; 


Wi-lia, a-lia ; 




u-lia, i-lia ; 


gu-lia, gi-lia ; 


dr'c. 


Grc. 


&=€. 


6-'c. 




&=(. 


6^(7. 




U-lia, ba-lia; 
u-lya, i-ria; 
li-ria, a-lia ; 
ci-ria, fi-ria; 
i-ria, pi-ria ; 
lu-lia ; tu-lia ; 
ka-lia; bu-lia; 
ku-lia; pa-lia; 
mu-lia (a-lia) 






Bad 


■bi 


■bi 


■bi. -bi-pire 


-bi 


■wi 


Ku-cola 


Black 


•ilu 


-gasuke 


-a-fi. -fit-ile. 
-a ka-fifi 


-ya-fita 


-tifi 


•tifi 


Female 


•zi-ana 


-ba-kadzi 


■kcota. -kazi. 
Mw^anakazi, 


Mw-anakasi, 
Na-kapi 


•nki or -nci 
Mw-anaci 


■dnaki 








Kazi-ana 







194 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



39- 

Ka-bwari 

39 a. Ki-lega 



40. 
Guha 



41. 
Tabwa 



42. 

Bemba 

(Ki-emba) 



43- 
Lung^ 



43 a. 
Mambwe 



Fierce, sharp 
Good 

Great 



Little 

Long,high,tall 
Male 

Old 

Red 

Rotten 

Short 

Sick 

White 



-kali ? 



-kali 
-scdga 



-swa. 

-vaci 

•kule. -kulu. -kata 

-kuru. -la 

-ile -kuju 

-kcole. -sekase. -anike. -ke. 

•keke. -sese -sito 

-le (39 a) -la 



-lume 



-ba-lume, 
-lume 



-kottgwe (39 a) -ktote. 
-kvilu 



-beo-vu' 



-kasuke 

■bco-le 
-ihi 

•lugua. 
-m-isa 

-munge. 
-muiike 



-kali 
•weme. 

■suma^ 
•kata. 

-kulu 

-kalamba 
-nini. -nunco. -nini 

-ike 
■le. -tari. 

•le-pele 
-lume 



■kali-pa 
-suma. 

-wama 
-kulu. 

-kalamba 



-kotele, -kcote. 

(Ku-kcota = to 

be old) 
-kasi-. 

-kasik-ile 
-bco-lele 
-ipi 
•Iwere. 

Ku-tonga. 

(Ku-lwala) 
-a swe. 

buta 



■tala. -le-pa 
{verV) 

Mwa-iime. 
-lume, 
-ka-lume 

-kcote 



•ka^ika. 

-sata 
-bco-la 
■ipi 
•Iwala, 

■luere 



-ya wuta, 
-buta. 
-pemba 



•zipa 

-kalamba. 
-kulu 



-ipi 



-tiswe 



-kali-pa 
Ku-zipa, -zipa. 

■suma 
•kuru. 

•kalamba. 

co-m-pito 
-nuiici} 

-tari 

•onsi, M-onsi. 
-ka-lume 

-a mpiti. 
-a-kcota 

-yenzu 

•cola, Ku-cola 

-ipi 

-luala 



■tiswe 



Above,up,on 
top 
Before 

Behind 

Below, down 



Far 

Here A-nco 



In, inside ... Mu^ 

Middle 
Near 

Outside 



Plenty, many -i-ni 

There Kuku 

Where? ... I? 



He-gulu 

Ku-nimba 
Ha-nsi 

Haha" " 

M-na 

Ha-kati 
Ha-buyi 

Ha^nje 



Ku-manga. 

Pe-yulu 
Pa^kyeni pa-. 

Ku-ntanzi 
Ku-kyamba. 

Ku^musana 
Pa-nsi. 

Ku-insina 



Ku-tali 
Vapa. 

Kco-nu. 

Pa-nu. 

Pe-nka 
Mco-nu. 

-mco 
Pa-kati 
Pepi-nu. 

Pabw-ipi 
Pa-nze 



Ku^mulu, 

Pa-mulu, &'c. 
Ku^ntanpi 

Ku-nnuma, 

Pa^nnuma 
Pe^samba, 

Kw-isamba. 

Ku-npi. 

Pa-npi. P^efwe. 
Ku^tali 
Apa Apa 



Mu-. Mu. Mukati 

A-kati 
Pepi. Kw^ipi 

Ku^nse, 
Pa^nse, 
Mu-nse 



Pa^pera, 
Ku^pera 
Ku^mansco ? 

Ki-sila 

Ku-isika 



Ku-tari 
Apa. Pa-nu) 



Mu-. -mco 

Mu^kasi 
Pipi 

Ku-nsi 



-i-ni or -i-nyi -ngi. -vula -i-ngi 
Ku-lia Kcj-lya Ku-lia, 

Hi ? Kwi ? Pi ? Ku-pi .' -kwi ? 



Pa-lia 



-ingi 
Kuku 



-i-ngi 
Papo) 
Pi? 



Bw-inco = adv. well ! good.' Ku-wama = to be good. 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



195 





39- 


40. 


41. 


42. 


43- 


43 a. 


English 


Ka-bwari 
39 a. Ki-lega 


Guha 


Tabwa 


Bemba 
(Ki^emba) 


Lungu 


Mambwe 


No! 


Wayi! 


Nabena ! 
Ndagile ! 
Mm ! Ngu 


Abe ! N-dcoco. 
Fcju. Te- 

(adv). 


Lika ! lyco. 
Awe! 


Awe 


Awe! 


Not {with verb. 


•si- (after pro- 


•si^, •zi-, -di-, 


Si- ; -si^ ; Ta^ 


Te-. -fii^ (\st 




-ta-, -sya^ ; 


as prefix, in- 


nominal pre- 


(all persojis) ; 


(Tw, Ta^tu, 


pers. sing!). 




Si^ 


fix, or suffix) 


fix, Ne-si-, 


-ngco, -koj 


6-f.);-foi;-pa, 


Ta-u-, Ta-, 




-mco (neg. 




A-sa-, Tu-sa-, 




•sile. Na-ndi-. 


Ta-tu, 6-^. ; 




pronominal 




&^c.) 




Tana — e (not 
yet). Te-kuti- 


•i^. •kana, 
•leka- 




suffix) 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


. .. 


-bula 


-uma. -puma 


•uma. -puma 




-uma 


„ buy, sell 


■ula 


-gula, -ula 


•ula 


■gita 




-kara 


„ come ... 


•vwa 


•sia. -hika 


•iza. •fika 


-isa 




-iza 


„ cut ... 


-tena 


•kala, 
-gala 


... 


... 




-putula. 
•sinda 


„ dance ... 




-keena 


•kinda 


•cinda 




•kina. 
-kiondco 


„ die 


-fwa 


•kia 


•fwa 


■fwa 




-fwa 


„ eat 


-ria 


-lia 


•lya 


•lya 




■lya 


„ give ... 


•kua 
(Ku-kua). 
•elezia. •wa, 
wele 


•ha 


•pa 


•pa. 
•pera 


•pa 


•pa. 
•pera 


,> go 


•yata 


•gia. (Gi-ile = 
pret.) 


•ya. •ila 


•ya. -enda 

(walk) 




-pita 


„ kill ... 


•wa 


-niga 


•ivaya 


-ipaya 




-kcoma 


„ know ... 


•izi 


-manya 
■iji, -dzi 


•mana. 
•iziba 


-manya 




-manya 


„ laugh ... 


•seka. 
-seva (39 a) 


-seka 


•seka 


•seka 


•seka 


•seka 


„ leave off, 


* •* 


■lekela or 


•leka 


-leka 


•leka 


■leka 


cease 




-leka 










„ love, want 


•sima 


•Icogelelwa. 
-tcokela. 
-kunda 


-temwa. 
•kunda (co- 
pulate) 


-kunda, 
•temwa 




-kunda 


„ see 


•m5na 


-mona 


-mcona. (•Icola 

= to look) 


-mcona 




•l&jla. •ona 

(pret. -wene) 


„ sit, remain, 


• • > 


•ikana 


•ikala 


■ikala 




•tensi. 


abide 












-ikala 


„ sleep ... 


-lala 


•lala. 
•biji 


•lala 


-sipula. -lala 

(to lie down) 




-kasula. 
-lala 


„ stand,stop. 


... 


•jimana 


•imana 


•ima 




-imilila 


be erect 














„ steal ... 


•iba 


-giba 


•iba 


•iba 




•iha 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN KABWARI AND KLLEGA 

No preprefixes. 
Class I. Mu-, Mw^ (mu, u-) ; 2. Ba- (ba) ; 3. Mu^, Mw^ (mu-, m-, u) ; 4. Mi^ (mi-, i) ; 5. Di^, 
!• (di) ; 6. Ma^ (ma-, ga?) ; 7. Ki^, Ky-, C- (ki, ci) ; 8. Bi^ (bi) ; 9. N-, Ny, N- (n-, i) ; 10. N^, Ny, 
W- (n-, i-, zi?); II. Lu-, Leo- (lu) ; 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka^, Ke- (ka) ; 14. Bu-, Vu-, U- (bu, vu) ; 
15. Ku^ (ku) ; 16. Ha^ (ha); 17. (prepositional) Mu-. 
Traces of -ana, diminutive suffix. 



196 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES, &C., IN GUHA 

Virtually no preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (m, wi-, u-, gu-, ju-) ; 2. Ba- (ba) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N-, U-, — (mu-, gu) ; 4. Mi- (mi, 

gi-, ji) ; 5. Li-, — (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ga) ; 7. Ki- (ki) ; 8. Bi- (bi) ; 9. — , N- (M-), W-, Ny-, In- (n-, gi-, 

ji); 10. In-, N- (M-), »-, Kg- (ji or zi); 11. Lu-, Leo- (lu, Ico); 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. Bu- 

(bu) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Ha-, A- (ha-, a) ; 17 (as a prepositional prefix). Mu-. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN TABWA 
No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, Mw- (mu, u-, zu-) ; 2. Ba- (ba) ; 3. Mu-, Mw- (mu-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i) ; 5- Li- (li) ; 
6. Ma- (ma-, a) ; 7. Ki- (ki) ; 8. Bi- or Vi- (bi, vi) : 9. N- (M-), »- (n-, i) ; 10. N- (M-), W-, Ng- (zi-, i) ; 
II. Lu- (lu-); 12. Tu- (tu); 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. Bu- (bu) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa); 17- Mu- (mu). 
Si- honorific or ' male ' (or ' father ') prefix. 

Several of the prefixes — notably Ba-, Ka-, Tu-, Ki-, Bi- (Vi-), Lu- are used in addition to others 
(making two prefixes in all) to qualify words— as : Ki-mu-ti ; Vi-mu-ti. Ki- and Vi- are used as aug- 
mentatives. Lu- as the ' long ' prefix, Ka- and Tu- as diminutives. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN BEMBA 

Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu- (mu, u-, yu-) ; 2. Aba-, Awa- (ba, wa) ; 3. Umu- (mu-, u-, wu) ; 4. Imi- (mi-, i, 
yi-) ; 5. Hi-, I. (li) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, a, ya-) ; 7. Iki-, Ici- (ci) ; 8. Ifi- (fi) ; 9. In- (Im-), N-, Jfg- 
(n-, i) ; 10. In- (Im-),N-, Ng-, ^in- (n-, f() ; 11. UIu-, Du- (lu) ; 12. Utu- (tu) ; 13. Aka- (ka) ; 14. Ubu- 
(bu) ; 15. Uku- (ku) ; 16. Apa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN LUNGU AND MAMBWE 
Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu-, Mu- (mu, wi-, u-) ; 2. A- orYa- (a); 3. Umu-, Mu- (mu-, u) ; 4. Imi-, Mi- (mi-, 
i) ; 5. Di-, Li- or I- (li, 1'-) ; 6. Ama or even Yama, Ma- (ma-, ya-, a) ; 7. Ki-, Ci- (ki, ci) ; 8. Vi- 
(vi); 9. In- (Im-), N- (n-, i) ; 10. In-, Ingi-, Zin- (zi) ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 
14. U- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu). 

Si- is used as an honorific prefix, apparently from a root meaning 'father'. 



39. Kabwari is spoken on the north-west coast of Lake Taiiganyika and is called either Mwaka- 
bwari or Kibakabwari. Kilega (39 a), ait first taken to be a related dialect, is in reality a distinct language 
equally related to Nos. 143, 144, which is spoken inland of the Bwari coast-belt as far north as Lake Kivu 
and the range of Ruanda, and as far west as the allied Elila-Lcowa or Balega group (EE.). 

40. Guha is spoken on the west and north-west coast-belt of Lake Taiiganyika from Ubwari on the 
north to about 6° 30' South latitude on the south and inland to the basin of the Lualaba-Congo. 

41. Tabwa is spoken on the west and south-west lands of the Tanganyika basin, from about 6° 30' 
South latitude to Cameron Bay (south-west corner of Tanganyika) ; and inland to the vicinity of the 
Lualaba and the Rua or Luba domain. 

42. Bemba ^rKiemba is spoken in the western part of the Nyasa-Tariganyika plateau, northwards 
to the south-west corner of Tanganyika and to the north end of Lake Mweru and the Upper Lualaba, 
and southward to Lake Bafigweulu and the Cambezi river. 

43. Lungu is spoken at the south end of Lake Tanganyika between the Lcofu river on the west and 
the Kilambo) on the east. 

43 a. Mambwe is spoken in the region immediately east of the south end of Lake Tanganyika, 
south to the Upper Saisi river and the Nyasa-Taiiganyika plateau and north to Maraungu. 



GROUP L 

THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES {continued) 



44 a. Bco^wa.Usi (Bausi) 


44 b. 


Lala-Lamba 


46 


, Nya-lungwa 


'Rungwa) 


44. Bisa (Wisa) 


45. Fipa. 45 a. South Fipa 47 


. Ci-na-mwanga 




44 a. 


44v 


44 b. 


45- 


46. 


47- 


English 


Beo^wa. Usi 


Bisa (Wisa) 


Lala-Lamba 


Fipa ' and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 


Nya-lungwa 
(Rungwa) 


Ci-na-mwanga 


Adze 




M-baso) 


M-basoo 


M-patoj 




Im-pasa 


Animal, wild 




I-nama 


I-nama. 


... 


... 


... 


beast 






Ci-kcokca 








Ant 




M-pasi. 
Mu-nyengu 


Ci-wengele. 
Mu-nayu. 
M-pasi 


Kalandu 


... 


... 


Ant, white 




Mu-swa. 


Mu-swa. 


... 




... 


(termite) 




Huwensi 


Mu-wen^i 








Ape (chim- 


... 


... 


• .. 


I-sike 


... 


... 


panzi or 














gorilla) 














Arm 


... 


C0kcu-buko3 or 
Ku-wukcd ; 


Ku-wcokoj ; ma- 


I-kasa. 
Uii-kcijnco 




... 


Arrow 


... 


ma- 
Mu-fue ; mi- 


Mum-fwi 


lii-kyetco ; 
in-kyetco. 
Mu-vwi or 
Umu-vwi 




... 


Axe 


... 


I-sembe ; ma- 


I-sembe. 
Ka-temoj. 
M-baiSri" 


Im-pasa. 
M-palanga 


... 


Im-pasa 


Baboon ... 




Kulcoe 


Kulcoe 


... 


... 




Back 


... 


Mu-sana 


Mu-sana. 
I-numa 


I n-thindi. 
N-gongco 

{hump) 


M-suna. 
Kum-suna 


In-sizi 


Banana ... 


..• 


Li-konde ; ma- 


I-tcoce. 
I-kconde 


In-sambala. 

N-dizi. 
Mu-konde 


... 


... 


Beard 




Mw-efu 


Mw-emfu. 
Mw-embe 


Iki-rezu. 
Ka-lezu ; tu- 




... 


Bee 


... 


fn-simu 


Lu-simu ; n- 


In-zimu. 
N-zuki 


... 


In-zimu 


Belly 


• • > 


Ma-la. I-fumco I-fumco. N-da In-da 


In-da 


... 


Bird 


... 


N-uni or 
Nin-uni 


N-uni. C-uni. 
K-coni 


C-uni 


Ny-uni ; 
uny-uni 


I ny-uni 


Blood 


... 


Mco-lcopa 


Mu-lojpa. 
Ka-luwula 


Bw-azi 


... 


Uw.azi 


Body 


... 


Mu-wiri 


M-wili 


... 




Umu-wiri 


Bone 


... 


Li-fupa 


I-fupa 


... 


... 


... 


Borassuspalm 


... 




■ •■ 




... 


... 


Bow 


• •• 


COwu-ta; ma-ta U-ta, 


Vu-lahwa. 


.. . 


... 








Bu-ta 


U-ta (S.) 






Bowels 


* . . 


Ma-la 


Ma-la 


Ama-la 


... 


Imi-la 


Brains 


... 


Tompwe 


Tompwe; wa -t- 


... 


... 


... 


Breast (man's) 


... 


Ki-fua 


Ci-fuwa. 
N-tiwi 


Ki-fua 


... 


Ci-fuwa 


Breast 


... 


Li-were ; 


I-wele; ma- 


Ama-bele (//.) 


... 


Ma-bere 


(woman's) 




ma-were 











' (A''.) indicates northern dialects and Ki-pimbwe ; (.S.) the southern, 45 a. 
^ The w which appears in these vocabularies is an undecided b verging on w. 



198 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



44 a. 
Boozwa. Usi 



Brother 

Buffalo 

BuU ... 

Buttocks 
Canoe 
Cat ... 

Charcoal 
Chief ... 

Child ... 
Cloth ... 

Cold ... 



Country 
Cow ... 



Crocodile 
Day ... 



Devil (evU 
spirit) 

Doctor (medi- 
cine man) 
Dog 



Donkey 
Door ... 



Dream 

Drum 

Ear 

Egg 

Elephant .. 

Excrement 



44-^ 
Bisa (Wisa) 



44 b. 
Lala-Lamba 



45- 

Fipa and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 



46. 

Nya-lungwa 

(Rungwa) 



' 47- 
Ci-na-mwaiiga 



Mw-ina ; 


Mu-w'. 


Mu-nina. 


I-lumbu 


Umu-nyina 


we-ina 


(Mu-'w-anji ; 
Mu-w-cowe). 
Mum-bale 


Mu-tco. 
Mwi-eki (S.) 






M-bcoco 


Nj-ati. 
M-bcowto 


M-bcogco 




... 


Mu-cende 


Mu-cende. 
Mu-ombe 








Ma-takco 


Ma-takco 


Ma-takco. 


... 


.• . 


Bu-atco 


U-atco 


Bw-athco 




Ubw-atco 


Ty-cona 


M-paka. 
C-cona 




U-nyaco 




Mi-sangalala 


Ma-simbi 


I-kala ; ama- 




... 


M-fumco {fl. 


M-fumco. 


I-yiimbe. 




Umu-fumu or 


m-fumco) 


Mu-sumba. 
Ka-longa 


Um-wene ; 
aya-, abar 




Im-fumu 


K-ana ; tw-ana 


Mw-ana. 
Ka-ice 


Mw-ana 


Ka-keke 


U mw-ana 


In-salu 


N-salu. 
N-guwto 

(bark) 


Mw-enda; 
mi-enda. 
N-seketa. 
N-sarco 




Ivi-zwalco 


M-pep&j. 


M-pepco. 


... 


... 


... 


Mu-tontco 


Mu-tontco. 
Celele 








Ci-alu 


C-alco 


Iky-arco 




N-si. M-bali 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 
yana-kazi or 
m-p'wisi 


N-ombe 


N-ombe ; 
zifi-ombe 


Ifi-ombe 


Ifi-wena 


N-andu 


N-gwena 






Lu-siku. 


N-siku. 


Vw-anda ; pi. 




M-pindi 


(Ka-scjva = 


Ka-suwa 


am-anda. 






daylight) 




Ci-ngulco 






Ki-wanda, 


Simwe or 


Wulu. 




Ici-wa ; ivi-wa 


Ci-wanda 


Ci-simwe. 
Ci-wanda 


Muzi-zimu. 

Mu-kisi 




Eka-nama 


Mu-laye. 


Si-nanga. 


I?i-nganga ; 


... 


Si-nanga. 


Mu-nanga 


Wanga 


bafi- 




Si-ka-pemba 


Im-bwa 


Im-bwa. 


I-vwa (N.). 


Um-bwa ; 


Sim-bwa 




Mum-bulu 


Isim-bwa ; pi. 


ma-bwa 






{wild) 


yasim-bwa. 
Kasim-bwa ; 
tu- 


Umco-dcogcowe 




Mw-insi. 


Ci-si ; ii-si. 






... 


Mu-liaiigtij 


Ci-wi. 
Ci-sasa. 

Mu-liangco 








N-ccdSi. 


Ci-lcotco. 


Ki-rtotco 




• •. 


N-dcotco 


Ccosi 








N-coma 


N-coma 


N-gcoma 


... 


... 


Ku-twe ; ama- 


Ku-twi 


Ku-twi ; 


I-twe; 


Ili-ku-twi. 






ama-twi 


ama-twe 


Ily-enza 


Idi-ni ; ama-ni 


I -Sana. I-ni, 
Li-ni ; ma-ni 




... 


... 


Nyi-sojfu 


N-scofu 


N-zcovu. 
N-tirya (S.) 







Tu-fi 



Tu-fi 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



.199 



English 



44 a. 
Boizwa. Usi 



44-a 
Bisa ( Wisa) 



44 b. 
Lala-Lamba 



45- 

Fipa and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 



46. 

Nya-lungwra 

(Rungwa) 



47- 
Ci-na-mwanga 



Eye 

Face, forehead 

Fat 

Father 



Fear ... 
Finger 

Fire ... 

Fish ... 
Foot ... 

Forest 

Fowl ... 
Frog ... 

Ghost... 



Giraflfe 
Girl .. 



Goat 

., (he) .. 



God 

Grandparent 

Grass 

Ground 

Ground-nut 
Guinea-fowl 

Gun 

Hair 



Id-insco ; 


Isco, 


L-isto; il-insco 


Il-iscj; am-esu 


Il-insco ; 


am-ensco 


L-isco ; m-esto. 
M-bconi 






am-insco 


Kum-enso) 


C-insos. 
N-kojpe 


... 


... 


... 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa. 
Ci-kasa 


Ma-futa 


... 


Ma-futa 


Tata. Wisi 


Wata, Bata 


I-tata; pi. 


Tate ; wa-tate 


Tata, E-tata. 




{= my father), 


ya-tata (S.) 




E-yisi, 




Wisi. Wis-o). 






Umukwa-si, 




Tata. Si 






Mon-si 


Umw-ensco 


Umw-ensco. 
(Ku-tina, 
Ku-co-pa) 


{verb : 
Ku-oyco-ha) 


... 


Uku-tina 


Mu-nue 


Mu-nue 


Mu-nwe ; 
imi-nwe. 
Ki-ara 




Umu-nwe 


Mu-lileo 


Mu-lilco 


Mu-rirco. 
M-othco (S.) 


Um-otco 


Umu-lirco 


In-swi 


In-swi. I-sawi 


N-swi. I-sawi 




In-swi 


Lu-kasa : ma- 


Lu-kasa. 
Mu-siele 


I-gasa. 
I-kandci> 


... 


Ili-nama 


Ic-onde; 


M-panga. 


Mu-situ 




... 


ifi-onde. 


Ma-yanga 








Mu-situ 










N-kcokco 


N-k(okco. 
N-sumbi 


N-gcokco 




Ifi-keokco 


C-ula 


C-ula. 
Wombe ; 
wa4- 


... 




... 


Ikin-singwa. 


Cin-singwa. 


Mu-zimu ; mi- 


Mu-zimu 


Umu-zimu ; 


Mu-pasi. 


Ci-wanda. 






imi- 


Mu-simu 


Mu-pasi 








Kam-butu. 


Mu-sungu, 


..'.' 


Ka-keke. 


Umu-kazi-ana 


M-buli. 


N-sungu. 




Ka-kcota. 




Mw-ali 


Mw-ali. 
Mu-simbi ; 

wa-. M-oye 




Kadi-ana 




M-buzi 


M-busi 


M-buli 


Im-buzi ; 
ama-buzi 

Im-buzi 
in-gcosia. 
Im-buzi 
iil-guta 
(female) 


Im-buzi 


Lesa m-kulu 


Lesa 


Leza 


I-dzuwa 


Leza 


Kuku 


Si-kulu S. 
Na-kulu 




-.. 


Yisi-kuru 


Li-sani ; ma- 


C-ani 


... 




I-scote 


N-si, Pan-si, 


Mu-sili. 


In-si, 




N-si 


In-si 


Pan-si 


I-si 






M-balala 


N-siawa 


Bu-futha 


... 




Li-kanga ; 


Li-kanga 


I-kanga 


... 




ama- 










M-futi 


M-futi 


Mundusi 






I-sisi 


Mu-sisi. 
I-sakco 


Mu-sisi. 
Ma-yuiri (//.) 


I-nyele 


I-nyele 



200 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





44 a. 


44v 


44 b. 


45- 


46. 


47- 


English 


Bojs^wa. Usi 


Bisa (Wisa) 


Lala-Lamba 


Fipa and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 


Nya-lungwa 
(Rungwa) 


Ci-na-mwanga 


Hand ... Ki-sanza ; ifi- 


Lu-pi ; mu-pi. 
Ci-sanza 


Ku-kconco. 
Ki-ganza 


I-kasa 


I-ka.sa ; ma- 


Head ... Mu-twe 


Mu-twe 


Ki-twe 


I-twe 


Umu-twe 


Heart ... Mu-tima 


Mu-tima. 
N-tiwi 


Mw-enzco. 
(I-tima = /zV^r) 


... 


Umw-ezM 


Heel ... Iki-tende 


Ci-tende. 
Ka-sisilco 






... 


Hide ... Im-papa 


Ci-sewa 


Mu-kwa. 
Ki-ganda 


... 




Hill ... Aka-lima; utu- 


Lu-pili. 
Mu-tunta 


Aka-piri ; utu- 


... 


... 


Hippopotamus ... M-viiu, 


M-vuu 


N-tcomombco. 






M-vubu 




N-tcomondco. 

In-fu. 

N-kambwe 






Hoe ... Lu-se; ma-se 


Lu-se 


... 






Honey ... ... Uw-uci 


U-uci 


V-iinci. B-uki 




N-zimu 


Horn ... Ili-sengco; 


Lu-sengco ; 


Lu-hembe 


... 


... 


ama-. 


i-sengo). 








N-colwa 


M-bata 








House ... Wanda 


Nanda. 
Nanda; ma+ 


N-umba. 
N-ganda 


Iny-umba ? 


I -nanda 


Hunger ... ... N-sala 


N-sala 


N-zala 




... 


Husband ... ... Mu-lume 


Mu-lume 


... 




... 


Hyena ... ... Iki-mbwi 


Ci-mbwi; wa + . 


I-viti. 




M-pumpi 


{old dialect). 


Ci-mbojleo 


Ki-mbwi 






Ci-mbwi 










Iron ... C-ela 


Cela 


C-ele ; fy-ela 


Ny-ondco 


• •• 


Island ... ... Ki-sinziri. 


Ci-si. 


Ki-sera 


... 


■ *• 


Ki-rumba 


N-sumbu. 
Ci-tcobco 








Ivory ... Ny-ina 


I-nyanga 


Lu-hembe Iwa 




>•• 


n-zcovu 


n-scofu 


n-zcovu 






Knee ... Li-konkco 


I-kufi 


... 




I-kcokola 


Knife ... Mw-ere. 


Mw-ele. 


Mw-ere. 




... 


C-amto. 


Lu-we^i. 


N-kumba. 






Ci-weyo) 


Ci-mai. 
Ci-pula 


Lu-kala 






Lake ... Ci-siwa. 


Ci-siwa. 


Mu-mana. 


• •• 


£-sumbi 


Mu-mana. 


Ny-anja 


Ki-rambi. 






Iny-anja 




Ikwa. 
Ki-ziba 






Leg: ... Mu-konzM. 


K-ulu ; m-colu. 


Ukw-ulu 


• . . 


Ili-nama 


K-ulu 


Mw-endco 








Leopard ... ... Ifi-gco 


Ifi-gco; wan-gco. 
M-balale. 
N-kense 


Ka-bwima. 
lii-gwe 




... 


Lion ... N-kalamu 


N-kalamu 


N-simba. 
I-kalanga 


... 


... 


Lips ... Mi-riamto 


Mu-lcomci3 ; mi- 


Mi-rcomco 


• !■ 


... 


Magic ... N-dcoci 


U-lcosi. U-fwiti Ubu-lcozi 


,,, 




Maize ... Vi-tonga. 


Ci-tonga. 


-•• 


... 


... 


Ma-saka 


Ma-tawa 








Man ... Mu-ntu; 


Mu-ntu ; 


U-ntu; ba-ntu 


U mu-ntu ; 


Umu-ntu ; 


wa-ntu, 


wa-ntu 


(S.). U-nthu; 


awa-ntu 


awa-ntu 


ba-ntu 




ba-nthu, 
Mu-nu; va-nu 














(N.) 







GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



English 



44 a. 
Bcozwa. Usi 



44v 
Bisa (Wisa) 



44 b. 
Lala-Lamba 



45- 

Fipa and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 



46. 

Nya-lungwa 

(Rungwa) 



47- 
Ci-na-mwanga 



Man, vir. 
Meat ... 
Medicine 



Milk 



Monkey- 
Moon ... 
Mother 



Mountain ... 

Mouth 

Nail (of finger 
or toe) 

Name 

Navel 

Neck 

Night 

Nose 

Oil palm ... 

Ox 

Paddle 
Palm wine, 
beer 
Parrot 
Penis 

Pig 

Pigeon 

Place 

Rain ... ... 

Rat 

Rhinoceros 

River 

Road 

Salt 



Mu-lume 


Mu-kulu 


... ... 


■ *• 


N-ama 


In-ama 


... ... 


... 


Mu-ti. 


Mu-samu. 


Un-ti 


..! 


Mu-yanda 


Mu-ti. 
Mu-nkwala 






Mu-kaka 


Mu-kaka. 
Ma-kapa 
{■^Bxa3L=verb 


Ma-ziva 


... 


I-sanje 


N-sanje. 
I-tumbwili 




... 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-esi 


Umw-ezi Umw-edi 


Umw-ezi 


Ya-iigu or 


Nyina ; ba-. 


I-manga U-mai 


Nyina 


Na-figu. 


Bama or 






Nyina. 


Wama. Na. 






Nyoj-ko) 


Nyco-kco or 
U-nco-kio 






Ulu-pili ; ma- 


Lu-pili 


Mw-amba. 
Mu-piri 


Mw-amba 


Aka-nwa ; utu- 


Ka-nwa ; 
tu-nwa 


Aka-mwa Umu-loimco 


Umu-lcomco 


Ici-ala ; ifi. 


I-ala; m-ala 


... 


... 


Di-ala ; 








ma-ala 








I-sina 


I-sina 


Zina 


Zina 


Mu-tcoteo 


Mu-tcot<o. 
I-kombcd. 
Mu-kcowa 


Mu-scofu 


... 


Mu-nkcosi 


Mu-kcosi 


N-singu 


N-singoj 


Bu-siku. 


U-siku. 


Bu-siku. ... 


Uwu-siku. 


(Im-finsi 


(M-flnsi 


(N-finsi 


(M-finzi 


= darkness) 


= darkness) 


= darkness) 


= darknes. 


Um-ona {old). 


M-punco 


C-ulu. Im-puna 


... 


Im-punco 




M-una 




Mu-sikisi 


. . . 


... 


... 


In-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


lii-ombe 


lii-kafi 


N-kafi 


Mu-kingi 


. . . 


Ama-nyemeo 


... 


... 


Vi-m-pensy 


Cusu 








Wu-kala. 


Um-bcoloj, 


... 


... 


M-bcoloj 


Mu-b<aloj 






N-guluwe. 


N-kumba. 


N-guluwe 


Ka-pojli 


N-kumba 


N-guluwe 






Ic-iwa ; if-iwa 


N-kunda. 


Ki-huli 


... 


or iv-iwa 


C-iwa ; f-iwa 






Apa. 


Ci-fulco. 


Alaha 


.. . 


Pa-conde 


Pa- 






M-vula 


M-vula 


• ■ . t •• 




M-bewa. 


M-bewa. 


• . . •■■ 


... 


Kcoswe ; ba + 


Kcoswe 






Ici-pembele 


Ci-pembele. 
N-kcoli 


... 


... 


Aka-nika; tu-. 


Mu-mana. 


Mu-longa 


... 


Mu-mana. 


I-nika. 






Mu-ronga 


Mu-longa 






In-sila. 


N-sila. 


N-zira 


N-zira 


N-kwakwa 


Mu-seu 






Mu-keri 


Mu-cele 


Mi-kere 


I-membe 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





44 a. 


44v 


44 b. 


45. 


46. 


47- 


English 


Bco^wa. Usi 


Bisa (Wisa) 


Lala-Lamba 


Fipa and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 


Nya-lungwa ? 
(Rungwa) 


Ci-na-mwanga 


Shame ... In-suni 


N-seoni. 
N-kcope 


... 


... 


In-sconi 


Sheep ... Im-panga 


M-panga. 
M-belele 


M-fwere 


... 


In-onzi 


Shield ... ... Nvdu 


N-gawco 




• • • 


... 


Shoulder ... ... Ici-fusi. Ici-pi 


Ci-fusi. 
Ku-weya ; 
ma-weya 






Ici-weya 


Sister ... N-kasi. 


M-U-. N-kasi. 


.. , 


U-witu ? 


N-kazi 


Ini-kas'- 


Mum-bale 








Skin ... N-kanda. 


Mu-kopco. 


Ki-ganda 


... 


... 


Ci-kumba 


Ci-wewe. 
Ci-pale 








Sky ... I-kumbi 


I-ulu. 
M-ulu 


I-yulu. 
Ma-fimbi {pi.) 


I-gulu 


Yulu 


Slave ... Ka-pcol<a ; ba + . 


Mu-sya. 


Mu-2;a ; ya-za. 
Un-2;a ; ' 


Mu-zia 


... 


Um-usya ; 


Ka-lume. 






aba + 


Ka-pcolco 


aya-2ja 






Sleep ... Utu-lco 


Tu-lco. 
Sinsila 




... 


... 


Smoke ... ... Uw-iisi ; 


Usi 


Mw-onpi or 






am-cosi 




Iki-unsi 






Snake ... ... I-scoka 


N-swka 


... 


• .. 


In-zcoka 


Son, boy ... ... Mw-ana lume 


Mw-ana lume 


Mw-ana 
mu-lumendco 


Mw-ana. 
Mka-lumendu 


Umw-ana 


Song ... Ulu-imbco; 


Lu-imbco ; 


Lu-lundwa 




... 


ny-imbco 


ny-imbco 








Spear ... I-fumw 


I-fumco. 
Mu-kondco. 
Mu-sumbu 


I-sumco ; ama- 




... 


Spirit, soul ... OOmu-simu 


Mu-pasi. 
Mu-simu 


... 


Mu-zimu ; mi- 


Umu-zimu 


Star ... N-tandala 


Lu-tanda. 
Ka-tandala. 
Ka-wanga 


Lu-tanda 


I-tongwa 


N-tanda 


Stick ... Ici-ti. 


Kaci-ti. 


N-tuba. 




N-sonzco 


Mu-sakco 


Mu-kcotco 


Ka-mama 






Stone ... I-bwe 


I-we, 


Iri-bwe. 


... 


I-we; 




I-hwe 


ViiQga, 
I-finga 




ma-we 


Stool ... Ici-puna or 


Ci-puna 


N-thebe 


... 


... 


Iki-puna 










Sun ... Ka-scowa 


Ka-suwa 


Limi. 
Aka-zua 


I-dzuwa 


I-lanzi 


Tail (of an ... Mu-kila 


Mu-cila. 


... 




... 


animal) 


Ci-suka 








Tear ... Mun-scozi. 


Mu-scosi 


Lin-scozi 




Imin-seozi 


Mun-scopi 










Testicles ... ... Ma-kandi. 


I-kolwa. 


... 






Ama-cende ? 


Ma-cende 








Thief ... Pompwe;ba + 


Pompwe. 
Mu-ngco 


Mw-ifi 




Umu-nco ; 
awa-nco 


Thigh ... Ici-welco 


Ci-welco. Ci-sco 


.,, 


... 


... 


Thing ... Ici-ntu ; 


Ci-ntu ; 


Iki-nthu ; 




Ici-ntu ; 


ivi-ntu 


fi-ntu 


ifi-nthu 




ivi-ntu 


Thorn ... ... Mu-nga 


Mu-nga 


... 




Umw-unga ; imy 


Tobacco ... ... Fwaka 


Fwaka 


N-sungu 




.•• 


To-day 




Lelco 


Lelco 


I-rerco 




I-lereo 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



203 



English 



44 a. 
Bgizwa. 



Usi 



44.^ 
Bisa (Wisa) 



44 b. 
Lala-Lamba 



45- 

Fipa and 

Ki-pinibwe 

45 a. South Fipa 



46. 

Nya-lungwa 

(Rungwa) 



47- 
Ci-na-mwanga 



Toe 

To-morrow 

Tongue 
Tooth 



Town. 
Tree . 



Twins 

Urine 

Vein 

War 

Water 

Well, source 

White man 

Wife 

Wind 

Witch 

Witchcraft 
Woman ... 



Womb 
Wood (fire- 
wood) 
Yam 

Year 

Yesterday... 
Zebra 



One ... 
Two ... 
Three... 
Four ... 
Five ... 



Ici-kumco 


Ci-kumco 






.... 


Ama-irco 


Ma-ilco. 

Ma-scozi 






Mu-tondco. 
(Zco = day after\ 


I-rimi ; ama-. 


I-limi. 


Lu-limi, 


Ulu-limi 


Ulu-limi 


Ulu-limi ; 


Lu-mini. 


Ulu-limi 






n-dimi 


Mu-laka ^ 








Ir-inco; am-enco 


Into, 
Il-into ; 
m-enco 


11-inco ; m-enco. 
Ili-cekco ; 
ma-cekco 


Il-inco ; am-inco 




Mu-si, Mu-pi 


Mu-si 


Un-zi; imi-zi 


... 


K-aya; tvv-aya 


Mu-ti 


Ci-ti 


Umu-ti or 
Un-thi ; 
imi-ti. Ki-ti 




Umu-ti ; 
imi-ti 


Wam-pundco 


Ma-pasa. 
Wan-tembwa 


I-hasa ; 
ma-pasa 






Mi-SCO 


Mi-kcosco. 
Mi-ame 


Ma-tunzi 






Ulu-sipa 


Lu-pipa 






... 


Vi-ta 


... 








M-ezi, 


M-enda. 


Ma-nzi, 


Ama-ndi 


Am-inzi 


Me-nzi 


M-enzi 


Ama-nzi. 
Ami-nzi 






Ici-sima 


Mu-kalco. 
Ci-sima 




... 


... 


Mu-sungu 


Mu-sungu 


Un-zungu ; va- 
or ba-zungu 






Mu-kasi ; awa- 


Mu-kasi ; wa- 


Mu-kcota ? 


Mu-kcota 


Umu-ci 


Mw-era 


M-pepco. 
Ka-wesia. 
Ci-pupu 


M-behco 




Um-tiza. 
Mu-pera 


M-fwiti, 


N-dcosi. 


Mu-lcozi 


... 




I-fwiti 


M-fwiti 








Uwu-lcoci 


U-lcosi. 
U-fwiti 


Bu-lcozi 






Mu-kasi 


Mw-anakasi 


Mw-anace 


Mw-ana 
mu-kcota. 
Mu-kadi 


Umvv-anaci 


I-fumco 


I-pafu. I-mita 






Uwu-la 


Ifi-kuni 


N-knni 


Lu-kwi ; 
n-khwi 






Di-peta, 










Iri-peta ; ama 










Mw-aka 


C-aka. 
Ci-limika 


Mw-aka 


... 


Umvv-aka 


Ama-irco 


Ma-ilco 


I-yulu 






Im-bisi 


Cim-bwete. 
C-colwa. 
Ci-ngcoli 








-mco 


-mco 


-mwi. -onga 


-mwe 


-mwi 


-wiri, -will 


-will 


-biri, -yiri 


-wili 


-wiri 


-tatu 


■tatu 


-dathu, -tathu 


-satu 


-tatu 


•nne 


-nne 


■ne, -ni 


■nne 


-ni, -ani 


•sanco 


-sanco 


-thanco or 
-sanco 


-tanco 


-sanco 



The root of the tongue, -laka is an ancient and widespread Bantii root for ' tongue ' . 



204 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





44 a. 


44-^ 


44 b. 


45- 


46. 


47- 


English 


Bcozwa. Usi 


Bisa (Wisa) 


Lala-Lamba 


Fipa and 


Nya-lungwa 


Ci-na-mwanga 








Ki-pimbwe 


(Rungwa) 












45 a. South Fipa 






Six ... -sanco-na- 


-sanco-na- 


Mu-kaga (N.). 


M-kawaga 


Mu-tanda 


kamu. 


(ka)-mco. 


-tandathu 






M-tanda {old) 


Mu-tanda 


(S.) 






Seven ... -sanco-na- 


Ci-lcowa. 


M-pungate 


M-samvu 


Mu-nenu- 


tu-wiri. 


-sanci3-na-(tu)- 


(N.). 




la-m-bali 


M-fungati 
{old) 
Eight ... Sanca-na-ta- 


wili 


M-tanda (?) 






-sanu-na-(tu)- 


Mu-nane, 


Mu-nane 


Ka-nani- 


tatu. Ici-nani, 


tatu 


-nane 




mon-si 


Ki-nani {old) 










Nine ... Sanco-na-'nne. 


Sanco-na-'nne 


Kenda (N.). 


Kenda 


Mu-fundi- 


Mw-enda(o/(^) 




Ka-mpusyco^ 




kam-balj 


Ten ... Di-kumi or 


I-kumi 


Li-kumi, 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


Iri-kumi {old\ 




I-kumi 






Eleven ... ... Di-kumi la 


I-kumi na-'mco 


Li-kumi ni 


... 


... 


di-mco 




-mwi 






Twenty ... ... Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


a-wiri or 


a-wili 


ya-yili 


ga-wili 


ya-wiri 


ya-viri {old) 










Thirty ... ... Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


a-tatu or 


a-tatu 


ya-tatu 


ga-tatu 


ya-tatu 


ya-tatu 










Forty ... Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


a-nne 


a-nne 


ya-nne 


ga-nne 


ya-ni 


Fifty ... Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


a-sanco 


a-sanco 


ya-sanco 


ga-tanu 


ya-sanco 


Hundred ... ... Mw-anda. 


Mw-anda 


Mw-anda ; 


I-gana 


Umw-anda 


Iki-kumi {old) 




mi-anda 






Thousand... ... Ki-rcoba, 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Ki-rojwa 










I, me, my ... ... I-ne. Ne-wco. 


Ne-wo). Ne. 


Nene. N-. 


U-nene. 


Nene. 


' ^ Ni-ne. N-. 


Ni-ne. N-. 


-ni-, -n-. -a-ne 


N-, Ni-. 


N-. 


-ni-, -n-. -a-nji 


-n-. -a-nji, 
-a-ngi 




-ni". -ene ? 


-n-. -a-ne 


Thou, thee, ... We-wco. U-. 


We-wco, We. 


We, Wewe, 


We. U-. 


Wewe. 


thy -we. -ku-. 

-cowe 


U-. 


Ne-we. U-. 


-ku- ? -a-kco 


U-. 


-we. -ku-. 


•ku-. -a-kco 




-ku-. -a-kco 




•cowe 








He, him, his ... I-ye, Ye. 


I-ye, Ye. 


Ye-ne ? 


U-yu. A-. 


We-ni,We-nga. 


U-, A-. 


U-, A-. 


U-, A-. 


•mu-? -a-mwe? 


A-, W-. 


-ye. -m-, -mu- 


-ye, -mu. 


-mu-. -a-kwe 




Mu- {imper- 


-a-kwe 


-a-kwe 






sonal), -mu-. 
-a-kwe 


We, us, our ... I-fwe, Fwe. 


Fwe-wco, Fwe. 


Sweswe. 


OO-sweswe. 


? Sweswe. 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 


-fwe. -tu-. -esu 


-fwe,-tu-. -esu 


-tu-. -itu 


-tu-. -etu 


-tu-. -itu 


Ye, you, your ... Mwe-vcj. Mu- 


Mwe-wcL), Mwe. 


Mwemwe. Mu-. 


Mwe. Mu-. 


Mwemwe, 


-mwe-, -mu-. 


Mu-. 


-mu-. -inu 


-mu- ? -inu 


Mwe. 


■enu 


-mwe. -mu-. 
-enu 






Mu-. 
-wa-. -inu 


They, them, ... Bawca. 


Wawco(Babco) 


Be-ne. Ya-. 


U-wco. Wa-. 


A-wco. 


their Ba-, Wa-. 


Mbco, Mba. 


•ya-. -a-bco, 


-wa-. -a-wco 


Wa-. 


■WW. -wa-. 


Wa- 


-a-wco 




-wa-. -a-wco 


-a-wco 


•wco. -wa-. 














-a-wco 









' A form recorded by Stanley. Doubtful. 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 



205 



English 



44 a. 
Bcozwa. Usi 



44x 
Bisa (Wlsa) 



44 b. 
Lala-Lamba 



45- 

Fipa and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 



46. 

Nya-lungwa 

(Rungwa) 



47- 
Ci-na-mwanga 



All 

This, these 



That, those 



Bad 

Black 

Female 

Fierce, sharp 
Good 

Great „ 
Little .. 
Long, high, 
tall 
IVIale 

Old 



Red 
Rotten 
Short . 

Sick . 



•onse -onse 

Uwu-, uyu- ; awa ; uwu, uyu ; 
iyi ; ili or idi ; a ; ici ; ifi or 
ivi ; iyi or ii ; isi ; ulu ; utu ; 
aka ; uwu ; uku ; apa ; umu 



N-gu ; mba ; n-gu ; n-ji ; n-di ; 
fi-ga ; n-ci ; m-vi or m-fl ; n-ji ; 
n-si; n-du; n-tu; fi-ka; m-bu; 
fi-ku ; m-pa ; m-mu 

Uwco, uyu ; awu ; <S-'f. 

N-gco ; m-bco ; (sfc. 
•no3 (u-nco, ngu-nco, 6^^.) 

-dia or -lya (u-lya, ngu-lia, 
mba-dia, &=c^ 

Also : demonstratives with a 
negative sense : ' not this ', 
' not that ', &=€. ; formed by 
duplicating class concord : 
mumu, wawa, mumu, ii, cici, 
lulu, S'C. 



-onsi 

-u or -wi ; -ya ; 
u- ; yi ; Ii ; 

ya ; ki, ci ; 

fl ; i ; zi ; lu ; 

tu ; ka ; bu ; 

ku ; ha ; mu 
-neo (wi-neo, 

ya-nco, u-nu, 

yi-noo, (S-c.) 
Wiwi ; yaya ; 

uwu ; yiyi ; 

di^c. 
-lia, -lya, -rya 

(wi-lia, ya-lya, 

&^c.) 
-woo ; -yaco ; 

iSr^c. 
-nina, -neya 

(wi-nina, ya- 

neya, d^c.) 



•onsi 

A-yu-, a-wa- ; 

a-wu-, a-yi- ; 

a-li-, a-ya- ; 

a-ci-, a-vi- ; 

a-i-, a-zi-, 

a-lu-, a-tu ; 

a-ka-, a-wu- ; 

a-ku-, a-pa- ; 

a-mu- 
W-enye w-ee, 

wco-nye 

w-coco (l), 

wa wco-nye, 

wa woj-nye 

wojo) (2); 

wco-nye 

wcoco (3), 

yco-nye 

ycoco (4) ; 

lyco-nye 

lycoco (s), 

yco-nye 

ycoco (6) ; 

cco-nye 

ccoco (7), 

vyco-nye 

vycoco (8) ; 

yco-nye 

ycoco (9), 

zico-nye-ziwco 

(10) ; cS^iT. 



White 

1734 



•wi, wi-pa 


•wi, -fl-, -wi-pa 


•yi-fu. •yi-ha 


•bi 


• ■• 


•fita 


-fisi, -flta 


-fl-su 


■ <• 


• •• 


-ana-kasi 


•kasi, 

-ana-kasi 


-ce 


-koata 


■ci 


-kali 


-kali 


-kali 


..• 


... 


•wama 


-ine. -ne. 
-wame, •weme 


•ziha 


-ncoga 


•cete. -longco 
-zima 


•kulu 


•kulu 


-kulu 


• • ( 


•kuru 


•ike. -nini 


-ce. -ke. -nini 


••• 


■ •■ 


. .. 


•tali 


-tali 


•tali 


... 


... 


•lume 


-lume 


-onsi, -cosi 

(Mw^onsi) 


-lume, 
-dume 


•onsi 


-kcote. 


•nkcota. 


... 


• •> 


... 


•kalamba. 


•kulu. 








•cekulu 


-pemba 








•kasika 


•kasika. -sweta 


-kasuke 


• •• 


... 


•cola 


-cola 




... 


... 


•ipi 


•ifi, -ipi. 
-nini 


•guhi'(N.). 
•ihi (S.) 




... 


-Iwele 


•Iwele, 


-luile {verb). 




-Iwale 


(Ku-duara = 


-Iwala 


-Iwala, 






to 6e sick (old)) 




-dwala 






-a wuta, -buta 


-tuisi. -tuwa. 
-wuta, -buta 


•tiswe 


... 


... 



2o6 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



44 a. 
Bu^wa. 



Usi 



44. 
Bisa (Wisa) 



44 b. 
Lala-Lamba 



45- 

Fipa and 

Ki-pimbwe 

45 a. South Fipa 



46. 

Nya-lungwa 

(Rungwa) 



47- 
Ci na-mwanga 



Above, up, on 
top 
Before 

Behind 
Below, down 

Far 

Here 



In, inside ... 
Middle 

Near 

Outside 
Plenty, many 
There 



Where? ... 



No! 

Not {with verb, 
as prefix, in- 
fix, or suffix) ^ 



To 



beat . . . 
buy, sell 
come ... 
cut 

dance ... 
die 
eat 
give ... 

go 

kill ... 
know ... 
laugh ... 
leave off, 

cease 
love,want 

see 



sit, remain, 

abide 
sleep . . . 

stand,stop, 

be erect 
steal . . . 



Pa-mulu, 

Ku-miilu 
Pa-ntansi 

Ku-numa 
Pa-nsi, Ku-nsi 
Ku-taU 

Kunco, Mpauca. 
N-ku, M-pa, 

Mu, Mwa 

■kati 

Pepi 

Ku-nze 

■inji, -ingi 

M-paria, 

N-kuria, 

Kudia 
Ku ? Kwi ? 

Kwi-la-kwi ? 



lyco. 



Ku-mulu 

Pam-ensco. 

■ntansi 
Ku-numa 
Pa-npi, Ku-npi 
Ku-tali Ku-tali 

Kunco. 

Panco 

Mu-kati 
■kati 
Pepi 

Kw-isonde 
-inji, -indyi 
Ku-lia, 
Pa-lia 

Ku-lipi ? 

Kwi-la-kwi ? 

Ku? 
lyco. Te ! 

Tau. Kcokco 
Te. Ta-pali. 

Teti- {all per- 
sons) -ycoco. 

pi-,N-pi,Ta-u-, 

Ta-a-, Ta-tu, 

Ta-mu-, 

Ta-\va-, 6^ir. 

Ku- 

-puma. -pama. -kcoma 

-wula. -sita 

■isa 

■tema. -ceka. -sesa 

-fina, -siana. -kinda, cinda 

•fwa. -sila. -sweka 

-dia. -lia 

■pa. -pela 

■ya. -ima. -enda. -pita 

-kcome-ka. -ipaya 

•isiwa, -isi 

-seka 

-leka 

-temwa. -londa. -fwaya. 

■funa 

-wona, ■wena. lola. -laba, 

-lawa. -lafiga 

■ikala 

■lala. ■sinsila 

-ima. ■imilila 

-iba, ■iwa. ■pamba. -pcoka 



-gulu. 

I-gulu 
Ku^mbele 

Ku^nyuma 
Pa-nsi 
Ku-tali 
Panu 



Hihi (Pipi) Pimpi 



-kwi? 



Yai! 
Ta! 

Ta. Ta^pari^. 
Si^, Ta-u-, 
Ta-a-, Ta-tu, 
Ta-mu-, 
Ta-ba-. 
-i- {with im- 
perative) 

(jOku- 



Yco ! Nco ! 
Ahe! 
-ta^. ■ku-. -si 

{negative verb) 



Uku- 



Uku- 



■huma. .uma Pula 



Mu-, Mwi 
Pa-kasi 



Li-rikwi ? 



■ta^; -ti^. 
■sina. 

■%\{neg.oftob 



Uku- 



-iza 


-idza 


■yiza, ■fika 


-bina. -kina 


.'. 


-cina 


-fwa 


-fwa 


•fwa 


-lya 




■lya 


-ha 


■pela 


■pa 


-ya. -hita 


-pita 


■ya 
-kcoma 


-manya 


... 


■manya 


-seka 




-seka 


-leka 




-leka, 
■reka 


•kunda 




-kunda. 
■londa 


■wcona (-wine 


. . . 


-IcoIa. 


= preterite). 




-langa-nyia 


-Icola 






... 


■ikala 


•ikala 


-sendama. 


.. ■ 


■pcone^ca 


{■hrvs^= snore) 






-ima. 


■imilila 


•yila, 


■imika 




•yimi^rira 


■iya 




... 



GROUP L: THE TANGANYIKA-BANGWEULU LANGUAGES 207 

PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN THE EISA DIALECTS 

Preprefixes present in Bisa but nearly absent in Lala and Lamba. 

Class I. Umu-, COmu-, Mu- (mu, m-, wu-, yu-, gu, u-) ; 2. Aba-, Awa-, Wa-, Ba- (wa-, ba-) ; 
3. Umu-, (Omu-, Mu- (mu-, m-, wu, yu-, gu, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, yi, ji, i-) ; 5. Idi-, Iri-, Hi-, Li-, I- (li) ; 
6. Ama-, Ma- (ma-, a, ga) ; 7. Iki-, Ici-, Ki-, Ci- (ki, ci) ; 8. Ivi-, Ifi-, Fi- (vi, fi) ; 9. In- (Im-), W-, N- 
(M-), Ini-, Ni- (n-, yi-, -ji-) ; 10. same as 9 and with Ny- (si) ; 11. Ulu-, Lu- (lu-, -du-) ; 12. Utu-, Tu- 
(tu-) ; 13. Aka-, Ka- (ka-) ; 14. Uwu-, Bu-, U- (wu-, -bu-, u-) ; 15. OOkco-, COku-, Uku-, Ku- (ku) ; 

16. Apa-, Pa- (pa) ; 17. Umu-, Mu- (mu-). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN FIPA 

Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu-, Un-, Mu- (un-, -mu-, wi-, u-) ; 2. Ba-, Va-, Ay a-, Ya- (ba-, ya-, va-) ; 3. Un-, Umu- 
(un-, wu, U-) ; 4. Imi- (mi-, i-, yi-) ; 5. I-, Hi- (li-) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, ya-) ; 7. Iki-, C- (ki-, ci-) ; 8. Ifi- (fi) ; 

9. In-(Im-),I-(in- (im-), i); 10. In- (Im-) (zi-) ; 11. Ulu- (lu-) ; 12. Utu-(tu-); 13. Aka-(ka-); 14. Bu-, 
Vu- (bu-, VU-) ; 15. Uku- (ku-) ; 16. Ha- (ha-) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 

Ipi- or Isi- is used as an honorific prefix. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN NYA-LUNGWA 

Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu-, U- (m-, mu, u-) ; 2. Wa-, ?Awa- (wa) ; 3. Umu- (m-, mu-, ?) ; 4. Imi- (mi-, i?) 
5. Hi-, I- (li?); 6. Ama- (ma-, ga-) ; 7. ?Ci-, ?Ki- (?ki, ci,) ; 8. ? ; 9. On-, Un-, In- (Im-) (n-, i ?) 

10. Zi- (zi); II. OOlco-, Ulu-? (lu?); 12. ?; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. ?; 15. Uku- (ku) ; 16. Apa? (pa) 

17. Umu-?(mu-). -ana diminutive suffix. 

PREFIXES, &c., IN CI-NA-MWANGA 
Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu-(mu, yu, u-) ; 2. Awa- (awa-, wa) ; 3. Umu- (mu-, uwu,u) ; 4. Imi- (mi-, yi) ; 5. Hi-, 
I-(ili-,li); 6. Ama- (ma-, aya, ya) ; 7. Ici- (ici-, ci) ; 8. Ivi- (ivi-, vi) ; 9. In- (Im-), In-, Iny-, N- (m-, yi) ; 
10. same as 9 (izi-, zi) ; 11. Ulu- (ulu-, lu) ; 12. Utu- (utu-, tu) ; 13. Eka-, Aka-, Ka- (aka-, ka) ; 14. Uwu- 
(uwu-, wu); 15. Uku- (uku-, ku); 16. Apa-, Pa- (apa-, pa) ; 17. Umu-, Mu- (mu-, mwi-, -nye, -nyi). 

Si- ' father ' prefix ; E- honorific personal prefix ; -ana diminutive suffix. 



44 a. Boj^wa and Usi dialects are spoken in the region south of Lake Mweru, west of Lake Baiig- 
weulu and north of the Luapula river. Also on the islands of Lake Baiigweulu. 

44. Bisa is spoken east of Lake Bangweulu, south of the Cambezi river and the nth degree of 
South latitude, west of the Luafigwa and south of the 13th degree of South latitude. 

44b. Lala-Lamba is spoken north of the Luusefwa-Mulungufi rivers and the Butonga country; 
west of the Mucinga mountains and the Bisa country ; east and north of the Kafue watershed, south of 
Lake Bangweulu, south and west of the Luapula river, as far west as the Upper Lualaba, and north to 
about 10° 30' South latitude. 

45. Fipa is spoken on the south-eastern shores of Lake Taiiganyika south of the Luguvu river and 
Wukawendi ; as far east as the Mkafu-Rufigwa river, the depression of Rukwa Lake and the Nyamwaiiga 
people, north of the Kilambo river and the Lufigu-Mambwe peoples. 

46. Nyalungwa is spoken east of Fipa, between the Mkafu and Rungwa rivers, north of Manda and 
the Rukwa depression and south and west of the Nyamwezi (Kimbu) dialects. 

47. Cinamwanga is spoken in the middle portion of the northern part of the Nyasa-Taiiganyika 
plateau between the Nyika and Mambwe peoples, and between the sources of the Cambezi river and the 
valley of the Saisi river. 

p 2 



GROUP M 

THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 



48. Uiigu (Ici-wungu) 48a. Ki-manda ^ 

49. Ip-nyixa (Ipi-wanda, Ip-wiwa) 

50. Ici-wandia (Ici-rambia, Ici-ndali) 



51. Ikinyi-kiusa (N-konde). 51a. 'M-wamba', 

Ci-scociri or Iki-kukwe 

52. Ci-henga''- 52 a. Ci-tumbukaa;z^Ci-kamanga 

53. Ci-tonga. 53 a. Ci-siska or Ci-sisya 





48. 


49. 


50. 


51- 


52. 


53- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ipi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu ^ 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






SI a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Adze 


Ka-temco ; tu- 


AHa-themca 


Aka-themco 




Ka-temco 


Ka-temco 


Animal, wild 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama, 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


beast 








Kiny-ama-na 






Ant 


In-sungwa 


In-d6ndcomi 


Ici-ndundu 


N-gesa. 
Umu-ngulu, 
Mu-nguru ; 
a+ flwrfimi-. 
Nka-nyegesi. 
N-sewere 


Ki-ndundu ; vi- 


Ny-erere. 
Sungunungu 


Ant, white 


Ru-swa 


Ru-swa ; ama- 


Uru-swa ; ama- 


Iki-ulu. 




Mu-swa 


(termite) 








Un-swa ; 
mi-swa. 
In-swa. 
M-bulika 






Ape 


• • . 










... 


Arm 


Um-kconco ; 


I-xconu ; ama-. 


Ici-anza 


Ru-pifwa(5ia). 


Ka-wcokco ; pi. 


J-anja; 




imi- 


Umu-liconco 




Lu-kongi ; 
in-gongi. 
Lu-ete. 
Lu-mcolume. 
Iki-bcokco ; 
//. ifi- 


ma- 


m-anja 


Arrow 


Umw-ambi 


Li-ere ; am-ere 


Umu-vwi ; imi- 


Un-tipuru ; mi- 


Mu-vcoe 


Mu-vwi 


Axe 


In-demco 


Themco 


In -themco 


In-duwanga 


M-bavi 


Ka-temco ; tu- 


Baboon 


In-dumbi 


Im-bwadyi 


U-korwe; awa- 


Kaki; ba + . 
M-bwengi 


M-bwengco 


Mu-nkweri ; 
pi. wamu- 


Back 


M-gongeo or 


Ura-tenzi; imi- 


Um-ongco ; 


Lu-gongco. 


Mu-7ongco. 


M-sana 




Ufi-gofigco ; 


Umu-sana 


imi-. 


Ro-mia ? 


Muci-wunu 






imi- 




In-sizi 


N-sana 






Banana 


N-gombwe 


N-kombwe 


N-kombwe ; 
ama-. 
Iki-yindya 


Ili-tcoki ; ama-. 
N-gegco. 
Iki-jinja. 
N-difu (51a). 
N-diali (5 1 a) 


Di-kombere 


Dcoci or 
Ru-dcoci ; 
pi. ma-toci 


Beard 


N-devu ''^ - 


N-defu 


Iki-refu 


N-defu or 
Ru-refu 


Mw-embe 


Mw-embi 


Bee 


In-zuci 


Ndu-zupi, 
N-zupi 


Uru-zimu ; in- 


N-dzuki or 
In-yuki 


Ru-zimu 


N-juci 


Belly 


In-da ; 


Ru-anda ; 


A-kati. 


Ru-anda. 


N-tumbco 


N-tumbca 




nyin-da 


iny-anda 


Mu-kasi 


ni-fundiibili. 

Mun-da. 

N-domborco 

(51a) 







Ki-manda is said to be no more than a dialect ofXingn. 



^ Including Ci-pcoka. 



GROUP M: THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 



209 





j8. 


49- 


50. 


SI- 


52. 


53c 


English 


Ungu or 


Ifi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






SI a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Bird 


In-toni, Ic-uni ; 
ivi- 


Ipi-yunyi ; bi-. 
I -nuni 


Iki-yuni ; ivi- 


In-juni 


Ki-yiini 


Ci-yiini ; vi- 


Blood 


U-landa 


M-nanda 


Uwu-yazi ; 
amabu-yazi 


I-rcopa or Ili- 


N-dcopa 


N-dcopa 


Body 


Um-wiri 


Mu-wiri or 
Mu-vili 


U mu-wiri ; 
imi- 


Um-biri ; imi- 


M-tupi 


Ru-vavu 


Bone 


I-fupa 


I-fupa 


I-fupa ; ama- 


Ru-fupa; //. 
i-fupa or 
ama-fupa 


Ci-wangwa 


Ci-wanga 


Borassuspalm 


M-kooma 


I-xcoma ; ama- 


Umu-kcoma ; 
imi- 


N-kcoma ; imi- 


M-kcoma 


Mu-vumu. 
Di-kama 


Bow 


Uwu-ta 


Wu-dabf 


Uwu-ta ; ama- 


Wu-pindco ; 


Wu-ta 


Wu-ta 


Bowels 


Uwu-la 


Uwu-ra 


Ama-ra 


imi- 
Uwu-ra 


Ma-tumbco 




Brains 


Uw-ongoo 


Uw-ongco 


Uw-ongco 


B-ongoj 


W-ongco 


W-ongco 


Breast (man's) 


Iki-fua 


Ifi-fua 


Iki-fua 


Ku- or 
Ki-pambaya 


Ki-fua 


... 


Breast 


Ama-were 


I -were; ama- 


I -were ; ama- 


I -'were ; ama- 


Di-were ; ma- 


Ma-wee 


(woman's) 














Brother ... 


Mw-an-'itu. 
I-lumbu 


Umu-ninu. 
Umu-zuna. 
Wa-mw-inyu 


Umu-zuna 


U-nuguna. 
Umw-ina ; 
ab-ina. 
Um-suma ; 
awa- 


M-nuniina 


Mu-ku-wangu 


Buffalo ... 


Im-bcou 


Im-bcogu 


Im-bcogco 


Im-bcogco. 
Inj-ati 


Nj-ati 


Nj-ati 


Bull 


In-dume 


N-wpa 


N-kambaku 


N-gambaku 


. . . 




Buttocks ... 


Ama-takoj 


Ifi-duru ; ivi- 


Uru-tungu; in- 


I-tanga ; ma- 


Di-takco ; 
ma-taku 


Ci-skunku ; 
vi-skunku 


Canoe 


Uw-atoa 


Uw-atco 


Ubw-atco ; 
amaby-atto 


Bw-atco ; 
mi-at<a 


W-atu 


W-atu 


Cat 


I-nyaco 


U-nyawu ; 


Aka-nyawu ; 


Niaru ; 


M-buyaoj. 


M-buyaco 






awa-. 


utu- 


wa-nyaru. 


(K-ana-m-anga 








AHa-nyawu 




Aka-ruk'a 


? little child of 
the coast) 




Charcoal ... 




... 


... 


Ama-wawco 


... 


• • . 


Chief 


Umw-ene ; a- 


Umw-ene ; 


Itn-fumu 


Ili-fumu 


Fumu. 


Fumu. 






amw-ene 




(counsellor) ; 
Mw-ara-fi-ari; 
aw-ara-fi-ari. 
Umu-twa ^ 


M-fumu ; pi. 
ma- 


Akweni 


Child 


Umw-ana ; 
aw-ana 


Umw-ana. 
Umu-cece 


Umw-ana 


Umw-anike ; 
aw-anike. 
Un-keke. 
Umw-ana 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana 


Cloth 


Mw-enda 


Umw-enda 


Umw-enda 


Umw-enda ; 


N-guwco 


Saru 


Cold 


... 


... 


... 


imi- 

Iki-pepco. 
Ma-kute 


... 


... 


Country ... 


In-si 


In-si 


In-si 


Iki-su ; ifi- 


C-aru 


C-aru 


Cow 


In-ombe. 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 




I-senga 


n-tiganco 


n-dama 


In-dama. 
lii-gcolombe 


yana-kazi 


yi-ntikazi 


Crocodile ... 


In-dcojSlw 


N-dcoworco 


lii-wina 


lii-gwina 


Mn-wina 


Mu-ncona 



^ Xihvi-tws. = lordship. Mw-ara,-{i-ariis often pronounced Mw-a,-aa.-ii-a.Ti. 



2IO 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





48. 


49. 


50. 


51- 


52;^ 


53^ 


English 


Vngnjir 


Ipi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Day 


Uwu-siku. 


Uw-anda ; 


Ubu-anda or 


Uwu-siku. 


Wu-siku. 


M-sana 




I-siku 


am-anda. 
Mu-sanya 


Uby-anda 


(Pa-mcosi = 

daylight.) 
Ifi-gnilila 


Suka 




Devil 


Um-zimu ; a-, 


I-piwa. 


Urau-zimu 


M-basi. 


Ci-wanda. 


• «■ 




awa- 


Umu-kwalanz] 




Ru-embe 


Ki-hene 




Doctor (medi- 


... 


Umu-ganga 




I-nanga. 


Si-nanga 


Si-nanga 


cine man) 








Un-nyagco 






Dog 


Im-bwa 


Im-bwa. 
(N-thende = 

bitch) 


Im-bwa 


Im-bwa. 
(Im-bwa 
nya-mbara 
= i>. Im- 


N-cewe. 
Nyim-bwa ; 
zim- (52 a) 


Garu 






















bwakazi = 5) 






Donkey ... 


In-dtogwe. 
I-sinka 


I-dcogcowi 


Im-bunda 


Im-bunda 


Punda 


Punda. 
Bori 


Door 


Ulu-igi ; pi. 
ing-iyi or 
in-iyi 


Ip-riangco 


Umu-riangco. 
Um-tanga 


Uru-igi ; 
ny-igi 


Mu-riangco 


Kcomco ; ma -t- 


Dream 


Ki-r5tco 


Ifi-rotco 


Iki-rotca 


In-jcosi 


Ci-rcotco 


Ku-rcota 


Drum 


In-coma 


N-thaya 


lii-coma 


In-coma. 
Iki-mbimbi. 
N-dingara 


Ncoma 


Ncoma 


Ear 


I-twe or 
Iku-twe; ama- 


Iku-twi 


Iku-tu 


Im-buru. 
Ku-tu 


Ku-tu 


Ku-tu or 
Gu-tu 


Egg 


I-yi ; ama-yi 


I-dyi ; 

ama-dyi 


Iri-enza 


Ili-fumbi; ama- 


Sumbi ; ma- 


Zia ; ma -1- 


Elephant ... 


I-ZCJVU 


I-zcavu 


In-zcofu 


I-scofu, 
N-scovu 


Zcovu 


N-jcovu 


Excrement 


Ama-vi 


I-vi ; ama-vi 


I-mvi ; 
ama-mvi 


Ama-fi, 
Ama-vi 


Ma-vi 


Ma-vi 


Eye 


Iri-nsco ; ama- 


Idi-insco ; 
am-insco 


Ir-insco 


Idi-sco ; 
ama-sco. 
Ru-sige ; i-sige 


D-isco 


J-isu 


Face, forehead 


Kum-insco 


Kum-ins« 


Kum-insto 


Kuma-sco ; 
ama-sco. 
Iky-eni ; 
ify-eni 


Kuma-sco 


Ci-su 


Fat 


Ama-futa 


Im-pama 


Ama-futa 


Ama-futa 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


Father 


U-tai; awa-tai Tata. 


. . . 


Tata ; aba + . 


... 


... 






Yise 




Ugu-sco ; aba-. 

Ugw-ise. 

Un-kco 






Fear 


Uw-owa 


Uw-eoga 


Uw-w;a 


W-oga 


B-ofi, W-ofi 


W-eni-ma-nta. 
Ku-opa 


Finger 


Ul-cowe. 
In-cowe 


Ru-sanzcj 


Ur-owe 


Ur-5be, 
Ur-cowe ; 
in -we 


Mu-nue 


Mu-nue 


Fire 


Um-5tco. 
Umu-lilco 


Umu-rirco. 
Umw-otoj 


Um-otco 


M-otco 


M-otco 


M-ot<a 


Fish 


In-swi 


In-swi 


In-swi 


I-swi, In-swi. 
M-berere. 
N-gumba 


Somba 


Somba 


Foot 


Iki-nama. 


Uru-aiyoj. 


Iki-nama 


Lu-jaijco, 


C-ayco ; 


Pazi ; ma -t- 




Un-gulu 


Ny-aiyco. 
Igi-nama 




Ru-yayco 
or Ulu-jajo ; 
pi. in-yayco, 
in-jajco 


vi-ayco 





GROUP M: THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 





48. 


49- 


50. 


51- 


. 52. 


53- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ifi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Forest 


M-situ 


I -situ 


Umu-situ 


Ulu-singi 


Ma-kuni 


Mu-situ 


Fowl 


lii-guku 


Iri-guku 


lii-guku 


In-guku 


Kuku 


Ny-coli 


Frog 


... 


... 


... 


Iki-ula ; ifi-. 
Iki-ura ; 
ifi-ura 


... 


... 


Ghost 


Umu-zimu 


Umu-zimu. 
Ipi-nziunguri 


Umu-zimu. 
Iki-nsiunguri 


Un-siuka ; 
mi-siiika. 
In-siunguru 

( = shadow) 


Ci-wanda 


Ci-wanda 


Giraffe 


... 


... 


... 


. . . 


... 




Girl 








Un-sungu. 
Un-dindw-ana ; 

awa-lindu-ana 






Goat 


Im-buzi 


Ira-buzi 


Im-buzi 


Im-beni 


M-buzi 


M-buzi 


„ (he) ... 


Li-pongco 


Ili-pongco 




M-bongco 




... 


„ (she) 


Lugcota 


... 




Im-beki 




... 


God 


Mu-rungu. 
U-zuwa 


Umu-rungu, 
Umu-lungu 


Umu-rungu 


M-bamba. 
Ki-ara 


Mu:rungu 


Mu-rungu 


Grandparent 


... 


... 




Mw-isukuru $. 
Un-nyenya 5 




... 


Grass 


I-sote 


I -score, 
I -scale 


I-scote 


Ir-isco, 
Il-isu 


U-teka 


U-teka 


Ground 


I-rongco 


I-tcope 


Iri-ongco 


Um-fu 


Dongco 


Pa-si 


Ground-nut 


Im-balala 


Im-balala 


In-siawa 


I-siawara 


Ru-siawa ; 
syawa 


M-barara 


Guinea-fowl 


I-khanga 


I-xanga 


I-kanga 


lU-kanga 


N-kanga 


N-kanga 


Gun 


Bundusi 


Bundusi 


Iny-iindusi 


I-ndusco ; ma- 


Fuuti 


Futi 


Hair 


I-nyere 


In-sisi. 
Vu-sepe 


I-sisi 


In-yuwire 


Sisi 


Sisi 


Hand 


I-yaza 


Ipi-anza. 
Umu-liconco ; 
ama- 


I-kasa 


Iki-anja. 
Iki-bcokco ; ifi-. 
Li-wcokco 

(51a) 


Ci-manja 


Ci-kufi 


Head 


Umu-twe; imi- 


I-tue 


Umu-tii 


Un-tu, Mu-tu; 
mi-tu 


Mu-tu 


Mu-tu 


Heart 


Um-oyco 


[Jmw-aya 


Um-oyco 


N-dumbura, 
N-dumburu 


M-oyco 


Mu-tima 


Heel 


In-dinginya 


'?i-hankari 


Ici-tende 


Iki-tende 


Ci-gunu 


Ka-ngcolingcoli 


Hide 








N-gubco. 
Ulu-gubcogubco. 
Um-papa. 
Iki-kanda 




Cu-kumba 


HiU 




... 


... 


Ki-amba. 
Ki-fimba 




... 


Hippopotamus 


I-vuu 


[m-vuwu 


Im-vuwu 


I-fuwu. 
I-fubu. 

In-dumondco. 
N-gupi 


Ci-gwere 


Ci-gweri, 
Ci-bweri 


Hoe 






... 


Li-kumbulu 




. . . 


Honey 


Uw-uci 


Jbu-iipi 


Uw-uci 


R-uki 


W-uci 


Uci 


Horn 


Im-pembe 


Uru-pembe 


Uru-pembe 


Ru-pembe ; 
m-bembe 


Ru-sengwe 


Sengwe, 
Li-sengwe 


House 


Iny-umba 


[ny-umba. 
H'-aya ; 
tw-aya 


Iny-umba 


Iny-umba. 
Ki-waga. 
Mw-idu 

(51a) 


Ny-umba; zi + 


Ny-umba 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





^48. 


49. 


50. 


51- 


52. 


53- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ipi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Hunger 


In-zala 


In-zala 


In-zala 


N-jara. 
In-dzara 


N-jara 


N-ja 


Husband ... 


... 


... 


... 


Un-dume ; 
aba-lume 


... 


... 


Hyena 


Im-bisi 


N-zumbi 


Uci-mbui 


Iki-ndingu. 
Ili-patama ; 
ama- 


Ci-mbwe 


Pundu ; 
a-pundu 


Iron 


Ic-era. 
Ili-cuma 


Ipij-era 


Ic-era 


Iki-era 


C-uma 


N-thali. 
M-porokcotoj 


Island 


In-tipa 




Ici-ntenserezia Lu-suiigco. 


Ci-rumba 


Ci-rwa 










Ru-syengesisi 






Ivory 


Ru-pembe 


Uru-pembe 


Uru-pembe 


M-bembe 


Mu-nyanga 


Mu-nyanga 


Knee 


I-kokola 


If-izwi 


I-kcokora 


Li-fundoo 


Kongconco 


Gongcanu 


Knife 


Ru-kamanga 


Umu-fiii 


Umu-fiu 


U-magi; mi- 


Ci-maye 


Ci-mayi 


Lake 


Ikwa 


U-sumbi 


U-sumbi 


Sumbi. 
Iki-siba 


... 




Leg 


Um-nundi 


Ip-nama 


Iki-nama 


Iki-rundi ; ivi- 
or ama- 


Rundi ; ma- 


C-iga ; vi- 


Leopard ... 


N-gooi 


In-zcowe 


Un-ziera 


Ili-wole. 
Ili-bcole. 
N-jusi 


Yi-ngco 


Nya-rubwi 


Lion 


... 


... 


... 


In-galamu 


... 




Lips 


Mi-lcomco (//.) 


Umu-rcamoj ; 
ama- 


Umu-rcomo) ; 
imi- 


Un-dcomto ; 
mi-rcomto 


Mu-r<omo3 


Mi-rtomto 


Magic 


Un-dtozi 


Uwu-rcozi 


Uwu-reozi 


N-dcosi 


Wu-hawi. 

Mu-nkhwara 


Fwiti 


Maize 


Ma-saka 


I-saxa 


Iki-rombe 


Iki-rombe ; ifi- 


N-g5ma 


Cin-goma 


Man 


Um-tu ; 


Umu-ntu; 


Umu-ntu ; 


Umu-ndu ; 


Mu-ntu ; wa- 


Mu-ntu ; wa- 




awa-ntu 


awa-ntu 


awa-ntu 


or aba-, awa- 






Man (vir.)... 






Nya-mbara 


Un-dume. 
Unnya-mbala. 
N-kangali 

(51a) 






Meat 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Ny.ama 


N-yama 


Medicine ... 


... 


... 




Un-k<ata 


Mu-nkhwara 




Milk 


... 


... 


... 


Iki-senga. 
Ulu-kama 




Li-wise 


Monkey . . . 


Im-bwadzi 


In-tumbi 


I-tumbiri 


Kabukabu. 
Kaukau. 
Salila 


M-buyi 


Pusi 














Moon 


Unw-ezi 


Umw-ezi 


Umw-ezi 


Umw-ezi 


Ny-anga 


Mw-ezi 


Mother ... 


U-mai ; awa- 


U-nyina 


... 


Yuwa or^nba.. 
Un-nyco-k(o. 
Un-na 


... 




Mountain ... 


Umw-amba 


I-gamba 


Ici-piri 


Iki-amba 


Ru-piri 


Piri 


Mouth 


Un-dcomeo ; imi 


I-lcomu 


. . . 


Nka-mwa 


... 


... 


Nail (of finger 


I-ningwa 


Uru-zura 


Ur-owe ; 


Ki-ara. 


Nj-towe 


C-ara 


or toe) 






iny-cowe 


Ur-cdwe (51 a). 
Iky-ala 






Name 


Ir-ina 


Iz-ina 


Iz-ina 


Ifi-gamu 


Z-ina 


Z-ina 


Navel 


... 


... 


.. . 


Ili-tumbu 






Neck 


I-singoj 


In-singci) 


In-singcj 


I-kusi 


Mu-kusi. 
Singu 


Kcosi 


Night 


Wu-siku. 


Wu-siku, 


Wu-siku. 


Bu-siku. 


U-siku. 


U-siku 




(I-cisi = 


I-pisi 


I-kisi 


I-kUco. 


(Cisi = 






darkness) 




(Pa-kiru = 


darkness) 












darkness) 







GROUP M: THE NORTH-WEST NY ASA LANGUAGES 



213 





48. 


49- 


50. 


51- 


. 52- 


53- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ipi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kinsa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Nose 


Im-pula 






Im-bula 






Oil palm ... 






... 


. . . 


... 


M-sikisi 


Ox 


In-ombe 
in-dume 


In-ombe 


In-ombe 


In-ombe 
im-fule. 
(Aka-gombe = 

small ox) 


N-ombe 
yana-lume 


N-ombe 


Paddle ... 


... 


... 


... 


Ru-kafl ; 
in-gafi 






Palm wine. 




... 


. . . 


Ubw-alwa 




Ma-kama 


beer 








{beer) 






Parrot 












N-kulekwe 


Penis 


I-rua 


Wu-xara 


Im-borco 


Im-borco, 
Im-bolco. 
Ili-sinco ; 
ama- (51 a) 


M-borco 


U-ka. 
Tongco 


Pig 


U-kapodi 


I-g^ruwe 


In-guruwe 


In-guluwi 


Ki-henehene 


N-guriii 


Pigeon 


In-dziwa 


N-gugu 


In-tcozi 


N-gungu 
widza. 
N-g^nda 


N-jiwa 


Khunda 


Place 


W-onco 


Pawu-gtanco 


Uwu-raru 


Bu-gconco. 
Witugarco 


Pa- 


C-aru 


Rain 


I-vula. 
In-semba 


Im-vura 


Itn-vura 


I-fura 


Vura 


Vua 


Rat 


M-biringa 


U-kuza 


U-kuza 


Im-bewa 


M-bewa 


Ma-janca {pi) 


Rhinoceros 








Pembele or 
Ki-pembere 






River 


Um-bana ; imi- 


I-dzendze. 
U-sumbi 


Uru-izi. 
U-sumbi 


Uru-isi. 
Ulw-esi. 
Sumbi 

(51a) 


Mu-ronga 


Mu-sinji 


Road 


I-zira 


In-zira 


In-zira 


In-jira, 
In-dzira. 
Um-pulco, 
Um-pusco 


N-tcohwa 


N-tcowa 


Salt 


... 


Li-veya 




Um-unyu ; 
imi-unyu. 
Iki-lambco 


... 


... 


Shame 








I-sconi 






Sheep 


I-iiozi 


I-nonzi ; 
ama-gonzi 


I-nonzi 


In-osi 


Berere 


M -berere 


Shield 


... 


... 




In-guru. 
Ili-tera 


... 




Shotdder ... 


... 






Iki-beja 






Sister 


I-lumbu or 
Rumbu. 
Umw-engi ; 
awa- 


I -rumbu 


Umu-yemba 


I-rumbu; ama- 


Dumbu 


Mu-sice 


Skin 


In-cimba 


In-gora 


Iki-kcowa 


Iki-kanda. 
Ifi-gubco 


Ci-cimba 


Ru-wavu ; ma- 


Sky 


Ku-lulu 


Kumw-anya. 
I-wingco 


Kumw-anya. 
I-wingu 


Kumw-anya. 
I-wingu 


Kuc-anya 


Mi-tambu 


Slave 


Umu-dzia ; 
awa- 




... 


Im-pina, 
Um-pina 


... 


... 


Sleep 


Utu-rto 


Utu-rco 


Utu-rto 


Utu-rco 


Tu-rco 


Ku-ru. 
U-siwa 


Smoke 


Idi-cosi 


[ri-cosi 


Ic-usi 


Ili-5si 


J-cosi 


J-cosi 


Snake 


In-Z(oka 


In-JMXa 


In-zcoka 


N-jcoka 


N-jcoka 


N-jcoka 



214 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





.48- 


49- 


SO. 


51- 


52. 


53- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ipi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51 a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Son, boy ... 


Umw-ana 


Umw-ana 


U mw-ana 


Umw-ana ; 
ab-ana. 
Umw-anike ; 
aba-. 

Un-dumi-ana ; 
aba-lumi-ana 


Mw-ana. 
Mw-ana-lume. 
K-ana 


Mw-ana 


Song 


Uru-imbco 


Uru-imbca 


Uru-imbco 


Uru-imbco 


Lu-imbco 


Ru-sumco ; 
sumu 


Spear 


Lu-palala 


Im-parara 


Im-parara 


In-gwegco. 
N-gurco(5Ia). 
Iki-kcosa 


Mu-kondco 


Mu-kondco 


Spirit, soul 




M-pepco 




Um-cojco ; imi- 






Star 


N-tongwa. 
Ny-eota 


Uru-zota 


Uru-tondwa 


Uru-tondwa ; 
in-dondwa 


Ny-enyezi 


Ny-enyezi 


Stick 


N-tuwa 


N-disa 


M-kcomco 


In-giri. 
Ki-piki 


N-thonga 


N-tonga 


Stone 


I-finga 


I-we. 
I-vwiga 


I-bye or i-bwe 


Idi-bwe; ama- 


Ri-be, Di-bwe ; 
ma-we 


Mw-a ; mi-a 


Stool 


... 






Iki-kcota 




... 


Sun 


M-sanya. 
Idi-uwa 


I-ziia, 
I-zuva 


I-zua 


Idi-suwa. 
Camba (5 1 a) 


Dazi 


Dazi 


Tail (of an 


... 




... 


Un-swigara ; 


... 


... 


animal) 








imi- or wa-. 
Um-pepe 






Tear 


Um-scozi 


In-scozi 


In-scozi 


Iri-scosi ; ama- 


Di-scozi 


Mi-scozco 


Testicles ... 


I-turu 


I-turu ; ama- 


I-turu ; ama- 


Uru-tungu ; 
in-dungu 


Di-tongco ; ma- 


Ma-tongco 


Thief 


Umw-ivi 


Umw-iwa 


Um-unco 


N-heji ; ba-heji 


Mu-iikhung^ 


Mu-nkungu 


Thigh 


... 


... 


In-sangco. 
Ny-uma 


N-dapatapa 


... 


... 


Thing 


Iki-ndu 


Ifi-ntu, 


Iki-ntu 


Iki-ndu ; 


Ci-ntu; 


Ci-ntu ; 






AKa-ntu, 




ifi-ndu 


vi-ntu 


vi-ntu 






Ic-uma ; 














ivw-uma 










Thorn 


Ir-ifwa 


Idi-imviva. 
I -case 


Um-unga 


Mw-ifwa; 
im-ifwa 


Mu-nga 


Mu-nga 


Tobacco ... 


I-tumba 


I-tumba 


I-tumba 


lii-gambco 


Hcocona 


Fcoja 


To-day 


Lerco 


I -lerco. 


I -lerco 


Di-rinu. 


Lerco 


Le 






Umu-san'-unco 


Umw-isingu. 














Um-iisi-ugu 






Toe 


Um-nue 


Uru-sanzu ; 
in-sanzu 


Uru-sarara 


Ur-cowe ; 
iny-owe 


Mu-nue 




To-morrow 


M-laco 


N-davi 


M-dawi 


Ki-labco 


Ma-cerco 




Tongue 


Lu-limi 


Uru-miri 


Uru-rimi 


Uru-rimi 


Ru-rimi 


Li-limi 


Tooth 


Il-inco 


Idi-inco 


Ir-inco 


Il-inco, Ir-inco ; 
am-inco 


D-inco ; m-inco 


J-inu ; m-inyco 


Town 


K-aya ; ma -(- 


Ink-aya 


Ak-aya ; 
utw-aya 


K-aija ; 
tu-aija 


Mu-zi 


C-arco, vy-arco 


Tree 


Um-ti 


I-kwi ; 
ama-kwi 


I-kcomco 


Um-piki ; imi- 
Ifi-giri (51 a) 


Kuni 


Cimu-ti. 
Mu-ti 


Twins 


I-mbaza ; ama 


- I-pasa ; ama- 


I-pasa ; ama- 


I-pasa ; 
ma-basa. 
Wam-basa 

(51a) 


Ma-pasia 


W-ana na 
mw-oli 


Urine 


Ma-tuzi 


Aman-tunzi 


Ama-tunzi 


Ma-tusi 


Ma-tuzi 


Ma-kcozco 


Vein 






... 


Ru-kcole ; 
ii-gcole 




... 



GROUP M: THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 



215 





48. 


49- 


50. 


51- 


52. 


53- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ipi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a, Ki-manda 






51a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


War 


U-luwu or 
Bu-luwu 


Uwu-rugu 


Uwu-rugu 


Bu-ite. 
Uw-iti. Ki-su 


N-khondco 


N-khondco 


Water 


Ama-zi 


Amin-zi 


Amen-zi 


Mi-si or Me-si 
(correctly 
Ame-si). 
Ma-lenga 
(51a) 


Ma-ji 


Ma-ji 


Well, source 


... 


... 




Ik-ina ; if-ina 


... 




White man 


Um-ziungu ; 


Umu-zungu 


Umu-zungu 


Mu-zungu ; 


Mu^zungu ; 


Mu-zungu ; 




a-ziungu 






ba- or wa- 


wa- or ba- 


a- or wa- 


Wife 


Um-cima-ne 


Um-ipi 


Mu-kazi 


Un-kikuru; ba-. 
Un-kazi 


Mu-kazi 


M-tikazi 


Wind 


Im-bepco 


Im-pepco 


Im-pepto 


Um-berco; imi-. 
Im-bepco 

(51a) 


Mw-era 


M^phepco 


Witch 


Um-lcozi 


Umu-rcozi 


Umu-roozi 


N-dcosi ; 
ba-rcosi '. 
Mu-rcosi (51 a) 


Mu-hawi ; wa- 


Fwiti 


Witchcraft 


Bu-lcozi 


Uwu-lcozi 


Uwu-rtozi 


Bu-rcosi 


. . . 


... 


Woman ... 


Mw-anace. 


Mw-an'tanda 


Mw-anakazi. 


N-kazi ; ba-. 


Mw-anakazi 


M^tikazi ; 




Un-kima ; 




Umu-kazi 


Un-kikuru 




an-tikazi 




awa- 












Womb ... 


... 


... 


... 


I-papirco (51 a). 
Ubu-gcogco 




... 


Wood (fire- 


In-gwi 


Uru-kwi 


Uru-kwi 


Du-babu ; 


N-kuni 


N^khuni 


wood) 








pi. im-babu 
or im-bau 






Yam 


... 


I-tugco 


Iki-tuwcij 


Iki-tugu. 
Iki-tuwu(sia) 


Ci-awco 


Ci^yaco 


Year 


Umw-aka 


Umw-axa 


Ic-aka 


Iki-enja. 
Iki-inja 


Mw-aka 


Ci^limi-ka 


Yesterday 


Yoloj 




Ma-byira 


Ma-jcolco, 
Ma-yorco 


Ma-yirco 


... 


Zebra 


M-sami 


U-jiga 


U-corwa 


I-sendzewere 


Bori 


C^apinda 


One 


Ka-mwi, -mwi 


•coka. W-eokco 
(W-coka, 
Y-coka) 


-coka, w-eka. 
Y-coka, i w-eka 


•mco. (Ju-mco, 
Ku-mco) 


-mco 


-mcoza 


Two 


-wiri 


•wiri, -vili 


-wiri, 
•vili 


-beli. 
-wiri ? 


•wiri 


•wi 


Three 


-tatu 


•tatu 


-tatu 


■tatu 


-tatu 


•tatu 


Four 


-ni 


-nne 


-nne 


-na 


-naye 


■nai 


Five 


•sanoj 


Zi-fundisire ' 


Zi-sanco 


-banco 


-sanco, 
Tu-nkonde 


-n-khonde 


Six 


Tuli-ntanda ; 


Zi-fundisire 


Zi-sanco 


I -banco 


Sanco 


Konde 




also Ka-kaga 


na puru 
Wcokco 


na purwe 
i w-eka 


na ru-mco. 
N-tandatu 


na ka-mco 


di ci-mcoza 


Seven 


M-puiigate. 


Zi-fundisire 


Zi-sanco 


I -banco 


Sanco 


Konde 




Ka-funga 


na puru 
wa-wiri 


na purwe 
wa-wiri 


na i-wiri 


na tu-wiri 


di vi-wi 


Eight 


M-nane. 


Zi-fundisire 


Zi-sanco 


I -banco 


Sanco 


Konde 




M-nana 


na puru' 
wa-tatu 


na purwe 
wa-tatu 


na i-tatu 


na tu^tatu 


di vi-tatu 


Nine 


I-cenda. 


Zi-fundisire 


Zi-sanco 


I -banco 


Sanco 


Konde 




Kenda 


na wa-nne 


na wa-nne 


na i-na 


na tu^naye 


di vi-nai 



Un-nyagco = priest in religious mysteries. 



2l6 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


48. 
Ungu or 


49- 
Ifi-nyixa 


. 5°. 
Ici-wandia 


51- 
Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-tonga 




Ici-wungu 






(N-konde) 


52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






SI a. 
M-wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


Ten 


I-kumi 


I-kumi. 
I-pumi 


I-kumi 


Mu-rongco or 
M-longco ; pi. 
utu-longoj 


Kumi 


Cumi 


Eleven 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


I-kumi 


Mu-rongco 


Kumi 


M-kati 




na ka-mwe 


na puru 
w-coka 


na purwi 
iw-eka 


na ru-mco 


na ka-mco 


ci-mcoza 


Twenty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-cumi 




ya-wiri 


ga-wiri. 

Ama-pumi 

ga-vili 


ga-wiri 


ma-wiri; or 

Utu-longco 

tu-beli 


ga-wiri 


ya-vi 


Thirty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-knmi 


Ma-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-cumi 




ya-tatu 


ga-tatu 


ga-tatu 


ma-tatu. 

Utu-longco 

tu-tatu 


ga-tatu 


ya-tatu 


Forty 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-cumi 




ya-ni 


ga-nne 


ga-nne 


ma-na. 

Utu-longco 

tu-na 


ga-naye 


ya-nai 


Fifty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ama-kumi 


Ma-rongco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-cumi 




ya-sanco 


ga-fundisire 


ga-sanco 


ma-hanco. 

Utu-longco 

tu-hanco. 

(sixty = 

Utu-longco 

n-tandatu) 


ga-sanco 


yaii-konde 


Hundred ... 


I-gana. 




Ama-kumi 


Ma-rongco 


Ma-kumi kumi 


Ma-cumi 




Ka-gana 




geka i-kumi 


mu-rongco 




yaii-konde- 
mi-kumuku 


Thousand . . . 




... 




... 


-.. 




I, me, my ... 


Nene. 


I-ne. Nene. 


U-ne. Nene. 


U-ne. Ne. 


I-ne. 


Yi-ni. 




N-, Ni-. 


-N- 


I-ne. — , N-. 


N-, Ni-. 


N-, Ni-. 


N^. 




-n-. -a-ne 


-n- (-m-). 


-n- (-m-). 


-ni-ne. -n-. 


-ni-, -n-, -ndi-. 


■ndi^. -a^ngu 






-a-ne 


-a-ne 


-a-ngu 


-a-ne 




Thou, thee, 


Wewe. 


I-we. 


U-we. 


Ugwe. Gwe. 


I-we. 


Yi^we. 


thy 


U-, W-. 


U-, Yu-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U^. 




-ku-. -a-kco 


-ku-. -a-x', 
-a-xco, -a-fi&j 


-ku-. -a-kco 


-nu-ngwe. 
-ku-. -a-kco 


-ku-. -a-kco 


■ku^. -a-kco 


He, him, his 


Wiyu Ayu. 


Wu-yco. 


Yuyc*. 


Dyudyco, Jujco. 


Yuyu. 


Uyu. 




Y'-, A-. 


Uwene. 


A-. 


Jco. A-. 


A-, Wa-. 


Wa-. 




-mu-. -a-kwe 


A-. 

-m-, -mu-. 

-a-kwe 


-mu-. -a-ce 


-gwe. -m-, -n-, 
-n-. -a-ke, 
-a-kwe 


-m-, -mu-. 
-a-ke 


-mu-. -a-ke 


We, us, our 


I-sweswe. 


Sweswe, 


Sweswe. 


Uswe. Twe. 


I-se. 


Yi-fwe. 




Tu-. 


I-swe- 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 


Ti- 


Ti-. 




-tu-. -e-tu 


Tu-. 

-tu-. -itu 


-tu-. -itu 


-uswe. -tu-. 
-etu 


-ti-. -itu 


■ti^. -idu 


Ye, you, your 


Mwemwe or 


Mwemwe, 


Mwemwe. 


Umwe. Mwe. 


I-mwe. 


Yi-mwe. 




U-nyenye. 


I-mwe, 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 


M-, Mu-. 


Mu-. 




Mu- 


Mwe-ka. 


-inu 


-umwe. -ba-. 


■mu-. -inu 


-mu-. -inu 




? -wa-, -mu-. 


Mu-. 




•enu 








-e-nyu 


-va- -inyu 










They, them. 


Wawco. 


Wuwco. Ava. 


Wawco. 


Awa, Aba, Bco, 


Awco. I-wco. 


Yi-wco. 


their 


Wa-. 


Ba-, Wa-, Va- 


Wa-. 


Babco-, Ba-. 


Wa-, Ba-. 


Wa-. 




-wa-. -a-WM 


• wa-. -a-W63, 
-a-vco 


-wa-. -a-wco 


■bco. -ba-. 
-a-bco 


(52 a). 
-wa-, -ba-. 


■wa^. -a-wco 



GROUP M: THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 



217 





48. 


49- 


50. 


51- 


52. 


53- 


English 


Ungu or 


Ifi-nyixa 


Ici-wandia 


Ikinyi-kiusa 


Ci-henga 


Ci-toiiga 




Ici-wungu 






(N^konde) 


_ 52 a. 


53 a. Ci-siska 




48 a. Ki-manda 






51a. 
M^wamba 


Ci-tumbuka 


or Ci-sisya 


All 


-5se, -onse, 
pie 


-onti, -ont' 


■onse 


■osa 


■5se 


■ose 


This, these 




Unu, awa or 


We, awa ? ; 


Ju^ ; ba^ ; gu^ ; 


Uyu, awa, 


Uyu, awa ; 






ava ; ?, ? ; 


wu, yi ; ds^c. 


gi- ; \\- ; ga- ; 


aba ; uwu, 


wuwu ; 6r'c., 






iri,gama; &=€. 




ki- ; fi- ; ji- ; 
si- ; ru- ; tu- ; 
ka- ; bu- ; ku- ; 
pa^ ; mu^ 


iyi ; ili, aya ; 
ici, ivi ; iyi, 
izi ; ulu ; utu ; 
aka ; uwu ; 
uku; apa 


tnuch as in 

Heiiga- 

Tumbuka 


That, those 


• •• 


-ra. (U-ra, 


-ra. (Yu-ra ; 


Uju ; aba ; 


-ra or -wa 


... 






wa-ra ; 6^^:.) 


wa-ra ; S^c.) 


ugu; egi; Hi; 


(yu-wa, b-a ; 








Wu-ycij 


Wco, awoj ; 


aga ; eki ; efi ; 


wu-wa, yi-ra ; 








(Vu-yco), 


wco, iyoj ; 


eji ; esi ; ulu 


li-ra, -ya-ra ; 








wa-W(o ; 


lico, goo ; 6^c. 


or uru ; &=€. 


ci-ra, vi-ra ; 








wu-yco, yi-yco ; 




Jujco ; babw ; 


yi-ra, zi-ra ; 








di-lco (li-lco), 




&'C. 


&-c) 








ga-geo; &=€. 




■la (ju-la, ba-la 


Mw-eniyu, 








-ninco, -ni- 




(a/j(7Ju-la-ju-la, 


b-enaba ; 








(wu-ninco (6) ; 




ba-la-ba-la, 


w-eniwu. 








vi-ni-vi (8)) 




&^c.)\ gu-la, 
gi-la; 6-c.) 


y-eniyi ; 
1-enili, 
g-enaya ; 
c-enici, 
vy-enivi ; 
ye-niyi, 
z-enizi ; 
Iw-enulu ; 
t\v-enutu ; 
k-enaka ; 




Bad 


•wi. -eha 


■wiwi 


-wiwi 


■bibi. ■gasi 


-bene 


■heni 


Black 


... 


-hiru. -iru 


■tifi 


■titu 


-fipa 


-fipa 


Female 


N-kima, 
■kima 


•rindu 

(humanity). 
-an-thanda 

(animals) 


■anakazi 


-n-dindu^ana. 
-bwa^kazi. 
-gi^kuru 


-anakazi 


-ntikazi 


Fierce 


..• 


■kali 


... 


■kali, -ugi 


... 


... 


Good 


-scoga 


■inza 


■iza 


■nunu 


-eme 


-a-mampa 


Great 




-m-piti. 
-kani 


-kuru 


■kurumba. 
-ny^wamu 


■kuru. ■rara 


-kuru 


Little 




-indu; -ndco 


-nandi 


•nandi. 
■nini 


-dono. 
■ntini 


•mana^vi ; 
-mana 


Long 


-tali 


■tali 




■tali 






Male 


■lume ; 


-an'a-vuri. 


-rume-ndco. 


-n-dumi^ana. 


•anarume 


•rumi 




n-dume, 


-ilcoza 


-anarumi. 


-nya-mbara. 




(yi-nturume) 




-dumi 




-ii-kambaku 


-fi^gAmbakco 






Old 




... 


... 


■kuru, ■kulu 


• • • 


... 


Red 




... 




•fube-fu, 
kese^fu 


... 


... 


Rotten ... 




... 




■olco 


• .. 


... 


Short 




... 




■pimba 




.. ■ 


Sick 




-pungoj 


... 


•bina 




... 


White 


... 


-zeru 


•swe-pu 


■erco, ■elu 


-tuwa 


-i-tuwa 



' Also: Mw-eni-yu-ra, b-eni-ba^ra, 6^^:. 



2l8 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Ungu or 

Ici-wungu 

48 a. Ki-manda 



49- 
Ifi-nyixa 



SO. 
Ici-wandia 



51- 

Ikinyi-kiusa 

(N-konde) 

51a. 
M-wamba 



52. 

Ci-henga 

52 a. 

Ci-tumbuka 



53- 

Ci-tonga 

53 a. Ci-siska 

or Ci-sisya 



Above, up, on 
top 
Before 
Behind 
Below, down 

Far 

Here 

In, inside ... 



Middle 

Near 

Outside 
Plenty 
There 

Where.' .. 
No! 

Not {wzi/t verb 
as prefix, in- 
fix, or suffix) 



C-anya 

Ku-mbele 
Kun-yuma 
Pa-nsi 
Ku-tali 



Pale-pipi 



Nco ! 



Pamw-anya 



Mw-isinda 

Pa-nsi 

Ku-tali 

U-mu 



Kulu-vazu 


., 


■inji 
Kura. 


•enji 
Para 


Mumwco 




pi-ni-pi .' 
Ndari ! 


Awe! 


Ta-, -ta-, -ti-. 


Ta-, ti 


-ndali 





-ta- 



Pamw-anya, 

Kumw-anya 
N-kyeni 
N-yuma 
Pa-si 
Pa-tali 
Apa 
U-mu. 

Mu-nco. 

Mumu 
N-kati. 

Pa-kati 
Pa-pipi 
Pa-ndja 
-ingi 
Para. -pu. 

Uku. 
Pco-ki ? 
Mma! 
-di-, -ti-. 

-ga-, -ka-. 

-nga-, -ngi. 

na-, -na 



Pa-hanya 



Kun-yuma 
Pa-nsi 



Mukati 



Pa-kati 



Ku-nja 

■ingi 

Para. 



pcii 



N-ku? 
Cara I Aja I 
-ta. -ti- ; -ta 
-kco. Si- {as 

u, prefix to 
all persons and 
tenses in 
Tumbuka). 
•rivie (neg. 
verb) 



Ku-hanya 



Kun-yuma 
Pa-nsi 



Pa-kati 



Ku-nja 
-nandi 
Kuwa 



Ca! 
Reka. 

Kuti-. -ca. 

Si-, -livi 

{neg. verb, 
' cannot') 



To 






Uku- 


beat ... 


-pcola 


buy, sell 


... 


come . . . 


-iza 


cut 


... 


dance ... 




die 


-wu-fa 


eat 


•lia 


give ... 


-pa 


go 


-genda 


kill 




know ... 


... 


laugh ... 


... 


leave off, 


... 


cease 




love,want 


... 



see 



•kala 



sit, remain, 

abide 
sleep ... 
stand, stop, -wima 

be erect 
steal ... 



Uxu- 

-kara 
-inza 
-temera 

•kwanga 
-fwa 

-ria or -dia 
-pa 

•wuha. 
-jenda 
•gwga 
-many a 
-sexa 
•lelia 

-kwanza 



■Icola, -dora. 
-enya 



■imilila 
-iwa, -iva 



Uku- 

-wura 

-iza 

-temera 

-cina 

-fwa 

-dia 

-pa 

-wuka 

-kbima 

-menya 

-seka 



•ronda 



-ndora 



-iba 



Paku-, Uku- 
-kcoma 
-ula, -ura 
-isa 
-butira 

■fina 
-fwa 
-dia 
-pa 

-w^uka, -buka. 
-enda 

-gcoga. -kcoma 
-manya 
-seka 
•leka 

-ronda. 
-gana 

-ngeta. 

-ona 
-tugala 

•gcona 
-ema 

•iba. -heja 



Ku- 

-guura 
-iza 
-tema. 
-temera 
-Vina 
-fwa 
-lia 
•pa 
-wuka 

-kcoma 

-manya 

-seka 

-reka 

-penja. 

-temwa. 

-ronda 
-wcona 

•kara 



-iba 



Ku- 

-saska 

-za 

•dumuwa 

-tumba 
-fwa 

•rya, -rya 
•ninka 
•ruta 

•baya 
•iziwa 
•seka 
-reka 

-lembe. 
-kumba 

-una? 

•kara 

•ra (Ku^ra) 

-bba 



GROUP M: THE NORTH-WEST NYASA LANGUAGES 219 

PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN UWGU 
Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu-, Urn-, Un- (umu, um-, u-) ; 2. A-, Awa- (awa-, a) ; 3. Umu-, Urn-, Un- (umu-, 
um-, u) ; 4. Imi-, I- (imi-, yi ?) ; 5. Idi-, Iri-, I-, Li- (li) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, ya ?) ; 7. Iki-, Ic'- (ki, ci) ; 
8. ?; 9. I-, In- (Im-), a- (n-, i) ; 10. Inyi-, Nyi-, In-, Ing- (n-, i-?, zi?); 11. Ulu-, Ru- (ru, lu) ; 
12. Utu-, tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka-(ka); 14. Uwu-, Bu- (wu-) ; 15. Uku-, Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa-; 17. ?. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN ipi-NYIXA AND ICI-WANDIA 
Preprefixes present. 

Class I. Umu-, Um-, U- (umu-, -m-, -mu-, wu-, u-, vu-) ; 2. Awa-, Aba-, Ava- (awa-, aba-, ba, 
va) ; 3. Umu-, Um-, U- (umu-, um-, wu, u-) ; 4. Imi- (imi-, yi) ; 5. Iri-, Hi-, Idi-, Izi- (li-, di) ; 6. Ama- 
(ama-, m'-, ga, ge, ? gama) ; 7. Ipi-, Ici-, Iki- (gi-, ki, ci) ; 8. Ivi-, Ivw-, Bi- (vi-, vw'-) ; 9. In- (Im-), 
Ny- (n-, yi) ; 10. Zi-, In-, Ny- (zi) ; 11. Uru-, Ulu- (lu) ; 12. Utu- (tu) ; 13. Alia-, Axa-, Aka- (lia-, 
xa-,ka); 14. Uwu-, Bu-, Vu- (wu-, vu) ; 15. Uxu-, Uku- (ku-, xu) ; 16. Apa-(pa); 17. Mu- (mu). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN IKINYI-KIUSA (N-KONDE) 
Preprefixes present very markedly. 

Class I. Umu., Um-, Un- (un-, um-, umu-, -m-, -n-, ngu, gu-, ju-) ; 2. Aba-, Awa- (aba, ba) ; 
3. Umu-, Um-, Un- (un-, um-, gu) ; 4. Imi- (imi-, egi, gi) ; 5. Hi., Idi-, I- (ili-, eli-, li) ; 6. Ama- (ama-, 
ma-, aga-, ga) ; 7. Iki- (iki-, ki, -eki) ; 8. Ifi- (Ivi- ?), (ifi-, fi, -efi) ; 9. In (Im), Iny- (in- in-, iny-, i, ji, 
-eji) ; 10. I- and usually same as 9 with the addition of si as pronominal particle ; 11. Ulu-, Uru-, Udu- 
(ulu- (uru-), lu (ru)), p/. 1-, In-, and Nyi- ; 12. Utu- (utu-, tu) ; 13. Aka- (aka-, ka) ; 14. Ubu-, Uwu- 
(ubu-, ub'-, bu); 15. Uku- (uku-, ku); 16. Apa- (apa-, pa); 17. Umu-, Mu- (mu-) ; 18. Ugu- (? ugu, 
gu), pi. Aba-. 

The -ana diminutive suffix is present and a good deal used. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN HEWGA (TUMBUKA) AND TONGA' 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (m-, mu, u-, yu-) ; 2. Wa-, A-, Ba- (vva, ba) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, wu, u-); 
4. Mi- (mi-, yi) ; 5. Ji-, J-, Di- (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ^a) ; 7. Ci-, Ki- (ci) ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. — , Yi-, N- 
(M.) (n-, yi); 10. — , N- (M.), Zi- (zi, n-) ; 11. Ru-, Li- (ru, lu) ; 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka- (ka); 14. U- 
(u); 15. Ku(ku); 16. Pa (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 

' In the northern dialect o/^ Tonga (Ci-siska) and in a lesser degree in Tonga itself and in Henga 
and lumbxika occurs the remarkable phonetic combination (for Bantti) of sk in promtnciatioti. 7 his 
really descends from sy and in some districts is heard as sx or zy. 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

48. Ungu is spoken in the region immediately east of Lake Rukwa in the valley of the Songwe-Lupa 
river ; as far south and east as the Upper Sofigwe and Usafwa, as far west as Wanda andUnyixa, and as 
far north as Ukimbu. 48 a Kimanda is spoken on the north-east shore of Lake Rukwa, west of Uiigu. 

49. Ipinyixa," with its allied dialects, is spoken in the region of the Nyasa-Tafiganyika plateau 
between Lake Rukwa and the Cambezi basin ; eastwards to Wungu and Urambia and westwards to the 
Mambwe and Fipa countries. 

50. Iciwandia and its dialects are spoken in the eastern part of the Nyasa-Taiiganyika plateau 
between the sources of the Cambezi and great Luangwa river on the south and the Unyixa and Ukukwe 
countries on the north. Also in the mountain country of north-west Nyasaland between Bundali and the 
southern Songwe at the loth degree of South latitude. 

51. Ikinyikiusa and 51a Ikikukwe are spoken at the north end of Lake Nyasa from the Rukuru 
(Karofiga) river on the south-west to Langenburg and the Rumbirco river on the north-east ; and some 
distance northwards into the mountainous interior as far as Bundali, Porcotco, and Ukifiga. Their range 
includes the Ukukwe country. 

52. Cihenga and 52 a Citumbuka are spoken over a considerable portion of north-west Nyasaland 
from the loth degree of South latitude in the north to the valley of the great Rukuru and lat. 11° 30' in 
the south. Their range as Ci-hefiga in the north and east and Ci-tumbuka in the west and south extends 
from the west coast of Lake Nyasa on the east to the valley of the Luafigwa river (Sefiga country) on 
the west. 

53. Citonga and 53 a Cisiska are spoken in the coast-lands of west Nyasa from Usisya or Usiska 
(Ruarwe) Bay on the north to the small Luangwa river in the south (latitude 12° 30' South). It is 
especially the language of the Bandawe district, the ' Atofiga' country. 



54- Yaw 



GROUP N 

THE YACO-NGINDCO LANGUAGES 

55. Ci-ngindco (North Wgindco, South Ngindco) 55 a. Ci-mpcotoo 



GROUP O 

THE MOgAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



56. I-makua (Tulugu, ' Mogambigue') 

56 a. Northern Makua (Metco or Medco, M-bwabe) 



56 b. Lorn we (Western Makua) 

57. I-cuabco or Cuambco (' Quelimane') 





54. 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yaoj 


Ci-ngindco 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomw^e or 


I-cuabco or 






(North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


'Mo^ajnbique ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


{'Quelimane') 






55 a. Ci-mpcotco 




Medco 






Adze 


Ka-wagoj. 
Semu 


M-bcopto (55 a) 


I-basu 






Semco 


Animal, wild 


Ny-ama. 


Ci-lcohi ; hi-. 


En-ama 


In-ama 




N-ama 


beast 


Ci-kcokco 


Ci-kcokco(55a) 










Ant 


Salau. 


Harahu. 


E-tui ; 


E-nenele. 


Talakco. 


N-yerere 




Li-pipi. 


I-pamba, 


pi. tui. 


I-talaku 


Ny-ipini 






M-bamba 


M-pamba 


E-nenele. 
M-zcozco 








Ant, white 


N-jece, 


M-keke 


O-vera 


N-cere. 


Namara-kolco. 


U-cece. 


(termite) 


U-cece. 
M-gumbi. 
Ci-kula. 
U-likwi 






U-cepe 


U-wepi 


Ma-gugu 


Arm 


M-kconco 


Ci-wcokco ; hi- 


M-Snco ; 
mi-onco. 
Na-teke ; 
mi-teke 


M-onco ; 
pi. mi-onco 


Mu-conco ; 
mi-conco 


M-conco 


Arrow 


M-pamba 


M-pamba ; mi- 


N-tere; ma- 


M-teri 1 


N-tere ; ma- 


Mu-vi 


Axe 


Li-wagco 


Li-wag<o 


E-paz<a or 


I-pacco 


E-pasco. 


Ba3u; di-. 






Li-waco (55 a) 


I-basu. 
Ma-inpadu 




Ka-pemco 


Semco 


Baboon 


Li-jani. 
M-cimbco 


Li-yani 


Kcole or 
Kcoli 


Kcole ; a- 


Mn-yani 


Bongwe 


Back 


N-gongo, 


N-gongoj 


M-tana ; mi-. 


M-bana 


M-tana 


M-tana. 




M-gongco 


N-yima (55 a) 


M-^ogco. 
I-duli 






Duni 


Banana ... 


Li-gombca 


Li-t«ki 


Nika. 
E-nika. 

(Mi-niga = 
tree) 


I -nika 

{J)l. same) 


M-copco ; 
pi. mi-wcobco 


Ma-figwi 


Beard 


N-de5 


Ci-njuemba. 
N-defu,N-dehu 


E-rcori. 
E-reru 


E-rori 


E-reru. 
E-bwetu 


N-devu 


Bee 


N-yuci 


N-juci 


E-zui. 
E-nui ; 
i-nui 


I-nui 


E-nu 


Nui ; de -f- 


Belly 


Ci-nena. 
Ki-tumbco, 
Lu-tumboj 


Lu-tumbeo, 
Uru-tumbco 


E-rugulu 


Ma-rupco 


E-rukulu 


Ci-fii ; vi-fu. 
Ma-subco. 
E-rugulu. 
Mimba 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



54. 
Yaoi 



..55- 

Ci-ngindto 

{North and 

South) 

55 a. Ci-mptotco 



56. 
I-makua 
(Ttdugu, 

' Mogambigue ' 



56 a. 

Northern 

Makua and 

Metco or 

Medu 



56 b. 

Lomwe or 

Western 

Makua 



57- 

I-cuabcd or 

Cuambco 

i^Quelimane') 



Bird ... 

Blood... 

Body ... 
Bone ... 



Ci-juni 



Mi-azi or 
Mi-asi 

Ci-wiru. 

Ci-ilu 
Li-upa 



Ci-yuni ; 
i-yuni orhX- 

Mw-ahi, 
C-ahi, 

Mw-asi 
M-biri 



Borassus palm M-laza. 

N-gwalangwa 
Bow U-kunji 



Bowels ... N-dumboj 
Brains ... U-tutu. 

U-wongco 
Breast (man's) Pa-m-tima 



Breast 

(woman's) 
Brother 



Buffalo 
Bull ... 



Buttocks 
Canoe 



Cat ... 

Charcoal 
Chief ... 



ChUd .. 



Cloth ... 



Cold ... 
Country 



Li-wele; ma- 

A-kulu. 
M-kulugco. 
M-pwa'-. 
M-pwanga ; 
pL aci-pwanga. 
M-longco 

Nj-ati 

N-ombe ja 

ji-lume. 

M-kombaku 
Li-takco; ma- 
W-atu ; 

ina + . 

Li-gala wa. 

Li-guiigwa 
C-icome ; 

i-ycome 
Ma-kala 
Aci-mwene or 

Mci-mwene ; 

//. wa-i-mwene. 

M-tenga 

Mw-ana 



N-guoj 



Mwa-niini ; 

pi. api-. 

E-niini 
E-pcome, 

I-pcome 

E-rutu 



^a-nuni ; 

pi. a_+ . 

E-nuni 
I'pcome 



I-rutu 



Li-hupa, 
Li-fupa 
N-kojma-n-gcoma M-vumco 



Ni-kuva ; ma- Ni-kuwa; ma- 



M-bepco 
Mu-si. 
Ci-rambco 



Wu-ta. 
U-pindi 

Ama-tumtxo 
W-ongco 



Li-were ; ma-. 

Ma-wela(55a) 
N-dongco ; 

pi. ma-longco. 

M-nununa, 

Nu3una(55 a) 



Nj-ati 

Li-kambakto. 
N-gombake 

(55 a) 
Ma-tak<a 
Uw-atu 



M-buyari. 

Ki-mlamoj ; fi- 
Ci-tihi 
M-fumoj. 

A-mbuya. 

Bambco ; 

ma-wambco 

(55 a) 
Mw-ana ; wa-. 

Ak-ana ; utw-. 

Ka-keke ; tu-. 

Ki-lemba ; vi- 
N-guwo> 



Ci-pwepwe 
M-dima 
or N-dima 



Muli-ra ; mi- 



Ma-rubco 
a)-g«gco 

E-bet«. 

Mu-rima 
Ma-bele {pi.) 

Mu-lebale. 
M-rcakorci), 
M-rci3gorM ; a-. 
Mu-hima 
(-aga = tny). 
(A-muzi 
= brethren) 

En-ari. 
I-tada 

In-ope 

Ma-kutu 
Mw-adia. 
E-kalawa ; i- 



Mu-ra ; 
miu-ra. 
E-nyangara 

U-kcokco 

Vami-rima-ni. 
E-kagaja 

Ma-pele(//.) 

Mwa-miina-ka. 
A-mwuna 



In-ari 



Ma-kutu 
I-kalawa 



M-kanu. 

Kwadu 

Ma-kala 

M-bewe 



Mw-ana ; 
pi. ana-ga 
(-aga = my) 

Guoj ; e-guo). 

(I-pida 

= bark) 
00-riria 
E-labco 



E-palame 



Li-kame. 

Mu-lo3va 

Ka-dada 

Li-kuwa. 
Ni-gcokcojcokco 
M-gwarangwa 

Miiii-ra. 
00 -r a 

Ma-rupco 
Ma-rwhi 



Li-Tvele ; 

me-ele 
OO-hande ; a-, 

Muna-mun<ij 



En-ari. 
Pulubu 



Ma-rto 
Mw-atea 



Paka ; a-l-. Mo-hae 

M-inja 
Ni-kala ; ma- Ma-kala 
A-mwene. A-mwene 

M-bewe 



Mw-an-hima ; Mw-ana 
pi. aci-hima. 
Mw-an-gudu 



I-kuco 



I -pica 
I-wani 



E-kuco 

Na-kudu 
E -lap to 



Bedame ; de + 



M-lcowa. 
Maiim-lcspa 

Ma-nugu 

Ni-kuva; ma-. 
Li-kuva; ma- 



U-ra, 
Wu-ra ; 
miwu-ra 

W-ong<o 

Zonpe. 
Wam-rima-ni 
Ni-bere ; ma- 

M-bale. 
Rare 



N-ari 



Ma-raoj 
Mw-adia ; mi- 



Paka 

Li-kala; ma- 
Fumu. 
Mambcd 



Mw-ana. 
Mu-ima 



Guu 



N-ziu 



GROUPS N AND O: YAOJ-NGINDO) AND MOZAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



223 



English 



54- 
Yaw 



55- 

Ci-ngindco 

{North and 

South) 

55 a. Ci-mpcotco 



56. 
I-makua 
(Tulugu, 

'Mozambique ') 



56 a. 

Northern 

Makua and 

Metu or 

Medio 



56 b. 

Lomwe or 

Western 

Makua 



57- 

I-cuabco or 

Cuambco 

{'Quelimane') 



Cow 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


E-nope. 


Lnope 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 




ja n-kcdlco 


ya n-kcorco 


In-5pe 

yoo m-tiana 


yo m-tiana 


am-tiana 




Crocodile ... 


N-gwena 


M-wina. 


E-gconya 


Ik-unya 


Eki-conya. 


Nya-kcokco ; 




or N-g<onya 


In-wina 






Mu-kaku 


ma + 


Day 


Li-iiwa. 


Li-cuwa ; 


(O-hiu. 


Ni-huku. 


OO-hiii ; 


Siku. 




(Mu-usi = 


pi. ma-cuwa. 


00 -tana 


U-bana. 


ma-hiu. 


Mu-tana. 




daylight) 


(Mu-iihi = 
daylight) 




M-cua 


(OO-tana = 

daylight) 


(Labco = 

daylight) 


Devil, evil 


Li-seoka ; ma- 


Li-hb>ka 


Ni-pepa? 


Ni-pcoka. 


A-nepa 


M-zimu 


spirit 








M-nepa ; mi- 






Doctor (medi- 


Juam-tela 




M-naka. 


M-naka 


... 


I-nanga; di- 


cine man) 






M-gulukana 








Dog 


M-bwa 


Naka-wa ; pi. 


Mwala-bwa ; 


Mwala-pwa ; 


Mwana-pwa ; 


Mwana-bwa ; 






wakanaka-wa 


pi. Ela-bwa 


pi. aci a-pwa 


ana-pwa. 


ana-biya 






Jim-bwa; 






Samla 








im-bwa 










Donkey ... 


M-bunda 


M-bunda. 
N-jojwe 


Puru; a + 


Puru; a-f 


... 




Door 


M-langoj. 


N-diangco, 


M-kora; mi- 


M-kora. 


Am-lakco-ni, 


I-sek(o. 




Li-taiiga 


M-lyangeo 




N-jele. 
M-lakto 


(jQ-lagco 


M-lagu. 
M-suco 


Dream 


Li- or 


Ma-hcoka. 


O-lcoha 


U-lcoha ; 


(jL»-rcoha 


Ma-tulco. 




Ma-sagamilco 


Ku-lcota 




ma-luha> 




U-rcoa 


Drum 


N-gcoma 


Ma-hamboj 


E-gcoma 


I-kcoma 


E-kcoma 


N-coma 


Ear 


Li-pikanilu 


Li-kutu 


Ni-aru ; pi. 


Ny-aru ; 


Li-naru. 


Ni-oru ; 








m-aru 


m-aru 


M-aru. 
Ni-wiwi 


//. ma-yaru 


Egg 


Lin-danda. 


Li-humbi 


Ni-ycoce; 


Ny-coce ; 


L-coci ; 


N-zai ; 




Li-umbi. 




m-eoce 


m-eoce 


m-coci. 


ma-zai 




Li-jele. 








Ni-halapupco 






Li-kononda. 














Li-taji 












Elephant ... 


N-demboj 


N-dembco 


Tebbto or 
E-tebto 


Ltepco 


E-tepco. 
Na-kumali 


Dcou ; 

de- or ti + 


Excrement 


Ma-i. 
Ma-nyi. 
M-cimba 


Ma-hi 


Ma-vi 


Ma-vi 


Ma-pi 


Ma-ri 


Eye 


L-iseo ; 


L-ihu, 


N-it«; 


N-ibco ; 


L-itu ; 


N-intco ; 




m-esco 


L-ihcd ; m-ihu 


m-etca 


ra-ebo> 


m-etu 


m-etco 


Face, forehead Pau-sy<a. 


Ci-wungi 


(Ow-itoa. 


E-kove. 


W-itco-ni. 


Kcope. 




Kum-eso> 




E-yuji ; i- 


W-itco. 
I-kcowe 


E-kcove 


OOm-etco-ni 


Fat 


Ma-uta 


Ma-huta 


Ma-kura 


Ma-kura 


Ma-kura. 
E-kura. 
Ma-lesu 


Ma-kura 


Father 


A-tati. 
Wese. 

(Wese-gwe = 
his father) 


A-tati, 
Aka-tate 


Titi 


A-bibi, 
A-biribi ; 

//. same. 
(A-tata = 
ancestors) 




Baba 


Fear 


W-coga 


... 


W-cova 


U-cukula 


00 va 


Ma-ta. W-cova 


Finger 


C-ala; 


Ci-uwu ; 


Ni-kcokco. 


I-jisi. 


E-punu. 


I -bunco ; 




pi. iy-ala. 


hi-uwu. 


E -leg we ; 


Ni-kcokco. 


Mu.ne ; 


vi -bunco. 




(Ci-itongto = 


N-gonji, 


i-legwe 


E-libue, 


mi-ne 


I -bun we ; vi- 




thumb) 


Ci-angonji ; 

hi- 




(Ni-ata = 

thumb) 







Q 2 



224 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


54- 
Yaco 


SS- 
Ci-ngindco 


56. 
I-makua 


56 a. 
Northern 


56 b. 
Lomwe or 


57- 
I-cuabeo or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 

{'Quelimane') 






South) 


' Mogambiqtie ') 


Metu or 


Makua 






55 a. Ci-mpoitco 




Medco 






Fire 


M-oto3. Li-otcij 


M-otco 


M-orco 


M-orco 


M-ulu. 


M-otco ; 
mi-otco 




{warmth) 








M-orco 


Fish 


Somba 


Li-homba, 


E-hcoba 


I-hupa 


E-homba. 


Oba 


Foot 


Li-sajto, 


Hyomba(55a) 
Lu-ayco ; malu- 


Ny-aco ; 


Mw-etoj 


I-tcobi 
Ny-alu 


Nny-alco. 
Mw-edo) 




Lu-sayoj. 


N-gonji(55a). 


m-aco. 








Li-kau 


Li-konunco 


Bi-kawi 








Forest 


M-sezco. 
Li-gonde 


Mi-kongco(;)/.). 
Ma-hamba. 
Ci-heoli (55 a) 


E-tapa. 
E-takwa 


Mvv-ifeupi. 

Mu-ini 


00-sambene. 
Mu-hiru 


Mw-iru. 
Paka. 
Kcokcola 

Mwana-ku. 
E-kii; 


Fowl 


N-guku 


N-guku 


Mwala-ku ; 
ela-ku. 


Ila-kiJ 


Mwana-ku. 
E-ku 








E-kii 






pi. re-ku 


Frog 


Ci-ula ; y-ula. 
Li-ula ; 
pi. m-oila. 
Na-sonda 


Li-ngula 


Mu-rconyi ; mi- 


Ma-rapi 




Na-idiie ; a + 

Mu-zimco; 
a-zimco 


Gliost 


M-zimu or 


Ci-wanda 


M-nepa 


M-nepa 


M-nepa 




M-simu 












Giraffe 


N-ja 


N-dwika. 




I-tata 


... 


... 


Girl 


Amvv-ali, 
Mw-ali ; 
w-ali, 
aci-wali 


C-unju 
Mu-hinja. 
N a- wall ; 
wakana-wali. 
Mu-yake; wa- 




M-irao 


... 


Li-buru ; ma- 
M-buzi 


Goat 


M-buzi or 
M-busi 


M-buhi or 
M-ene 


E-buri 


E-puri 


E-puri. 
E-cehu 


„ (he) ... 
God 


Tonde 


Li-pongco 


E-lcobw-ana 




... 


Mu-lugco 


M-lungu 


M-bamba. 


M-luku 


M-luku 


M-hale. 


Grandparent 


M-buje ; 
am-buje, 
acam-buje 


M-lungu 
Bwabu. 
Kaka (55 a) 


Gbwui, 
Gwia. 
Tata 


A-muna. 
A-buya 


Mu-rimu 


Bibi. 

Na-buiya 

Ma-ani 


Grass 


Li-nyasi 


Ma.nyahi. 


Ma-lapi 


Ma-nyapi 


Ma-nasi 


Ground 


Li-taka 


Li-nyasi(j-/'«^. 
Li-taka. 
Lu-kumbi. 


) 
0-tcope ; 
ma- tope 


I-wani 


E-taya 


Taka 


Ground-nut 


N-jama. 


Li-dupi 
N-jugu. 


Ma-nduvl 


M-tepa 


E-lco. 

Ma-ndawi 
E-kaga. 

E-kcolcolco 


Ma-nduwi 


Guinea-fowl 


M-tesa,N-tesa Ma-rawi 
N-ganga Li-cundu 


E-kaga 


I-kaka. 
I-kola>lo} 


Kaga 


Gun 


U-ti, 
ma-iiti 


Huti 


Ka-buti ; i + 


Ka-pwiti 


Ka-puti. 
M-tapikeo. 
M-bila 


Futi; de + 


Hair 


Lu-umbco ; 
pi. umbco 


Li-junju, 
Li-unju. 


E-karali 


I-karari 


M-ehe, 
M-ihi 


N-titi. 
Mu-riti 


Hand 


or ma-umbu 
Li-gaza, 

Li-gasa 


N-juile 
Li-wcokco. 
Ci-ganja 


Wa-sanja ; 
e-sanja. 
N-tata 


M-ta or 
M-feaba; ma 


N-tata; ma- 


N-dada, 
N-nada, 
L-anda ; ma- 


Head 


N-twi; 
mi-twi 


K-duturu. 

Mu-twe, 
M-utu 


Mu-rco 


Mu-rru, 
Mu-ru 


Mu-ru. 
Li-kuva 


Mu-ru 


Heart 


N-tima, 


M-tima. 


M-rima 


Mu-rima or 


Mu-rima 


M-rima 




M-tima ; mi 


M-oyco. 
N-ntima 




M-rima ; mi 







GROUPS N AND O : YAtO-NGINDO) AND MOZAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



225 



Hunger 
Husband 

Hyena 



Iron . . 

Island 

Ivory . . 
Knee .. 

Knife .. 
Lake .. 
Leg .. 
Leopard 
Lion . 

Lips . 

Magic . 
Maize. 
Man ., 



Li-wasa 
Sala 
A-sconcD or 

M-sconcog<a 
Li-tunu. 

Li-tunuiSgu 

Ci-pala. 

M-lapco 

{iron ore) 
Ci-lwa ; i-lwa. 

Ki-rumba ; 

i-rumba 
Mny-anga. 

Li-penga 
Li-runga>, 

Li-lunga> 

Ci-pula. 

Ci-maje 
Ny-asa. 

Li-tanda 
Lu-kongojlo) 

Ki-suwi, 

Ci-sui 

Li-simba. 



N-jara. 



Li-pundu 



Li-vumbu. 

C-uma. 

Ny-enge 
Ci-lwa ; 

fi-lwa 

N-dembco 

Ci-yuv?a ; 
hi-yuwa 

Ci-pura 

Lu-ci 

Ci-wuru ; ma-. 

Li-gulu (55 a) 

Li-huwi or Ci- 

Li^imbg. 



E-dala 
Ku-zupa; a + 
E-yuma 
E-kisira 

Miny-aga 

Ni-kuta ; ma-. 

Ne-gcota. 

OO-gcokora 
Mw-alco 

N-rata 

Mw-etco; 
pi. m-etco 
Havara 

Karamu 



I-bala E-tala 

M.lcopw-ana Namu-rkwe 

Ku-jtipa ; a + Ku-zup^. 
E-japua 



I -yuma 



N-tinji 



M-kcokto 



OOci-lwa 



Mu-yaka 



Ny-aka nco 
tepco 
Ni-kufca ; ma- Li-kuta 



Mw-alco 

N-tia ; 
ma-tia 
Mw-edco 

Havara 



M-padi. 

Beni 

An-tia 

Mw-etu 

Keregere. 
Severe 
Mw-atw 



Lu-gci>mco ; m-. Mi-rtomw N-dere 

M-lomto ; mi-. 

Lu-jemco 
U-sawi U-hawi. O-kwiri 

Hi-hilu (55 a) 
Ci-manga ; Ci-rombe Na-kuco 

i-maiiga 
Mu-ndu; wa- Mu-ndu ; wa- M-tu; a-tu 



Karamu. 

Mu-kangu ; 
jjl. amu-kangu 
I.yanco U-lcomco 



U-kwiri 

Na-kuoi ; 
ana-kuco 
M-tu ; a-tu 



U-kiviri 

Na-hepwe 

Mu-tu ; 
a-tu 





54- 


.55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yaco 


Ci-ngindco 


Lmakua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


Lcuabco or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuamboj 






South) 


''Mozambique ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


{'Qiielimane') 






55 a. Ci-mptotco 




Medco 






Heel 


Ci-ndende 


Ci-sukururcj 


E-gcogwinco. 
E-kcotsa ; i- 


I-kcotcokcotco. 
E-kcokwinyoj 


Eny-ingala 


I-tilini. 
E-guguno) 


Hide 


Li-kombwa 


Hi-ega ? 


E-kataka 


N-dabala 


E-pabala 




Hill 


Li-tumbi, 
Ka-tumbi 


Ci-tumbi ; hi- 


Mw-ag6j 


N-rima. 
Mw-akto 


Namw-agto 


... 


Hippopotamus 


N-dtomondco 


N-dcomondoj 


Tcomondto 


I-pitu 


Na-petu. 
E-pwitu 


Tomodco 


Hoe 


Ci-leka 
Li-jela 


... 


E-hipa. 
Ni-npadu 


I-hipa 


M-peseri 


E-iba, Iba ; 
v-iba 


Honey 


Ma-sega 


W-uci 


O-ravo) 


U-raco wco 
i-nui 


Ma-kalapa. 
Lniii 


Uci and Ui 
or W-uyi 


Horn 


M-sengco. 
Li-penga, 
Li-wengwa. 
Mny-anga 


Mara or 
Li-mara. 
Li-nyelcd {55 a) 


Eny-aka 


Mny-aka. 
Ni-penga ; 
ma- 


Ny-aka 


Ny-aka 


House 


N-yumba. 


N-yumba. 


En-upa 


in -iipa 


Mpa, 


N-uba, 




Ka-jumba. 
Li-ktome. 


N-khati 






E-mba 


n-umba ; pi. 
den-umba 



Dala 



N-tika. 
Nam-gudu. 
Nyamu-ngunu 
U-tale 



Suwa 



Ny-aka 

Ni-bodco or 
Bondu ; ma- 

M-beni 



Mw-ed<o. 

Mw-entco ; mi- 
Nya-rugwe ; 

ma + 
Pudcogcoma. 

Mu-andcoe 

Mi-rcom<a 



Senga. 

Ma-le 
Nam-bedi. 

Li-vilamanga 
Mu-tu; a-tu. 

Mu-ntu ; 

a-ntu 



226 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


54- 
Yato 


. J5- 
Ci-ngindto 


56. 
I-makua 


56 a. 
Northern 


56 b. 
Lomwe or 


57- 
I-cuab<o or 






(^North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


'Mogambique ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


{'Quelimane') 






55 a. Ci-mpcoto> 




Medco 






Man, vir. ... 


Juam-lume 


Mu-lume. 


M-lcopw-ana ; a-. 


M wam-lop w-ana. 


M-leogw-eni 


Mua-mtina. 


Meat 




Ka-kombcd 


Mu-lugw-ana 


Mu-lcobw-ana 




Mu-lcopw-ana 


Ny-ama 


Ci-liwi 


En-ama 


In-ama 


En-ama 


N-ama 


Medicine ... 


Ci-lagu. 

M-tera, 
M-tela 






M-rete 




... 


Milk 


Li-kama. 
Ma-wele 


Lu-kama 


... 


Ma-pele 


... 


Makaka 


Monkey . . . 


Ki-tumbiri 


Li-tumbiri 


Kcotco ; a -(- 


M-papwe. 
Tupili 


Na-karama 


Kcolco or 
Korco 


Moon 


Mw-ezi. 
Li-tumba 


Mw-ehi 


Mw-eri 


Mw-eri 


Mw-eri 


Mw-eri 


Mother ... 


A-maca. 

Aci-kulu-gwe 


Akw-itu 


Mae 


Manyi 


Maa 


U-ma 


Mountain ... 


Li-tumbi. 
Li-cenje 


Ci-tumbi 


Mw-akco 


Mw-akco 


Mw-agu 


Mw-angco 


Mouth 


Ka-mwa 


Ka-nwa. 
M-lcomco, 
Nn-dtomca 


Mw-anco. 
Ey-anco ; 
iy-anco 


I-yanco. 
Ma-lagu 


Wayanuni 


Mu-lcomco 


Nail (of finger 


Ci-kalawesa 


Ci'Uhu 


E-kata; i- 


E-kata; 


E-karuka» 


Y-ala ; 


or toe) 








i-haba 


Ma-karu {pi.) 


vi-ala 


Name 


L-ina; 
m-ena ^ 


Li-hina 


N-zina 


>J-cina 


N-sina 


N-zina 


Navel 


Ci-sa>u 




M-jombco. 
N-teku; mi- 


M-teku 


N-tcoku 


Mu-toyto. 
Mu-tcoku 


Neck 


Lu-kusi ; ma- 


Hingu. 
Li-kcolcomelco 


Sikco or 
E-sikco. 
Milco 


I-pikco 


!.i-kcohi. 
Na-lcokeolcokto 


Ni-kcoti 


Night 


C-irco, 
Cilco. 

(Ci-pi = 
darkness) 


K-iru, 
K-ilco 


0-hiii 


U-hiii 


Ma-hiu 


Ma-tiu 


Nose 


Lu-pula 


M -bunco 


I-pula 


-pula 


I-puna 


Puneo 


Ox 


N-ombe 
ja ji-fure 


N-ombe 


2-nope 


•nope 


£n-ombe 


N-ombe 
ya kapadco 


Paddle ... 


N-gavi 


... 








N-ombco 


Palm wine, 


U-cima, 


N-dahi 


Sura 


... 


Ll-wema 


Wiema. 


beer 


U-cema. 
Ma-jenga. 
U-kana, 
(Utu-lwa = 
siveef beer) 










(W-alwa =- 
beer) 


Parrot 


Na-mame ; 
pi. aki + , 
aci + . 
N-gwalu, 
N-gwesi 


Li-hekwa 


L-kwia 


E-kuei 


Na-mame 




Penis 


Li-olto, 
Li-wcolco. 
Y-alco 


M-borco 


M-bcoIco 


... 


iVI-pcolco 


Sondco 


Pig 


Li-guluwe, 
Li-gcolule 


Li-uluwe, 
Li-guluwe 


J.guluwe 


■kuluwe 


Guluwe 


Guluwe 


Pigeon 


N-juwa. 


N-juwa, 


S-kunda. 


Nrcia 


N-bia 


Ka-ngaiwa. 




N-gunda 


N-jiwa 


N-zia 






Na-nycokco ; 
ana- 



' Maj-ina = respect. 



GROUPS N AND O: YACO-NGINDOJ AND MOZAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



227 





54- 


55- 


S6. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Ya» 


Ci-ngindco 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabco or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


^ Mozambique ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


{'Quelimane') 






55 a. Ci-mpcota> 




Medco 






Place 


Ki-rambco. 
Pa-. Ma-lco. 
Pa-ndu 


N-dima 


Ni-bareo. 
Va-tu 


Va-citu 


E-lapco. 

Ni-burco 


M-butco 


Rain 


Ula ; ma -f 


I-hura, 


E-bula. 


I-pula 


M-sonkwe. 


M-zogwe or 






Hula 


Suwa 

Ni-kule ; ma-. 




E-bula 


Mu-tpcokwe 


Rat 


Li-keoswe. 


M-cenje 


Ni-kule ; ma- 


N-silu. 


M-cilu, 




Li-buku 




E-mede 




Ma-cili (//.) 


N-jilu; ma- 


Rhinoceros 


M-bela. 
Ci-pembere 


... 


M-ccojco, 
N-jcojw 


Pela 


^e-pembere 


Pueti 

(hippo ?) 


River 


Lu-sulco. 
Lu-jenda 


M-kuka, 
Nn-kuka 


Mu-rco 


Mco-Icoku 


Mu-hici. 
OOlu-si 


Ny-anja 


Road, path 


Li-tala. 
Li-kondco 


N-dira 


E-pirco 


E-pirco or 
I-pirco 


E-tila. 
Em-pitco. 
Me-dala 


Dila 


Salt 


N-jete 


... 


Ma-ka 


Ma-ka 


Ma-ba 


Mu-inyu 


Shame 


Sconi 


Hconi 


Haya 


I-^uni 


> • • 


... 


Sheep 


N-gti»za. 
N-gondojlco 


Berere. 
Li-ntohi ; ma- 


E-butibuti 


I-kondoro>. 
Putiputi 


E-pila 


Bira 


Shield 


Ci-kcopa 


Ci-kcopa 


... 


Ici-kc»pa 


• • • 




Shoulder ... 


Li-koyco 


Li-wega 


Ni-kata ; 
ma-kata. 
E-turi 


Ni-kaba. 
W-eturi 


N-turi. 
Ni-kata 


E-turi ; vi- 


Sister 


Lumbu ; 


M-gcali. 


N-rubco. 


U-rcokora. 


VTu-rukco. 


M-lcogco. 




//. aca + 


M-numboa 


Mu-rcogora 


A-ro3gora 


A-bcosie 


Mu-nanti 


Skin 


Li-pende. 


Ki-ega 


E-kata-ka. 


U-rapala 


!^i-kada. 


Li-kugu ; ma-. 




Li-kombwa. 




Ni-kuli ; ma- 




Tebe 


Li-kwimba. 




Li-kunami 












Sky 


Kw-iunde. 
Ku-inane. 
Li-unde 


Ku-nani. 
Ma-hundi 


W-irimu 


I-rimu. 
Ni-hute 


Mi-rapco 


N-drabu 


Slave 


M-kapeoloj 


M-manda ; 
a-wanda. 
M-banda ; 
a-wanda (55 a) 


M-sare ; a- 


I-pota. 

A-kaporco. 

M-lcoku 

(M-lcokw-aka); 

pi. a-lcoku- 

(a-lcokw-aka) 




Mu-bare 


Sleep 


Lu-gconu 


Lu-geonu 


0-ruba. 
E-kcove 


I-kcove 


E-rulu 


Tu-lco 


Smoke 


Li-eosi 


Li-(ohi 


Mw-ipi 


Mw-ipi, 


Mw-isi. 


Mw-ici or 








Mto-insi 


E-tutu 


W-uji 


Snake 


Li-jcoka 


Li-coka, 
Li-jcJka 


E-noja, 
E-ncoya 


I-ncoa, ] 
■ I-ncoya 


E-ncoa 


Ncoa ; de -f- 


Son, boy ... 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana, 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana ; 


VTw-ana 


Mw-ana 




(M-songcolo, 


K-ana 


m-lcopw-ana 


//. apana 


m-lcopw-ana 


m-lcopw-ana 




M-canda = 














doy) 












Song 


Lu-imbco ; 
ny-imboj. 
Ma-lumbci> 


Lu-imbw; ny- 


S-zibco 


N-cipco; ma- 




Ny-imbco 


Spear 


Li-panga 


M-kcoha 


Ni-vaga. 


Ni-vaka Li-vaka 


Mw-alagu; mi- 








Songa 








Spirit, soul 


M-tima? 


Umi 




M-rima ? M-kuluba 




Star 


N-dondwa 


Lu-tondco. 


E-t<adwa 


I-tcotwa Teneri 


Neneri 






N-dondwa(55a) 










Stick 


N-gongc». 


M-bihi. E-ktopc». 


I-keopco. Em-wiri 


N-dcodco. 




Bokcola. 


M-sagi. 


N-tale ; mi- 


N-tondco 




Fimbcoa 




N-dindisco 


Himbati 











228 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yaeo 


Ci-ngindco 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabu or 






{North and 


(Tiilugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


' Mogambigue ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


(' Quelimane ') 






55 a. Ci-mpcotco 




Medco 






Stone 


Li-gonga. 
(Li-wala = 

rock) 


Iri-we; ma-. 
Li-w<u ; ma-u 

(55 a) 


N-lugu ; ma- 


N-luku 


Lugu. 

Ni-bucwa 


Mw-ala 


Stool 


Ci-tengu 


Ci-tihu 


E-hice 


I-hice 






Sun 


Li-uwa 


Li-uwa, 
Li-cuwa 


N-zua 


N-cuwa 


N-sua 


N-zua, 

N-tscoa 


Tail (of an 


M-cila 


... 




Mw-ila 


... 


Mu-ira 


animal) 














Tear 


M-scozi, 
Li-scosi 


M-hcoli ; mi- 


W-unla 


Mi-tiori 


M-sudi 


M-tori 


Testicles ... 


Li-tongco ; 
ma-tongeo. 
Lu-pwala 


Ma-tongco 


E-kete 


... 


E-pulu 


Puru 


Thief 


Jua-wi 


M-kungu. 
Mw-ii ; w-i 
(55 a) 


Mw-iyi ; 
eyi 


(Ow-iya 


Nim-iya 


M-bava 


Thigh 


Ci-walco. 


Lu-leta 


I-tari. 


M-baja. 


Na-tundulu 


Taku; 




Li-ciga 




Mw-ebeli ; 
//. me-beli 


Na-ttindulu 




ti-baku ; di- 


Thing 


Ci-ndu ; 
i-ndu 


Ci-ndu ; 
hi-ndu 


E-tu 


I-tu 


E-lu 


1-lcobco ; vi- 


Thorn 


Mw-iwa 


Mw-iha. 
N n-ha ; mi» 


Mw-iwa ; 
m-iwa 


Mw-iwa 


Mw-uva 


Mu-nga 


Tobacco ... 


Scona 


Li-hcona 


Scone 


Scone 


Seola. 


Fcodia 










Hcora 




To-day 


Lelco 


La-rinu, 
La-Unco 


E-lelco 


Lelco 


E-lelco 


Dabunco, 
Dabuinco 


Toe 


Ci-ala. 
(Ci-kongco = 

big toe) 




Pitco 


Ni-kcokcd ; ma- 


E-kcokco 


I-bunco 


To-morrow 


Ma-lawi 




M-elo) 


M-elco 


CO-pegelu 


Ma-ngwana 


Tongue 


Lu-rumi 


Lu-lime 


N-Umi 


N-limi 


Lumi 


M-lumi 


Tooth 


L-inco. 
(Li-jengto = 

fnolar. 
Li-songco = 

canine) 


L-inco ; 
mi-neo 


N-innto ; 
m-ennto 


Ninco 


L-inu 


L-inco 


Town 


Mu-zi. 


Mu-zi. 


E-labco, 


E-lagwco ; i-. 


Wa-wani 


M-zinda. 




M-tete 


Ci-kaya; hi- 


E-lagwco ; i- 


I-tcogco, 
E-tegco; i- 




Mu-bi ; 
mi-t>i 


Tree 


M-tera, 


M-tengco. 


Mu-ri. 


Mw-iri ; 


M-tdpikco 


Mu-ri 




M-tela 


M-bihi. 

Nn-tongco. 

Nn-kongco 


M:tali 


mi-iri 






Twins 


Ma-wira 


Ma.paha 


M-asa 


Na-vata, 
Ma-vata 


An-asa 
am-bili 


Ma-gwira 


Urine 


Ma-kwezco 
{verb, 
Ku-tunda) 


Ma-keojco 


Mi-nycozeo 


U.ruca 


U-ncosco 


Mi-rudu 


Vein 


M-tasi ; mi-. 




M-tinga ; mi- 


M-titari ; mi-. 




Mu-jiji ; 




M.sindco ; mi 


- 


N-tiga; mi- 


N-sempfa 




me-jiji 


War 


N-gondco 


N-gondco 


E-k5tco, 
Kodco 


I-kcotco 


E-kcotco 


Kcodco 


Water 


M-ezi 


Ma-ji. 


Ma-ri, 


Ma-pi, 


Ma-inji. 


Ma-inje 






Ma-ci (55 a) 


Ma-zi 


Ma-si 


Ma-hi 




Well, source 


Ci-sima. 
U-Uwa 


Ci-liwa. 
Ci-hconco 




Im-parawe. 
I-himi. I-lupi 







GROUPS N AND O: YAOJ-NGINDCi) AND MOZAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



229 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yaco 


Ci^ngindo) 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I^cuabco or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


^ Mozambique ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


{^Quelimane') 






55 a. Ci^mpcoteo 




Medco 






White man 


M-zungu 


M^sungu 


M-gunya; a- 


A-guinya 


M.zungu 


M-zugu ; 
va-zuku 


Wife 


A-sconco ; pi. 


M-bumba. 


M-ti-ana ; a-. 


M-bi-ana 


Mw-ar-aka 


Mw-adie, 




ac'a-sconco 


Ny^umbco 


M w-ar-aga 






Mw-adi 


Wind 


M-bepeo. 
M-bungo3 


M-bepco 


E-peu 


I-peto 


Li-pevco. 
E-takco 


Pevco 


Witch 


M-sawi 


M-hawi 


M-kwiri. 
(W-lcoa = 

to bewitch) 


M-kwiri 


M-kwiri 


M-kuri 


Witchcraft 


U-sawi 


U-hawi 


U-kwiri 








Woman ... 


N-kongwe ; 


Mu-hanco. 


M-ti-ana 


M-bi-ana. 


M-ti-ana 


Mu-i-ana. 




ac'a-. 


M-kigi ; pi. 




Mw-ana-ti 




Mu-iy-ena ; a- 




M-bumba ; 


aki-kigi. 












aca + 


M-bumba 

(55a) 










Womb 


... 


N-dumbco 




I-rukula 


... 


... 


Wood (fire- 


Lu-kwi ; 


Hanju 


E-kuni 


I-kuni 


E-kuni 


Mu-ri 


wood) 


n-gwi. 
Lu-sasu ; sasu 












Yam 


Li-peta. 
Li-jimbi 


Ci-paru 


Eki-razi 


Ni-peta ; ma- 


E-telu 


M-zama or 
Mu-tsama 


Year 


C-aka; y-aka 


C-aka ; y-aka 


Ey-aka 


Y-aka 


Mny-aka 


Gcole 


Yesterday 


L-isu. 
Li-jusi 


Li-gorco 


N-zana 


M-jana, 
N-jana 




N-zilco 


Zebra 


M-bunda 


M-bunda, 
M-punda 


E-tugco 


I-puta 


Mu-pisi 




One 


■mto 


-mwe, 
-mco 


Mcoza 


I-mcoka 


Mcosa, 
Mcoha 


Moda 


Two 


•wiri, 


•wiri, 


Bili or 


Pili 


Pili 


Bili, biri, 




■win 


■vili 


Peli 






•beli 


Three 


-tatu 


-tatu 


-tatu, 
-tarco 


•taru 


-taru 


•taru 


Four 


-cece, 
N-cece, 
M-cece 


N-cece. 
I-cece 


•jepe 


•Pepi, 
-cepe 


■nai 


-nai 


Five 


-sanco 


Mu-hanco 


-tanu 


-tjanu 


-tanu 


•tanu 


Six 


-sanco 


Mu-hanco 


-tan' na mcoza 


-t>anu 


-tanu 


■tanu 




naki-mco 


na ci-mcoe 




na i-mcoka 


na m-coha 


na moda 




or -sanco 














ku-pambula 














li-mto 












Seven 


•sanco ni i-wiri 
or -sanco 
ku-pambula 
ga-wili 


-hanco ni will 


-tan' na peli 


•banu na pili 


•tanu na pili 


■tanu na beli 


Eight 


■sanco ni i-tatu 
or -sanco 
ku-pambula 
i-tatu 


... 


•tan' na taru 


-banu na taru 


•tanu na taru 


•tanu na taru 


Nine 


•sanco 
ni m-cece 
or -sanco 
ku-pambula 
m-cece 




•tan' na jepe 


•banu na •pepi 


•tanu na nai 


•tanu na nai 



230 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yaco 


Ci-ngindco 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabco or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


^Mo(ambigue') 


Metco or 


Makua 


{'Quelimane ') 






55 a, Ci-mpojtoj 




Med CO 






Ten 


Li-kumi 


Kumi. 


M-ltogco, 


Kumi. 


Li-kumi. 


Kumi 






Li-cira 


Mu-lcogco 


Mu-lcogco 


M-lcokco 




Eleven 


Li-kumi 


Kumi 


Mu-lcogo) 


Mu-lcogco 


Li-kumi 


Kumi 




ni ki-mw 


na ci-mcoe 


na mcoza 


na i-mcoka 


na mcoha 


na moda 


Twenty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


M-ltogco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kum-m-edi 




ga-wiri {also 


ga-wiri. 


mi-ili 


m-eli 


me-eli 






in Old Yauj, 


? Ma-cira 












Di-jira ; 


ga-wiri 












pi. raa-jira — 














teste Bleek) 












Thirty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-lcogco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




ga-tatu 


ga-tatu 


mi-raru 


ma-raru 


ma-raru 


ma-rareo 


Forty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-lcogco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




n-cece 


-ncece 


mi-jepe 


ma-cepe 


ma-nnai 


ma-nai 


Fifty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Mi-lcogco 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




ga-sanco or 


m-hanco 


mi-tanu 


ma-banu 


ma-tanu 


ma-tanu 




m-sano3 (sixty 






{sixty = 








= Ma-kumi 






Ma-kumi 








m-sanco 






ma-fcanco 








ni li-mto) 






na ni-mcoka) 






Hundred ... 


Li-gana 


Li-cira ' 
(li-mwe) ; 

pi. ma-cira. 
I-gana 


M-lcogco 
zene m-lcogco 




Ma-kumi 
m-lcokco ? 


Zana 


Thousand ... 


Mw-anda^ 






... 


... 


Ci-kwi 


I, me, my ... 


Ne-ju, U-ne, 


Ne-figa. 


Mico. 


Mi. Mi-nyano. 


Mi-a, Mi-anco. 


Mi-(u. 




N., Ni.. 


Ni-, N-. 


Ki-. 


Ki-. 


Gi-. 


N-, Ndi., Di- 




•n-. -a-ngu 


■n-, -ni-. -a-ngu 


-ki- or -gi-. 
-a-ga 


-ki-. -a-ka 


-gi-. -ka 


•di^. -a-ga 


Thou, thee, 


U-gwe,Gwe-ju 


. We-iiga. 


We. 


U-we. We-yu. 


Lwe, I-we^anto. 


We-yco. 


thy 


U-. 


U-. 


oa-, U-. 


U-. 


O)., U-. 


U-. 




-ku-. -a-k« 


•ku-. -a-kco 


•hu-, -wu-. 


-U-. -a-co 


-U-. -a-o 


-U-. -a-o 


He, him, his 


A-jco, A-jcojeo. 


Nconco ? Ycij ? 


-a-co 
(JOle. 


Ycoyco. 


E-yco. 


• 
lye-ne. 




A-, Ju-. 


Yombe. 


IX); U-. 


A-. 


U-. 


U-, Ba^. 




-m-, -mw-. 


A-. 


-m-. -a-we 


•m^. -a^we 


•mu-, -m-. -we 


•u^. -a-i 




-a-kwe 


•m-, -mu-. -a-ke 










We, us, our 


Uwe, Uwe-ju. 


Twe-figa. 


Hi-to, Hi-nyo), 


Hi-yano). 


Hi-yancD. 


I-yco. 




Tu-. 


Ti-. 


Hi-yancD. 


Hi-yco. 


Ni^. 


Ni-. 




•tu-. -e-tu 


•ti- -i-tu 


Ni-. 

•ni-(?-gi-, 
•ki-). -e-hu 


N-, Ni-. 
-ni-. -i-hu 


•ni-. -i-hu 


•ni^. -e^ti 


Ye, you, your 


Umwe, 


Mwe-iiga. 


Nyu, Nyu-co, 


Nyenyu. 


Nyu-anm. 


Nyu-co. 




Umwe-ju. 


Mu-, M-. 


Nyenyu. 


Nyu-co. 


Mu.. 


Mu.. 




M-, Mu-. 


•mu-. -i-nu 


M-, Mu^. 


M-, Mu-, N- 


-e-nyu 


-e-nyu 




•wa-. -e-nu 




-hu-- -e-nyu 


•n^, •ni^. 
-i-nyu 






They, them, 


Wa-le. A«. 


We-figa ? 


Ahcowa. 


Ya-yco. A-ycu. 


A-yco. 


Aw-ene. 


their 


A-. 


Wombe. 


A-. 


A-, Ya-. 


A-. 


A-. 




•a-, -wa-. -a-oj Wawere? 


■wa-, -ha-. 


•a-, -a.ya 


-wa-. -a-e 


-a-, -a-wa 






Wa-, A-. 


-a-ya 












-wa-. -a-co, 














-a-wco 











' This sometimes means one hundred, and apparently sometimes merely ten. 
' Mw-anda in Yaco means ' a great number which cannot be counted'. 



GROUPS N AND O: YACO-NGINDOJ AND MOZAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



231 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yaco 


Ci-ngindoj 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I-cuabco or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


^Mogambique ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


(' Quelimane ') 






55 a. Ci-mpeotco 




Medco 






All 


-5se; 
•ose-pe 


•uha 


(JOte-iie 


-onke-a 


Ate-ne ; 
-te-ne 


-obe-ne 


This, these 


A-jco orixi. 


U-yu, a-wa ; 


U-la, a-la ; 


U-la, a-la ; 


U-yco, a-yto ; 


U-du, a-wa ; 




a-wa ; a-u, 


?, ? ; i-ri. 


u-la, ci-la ; 


u-la, ci-la ; 


u-yu; ? 


u-bu or (o-bu, 




a-ji; a-li,a-ga; 


a-ga; (s'c. 


n-na, a-la ; 


n-na, a-la ; 




?; e-ni?. 




a-ci, a-i ; a-ji, 




i-la, ci-la ; 


i-la,ci-la(?io); 




a-ma ? ; i-ci ?, 




a-si ; a-lu ; 




uu; va-a; 


uu ; va-a ; 




i-vi ? ; ? ; de-ne, 




a-tu ; a-ka ; 




muu 


muu 




esi ? ; (yc. 




a-u; a-ku; 














o-pa; a-mu. 














A-juju ; 














a-wawa ; 6-=^. 














Aju-noj, 














awa-nto ; 














au-nco ; 6^t. 












That, those 


(Ju-ele-ju ; 


Jco-la ; wa-ra ; 


U-le ; a-le ; 


U-le; a-le; is'c. 


(jO-le ; a-la ; 


Udu-le ; awa-le; 




w-ele-wa ; 


? ; ? ; le-ra ; 


u-le ; ci-le ; 


Yco-le ; ya-y to ; 


(U-le; ^'c. 


ubu-le ; is'c. 




w-ele-u ; 


ga-ra ; d^c. 


n-ne ; a-le ; 


yco-le ; ceci-le ; 








j-ele-ji ; dr^c.) 




(Si-iT. ; 


une-ne ; 








A-jco, a-woa ; 




va-le (16) ; 


ya-le (6) ; 








a-to ; a-j(o ; 




mu-le (17) 


ye-le ; ceci-le ; 








a-lyto ; a-gco ; 






wco-we (14); 








&'c. 






vava-le (16); 








Aju-la, Awa-la; 






mcomu-le(i7). 








au-la, aji-la ; 






Tli-co-laCl); 








ali-la, aga-la ; 






pi-a-yeo or 








aci-la, ai-la ; 






pi-ya-la (2) ; 








aji-la, asi-la ; 






pu-yco-la (3) ; 








alu-la ; 6^f. 






pi-ceci (4) ; 







pi-ne-na (5) ; 
pi-ya-la (6) ; 
pi-ye-la (9) ; 
pi-ceci (10) ; 
pu-wcowu (14); 
pi-vava, 
vava-co (16) ; 
wcow-co (15) ; 
pu-ma)mu(i7). 



Bad ... . 


Expressed by 


•hifflu. 




Wwlwwa, &■ 


c. -nanara 


CO-warara 


•takala 




' not good' ; 


•bi 




-wbakala 










also -bi = 
















'black', 
















'angry'. 














Black... . 


•pilytiu ; 


•piri 




-o-ri^pa. 


-o^ri-pa. 


-(o-ri^pa 


-co^ri^ba, 




•pilila, 






-co^takala 


-u-takala 




-u-ri-pa. 




•bi 












Ki-kwde-le 


Female 


•kcongwe. 
•ktolco 


•dara. 
•kigi. 
•ana<wa 


•ke 


•ti-ana 


•bi^ana 


■ti-ana 


•{•ana ; 
•seva 


Fierce 


. -kali 






... 


•caca 




• • > 


Good ... . 


>mbcone. 
•kcota. 
•lumba<na 


>nco^fu. 
•halile. 
•nyahl 




-o^rera 


-cD-rera 


-co-ha-pa J 
-o-rera 


-U'kwdc'ra 



232 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yaoo 


Ci-ngindco 


I^makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I^cuabco or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


^ Mozambique ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


{'Quelimane ') 






55 a. Ci-mpwtco 




Medco 






Great 


-kulungwa 


-kurungu, 


■kulu-bale ; 


-kulu-bale. 


-tcokcotcokco. 


■indimiia. 






-kulungwa 


■ulu-bale. 
-wu^nua 


-inulu-pale. 
-wu-niia 


-ulu-pale 


-e^ula 


Little 


•nandi 


•ctokoj^pe. 


-am-kane. 


•kani 


-nanju. 


Lnconco. 






-ncbjkco 


■kane. 
■yeya 


or -kane. 
•ye-wa 


-ncononconco 


-e^nye^wa 


Long 


■leu. 
■leu-pa 

(verd) 


... 


-co^rega-ma 


-co-tali-va 


•cimpa 


-u^la-pa 


Male 


•lume. 


-pongoj. 


■Icobw^ana 


-m-lcopw-ana 


Mwa-luku ; 


•Icobw^ana. 




•kambakco 


-ana-lume. 
■kambaku 






-Icopw-ana 


Pogco 

{animals) 


Old 


■kulu ; 
■kala 




Wu-wala 


-co-kalai. 
Ehco-tala. 
-ulu-pale 


... 


Kalamba 


Red 


•cejeu 


... 


-o-peria 


•kwila. 

(o-pera 


... 


... 


Rotten 


■ucole 


... 


•viinya 


-unta 




-u^vunda 


Short 


■upi, 
■ipi 


... 


-kuvi. 
CO-kuve-ha 


-kuve-a 


-ivisi. 
An-ivisi 


... 


Sick 


•Iwele, 
■Iwala 


... 


-wo-reya 


-reta. 

-we-reiya 


... 


•reta 


White 


■swela 


■bara^fu 


-o-tela 


-o-tela 


Y(o-wela 


■cena 


Above, up, 


Canya. 


Ku^nani 


-va-zulu 


-m-culu, 




-va-zuru 


on top 


Pa-canya. 
Ku^inani. 
Pe^nani 






va-culu 






Before,in front Ca-mbuju, 


Lmugi. 


U-hcolu 


Mi-hcolco 




U^zogorco 




Pa^mbujco 


Pa-lufigi 










Behind, last 


-n-yuma. 
Ca^mbesi 


In^yuma 


U-duli 


U-buli 


... 


... 


Below, down 


Ku-si, 
Pa-si. 
Kw-iwanda 


Pa-hi 


Va-ti 


Va-bi 




-va^ti 


Far 


Ku-tali-ka 


Kuli-pa 


OD-tawene. 
Va-de 


U-tai. 
Va-be 






Here 


Apancij 


Apa 


Vava. 
Un&j. 
N-nco 


Va 


Ava. 

Va! 


(jOkunco, 
Apanco 


In, inside ... 


Mw-e. 

M-kati 


M'^, Mu- 


Mu-hina. 
Ne-bani. 
Mw-a-, -ni 


Mhina; -ni 


M-, -mw-e 


M^, Mu^are 


Middle 


Cisi-kati, 
Cili-kati 


... 


Iri-are 


Iri-ari ya- 


... 


■are 


Near 


Pa-ngulu 


Pahipahi 


Wa-kivi-ru 


Wa-tama 




I-kuvi 


Outside ... 


Ku-sa 


Ku-uma, 
Pa-uma 


U-ta(?). 
Va-de 


Va-be 


... 


U^dambco 


Plenty 


•jinji 


•ingi 


■njene 


•inji 


-n-ceni. 
-n-cici 


•inji 


There 


Kulakula. 

Ku-nco 


Ktora 


Vale, 
Vavco. 

N-we 


Vale 


Uwco 


Apale 


Where? ... 


Kwa-pi ? 


... 


Va-i? 
Va-yi .? 


Va-i? 


... 


U^vi? 



GROUPS N AND O: YACO-NGINDCO AND MOZAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 



233 





54- 


55- 


56. 


56 a. 


56 b. 


57- 


English 


Yaco 


Ci-ngindco 


I-makua 


Northern 


Lomwe or 


I^cuabco or 






{North and 


(Tulugu, 


Makua and 


Western 


Cuambco 






South) 


'Mofambique ') 


Metco or 


Makua 


(' Quelimane ') 






55 a. Ci-mputco 




Medco 






No. 


N-gwamba ! 


Lietu ! 


lii! Aa! Ata! 


Kiimci ! 


Aki-pale ! 


Seye ! Ke ! 


Not {with verb, 


Nga-, »ge-, 


Ki- {istpers. 


A^ki-, A-gi- {ist 


K-V\{\stpers.); 


A^ki 


Ka. 


as prefix, in- 


Ngi., Ngu-, 


sin^.). 


pers. sing) ; 


Ka-, K'- ; 






fix, or suffix) 


Ngini-, 


•lietu {nega- 


Ki-orGi-.Ku^; 


•hi^ (•si^) ; and 








Ngana-, 


tive suffix). 


Ka- {all per- 


much as in 56 








Ngunu- ; 


Wga- ; -nga- ; 


sons) ; Ne-, 










Ngasa-, 


Ka-, -ka- ; 


Ni- {subj) ■ 










Wgisi-, 


•naka- (55 a) ; 


-na-; -hi^; 










Wgusu- ; 


■tupu {neg. 


■le {sicffix). 










Ngi-kini-, 


verb) 


-na- {infix) 










Nga-kana-, 














Ngu-kunu- ; 














-ka (-ga-) -ga 














{or -je) ; 














-kasa-, -kaja- 












To 


Ku 


Ku- 


(jO- 


U- 


U- 


U-, 0)- 


„ beat ... 


-menya 


-puta. 
■menya 


■mana 


•wata 


... 


•vada 


„ buy, sell 


•suma 


•gura 


•tumi^ha, 
■tuma 


•buma 


•tuma^h, 
•tuma 


•ngula 


„ come ... 


•isa or 


-ica 


-wa 


•ua 


•rwa 


da 


„ cut 


-ica 
-tema 


-dumura 


•tigila 


•bikila 


•kata, 
•kakata 


•rema. 
•gwada 


„ dance ... 


■wina, 
-ina 


■ihina 


■rugunea. 
•wina 


•twela. 
-wu-ina 


•ihina 


•ceta 


„ die ... 


■uwa 


■fwa, 
-huwa, 
-hwa 


•kwa 


■kwa 


•pwa 


■kwa 


„ eat 


-lia 


•ria, 
-dia 


•ja 


•lia 


•ca 


-ja 


„ give ... 


-pa 


-pa. 
-pika. 
■wana 


•va^ha 


•kumi^ha ; 
•nya. 

-va-ha 


•inya 


-va-a 


" go 


-enda ; 


■genda. 


•rcoa; 


•weba. 


•rcoa; 


•dwa. 




-jenda ; 


■enda 


•eta 


•rcoa 


•ka 


•famba 


„ kill ... 


•ja- 
-ula-ga 


■kcoma 


•iva 


•wiva 


•ipa 


•pa, •upa 


„ know ... 


■manya 


■manyi, 
■manya 


•zuela 


•cuela 


■suwela 


-zewa 


„ laugh ... 


-seka 


■heka 


•tea 


•bea 


•tea 


•bea 


„ leave oif, 


■leka 


•leka 


•hia 


•hia. 


... 


-tia 


cease 








•leha 






„ love, want 


-nonyela. 


-londa. 


•tuna ; 


•tuna 


•tuna ; 


•dana ; 




•saka 


•hana 


•ntuna 




•nkwela 


•funa 


„ see 


-wona, 
■ona. 
■Icola 


•Icola. 
-linga 


•ona 


■wcona 


•cona, 
•kcona ? 
•ball 


•cona 


„ sit, remain, 


■tama 


-tama 


■kala^ti 


•kala-bi 


... 


•kala-ti 


abide 














„ sleep ... 


•gona 


-gona. 
-gcolcd-ka 


•rupa. 
•ncona, 
•kuna 


•rupa 




•gcona 


„ stand, stop, 


•ima, 


-yima 


•eme-la 


•weme^la 


... 


•ime^la 


be erect 


■jima 












„ steal ... 


•jiwa 


-jiba 


-wia 


•wiya 


•iya 


•iba 



234 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN YACO 
No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, Ju-, A-, Aci-, Aca- (m, ju-, jua-, u-) ; 2. Wa-, A-, A-ki-, A-ci-, A-ca- (wa-, -a-) ; 

3. Mu-, M- (wco-,u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, ji) ; 5. Li- (li) ; 6. Ma- (gama-, ga) ; 7. Ci-, Ki- (ci, ki) ; 8. I- (i, yi) ; 

9. Ny., N- (M-), N- (ji, jan'-) ; ic. Ny-, Ng-, N-, N- (M-), — (si) ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; 12. Tu- (tu) ; 13. Ka 
(ka) ; 14. U- (u-, wco) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (m-, mu-). 

Also the prefix Na-, without concord. 

The plural double prefixes Aci-, Aki-, and Aca- seem to be used (together with A-) in both a plural 
and a singular sense, and always as a token of respect or politeness. Aca- is an honorific prefix, = ' Mr. ' 
or ' Sir ', when preceding a proper name. This particle becomes 'Ce in south-west Yatoland. The Ci- in 
these prefixes is sometimes heard as Ki- (as also in Ci-ngindto), and may be nothing but the 7th singular 
prefix in an augmentative sense. The 'Ce or 'Ca (Ace-, Aca-) may be the equivalent of the 'father' 
prefix ^a-, ^i-. Si- in cognate tongues. When Aci- is employed in a singular sense in Yaco, its plural 
prefix is Wa-i- (2 + 8), which would strengthen the supposition that Ci- = Ki- (No. 7). 

PREFIXES, &C., IN CI-WGINDCl> AND CI-MPWTOO 

Traces of preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, Nn- (mu, jco-, yu-, u-) ; 2. Wa-, A- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M-, Nn- (mu-, wu, u-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, 
i) ; 5. Li-, — (li, ri, le-) ; 6. Ma-, Ama- (ma-, ga, ya) ; 7. Ci- (ci-) ; 8. Hi-, Fi-, Vi- (hi, fi, vi) ; 9. In- 
(Im-), In-, Iny-, N-, Ny-, Jim- (n-, i) ; 10. same as 9 (hi, hy, i) ; 11. Uru-, Lu- (lu) ; 12. Utu-, Tu- (tu) ; 

13. Aka-, Ka- (ka) ; 14. U-, Hu- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku); 16. Apa- (pa) ; 17 ? Na-, Na-ka- (honorific) ; //. 
wa-ka-. Aka- (13) is also honorific in some words. There are traces of a La- ('time ') prefix. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN THE MAKUA DIALECTS : I-MAKUA, MEDOO, LOMWE 

Only faint traces of preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, A- ', Mwa-, Mwala, Mwara (possibly a contraction or slurring of ' Mw-ana ') (m-, 
mu, mwam-, u-, co-, yco-, b\-) ; 2. A-, E-, Aci-, Api-, Ajsi-mi- (a, co-, ya-) ; 3. Mu-, M- (m-, mu-, u, wto-, 
wi-, yco) ; 4. Mi-, N- (mi-, i, ci-) ; 5. Ni-, N-, Li-" (n, ni) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, co-, cova-, a, ya-) ; 7. Surviving 
without definite concord as E-, Eki-, I-, Ici-, Ey-, Y- ; 8. ly-, I- or absent ; 9. E- or I-, In-, En-, Yto- (i) ; 

10. I-, E-, Ceo- (i-,ci) ; 11. missing; 12. missing; 13. Ka- (without concord and treated as of Class I with 
Class 2 superimposed as plural ; 14. U-, 00- (u, wto-) ; 15. U-, (D-, Wco- (u, wco-) ; 16. Va- (va- ? pu, ? pi, 
pco ?) ; 17. (plural also to 16) M-, Mu- (mu-, mco-, m-, -ni). 

-ana diminutive suffix. 
Also Na- prefix with A- as plural, superadded. According to Maples, Na- (which is inseparable from 
root-word) has usually the concord of Class i, but sometimes that of Class 5 or Class 9. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN CUAMBOi 
No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, m, -du, u-) ; 2. A- (anciently Va-) (a) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, -bu-, u-) ; 

4. Mi- (mi-, i) ; 5. Ni-, N- (anciently Li-) (ni, ? li) ; 6. Ma- (ma- ?) ; 7. Ei-, I-, Ci- (i, ci) ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 
9. — , N-, Ny- (n-?, i ?) ; 10. Di-, Ti-, Da-, Re- (? de-, di) ; 11. missing; 12. missing; 13. missing; 

14. U-, Wu- (old) (u) ; 15. U-, 00- (u) ; 16. Apa-, Pa-?, Va? (pa ?); 17. M- (?). 

-ana diminutive suffix. 
Nya-, Na- as prefix without concord : plural. Ana-, Anya-. 

' Honorific singular prefix, derived from No. 2. '^ In Lomwe the St h prefix is tisually Li-. 



GROUPS N AND O: YACO-NGINDtO AND MOZAMBIQUE LANGUAGES 235 

54. Yaoa is spoken from the Middle and Upper Ruvuma river in the north to the south-east coast of 
Lake Nyasa, the Upper Shir§, the middle of the Shird Highlands, and Mlanje Mountain in the south; 
especially along the valley of the Lujenda river as far east as the Medto and Lomwe countries. 

55. Cingindcii is spoken chiefly inland between South latitude 8° 30' and the watershed of the Middle 
Ruvuma river; west of the Matumbi and Mwera languages, and east of Pogorco, Sutu, and Nindi ; also 
in scattered colonies on the Kilwa coast ; Cimpcotco, in the East Nyasa coast-lands between South 
latitude 10° 40' and 11° 30' ; as far east as Upper Ruvuma river. 

56. Imakua is spoken in the Mozambique district of Portuguese East Africa between the Lurito 
river on the north and the Tejungct) river in the south ; and from the sea coast westward to the Lomwe 
country. 

56 a. Northern Makua is spoken in the interior of Portuguese East Africa between the Ruvuma 
river on the north and the Lurico on the south, between the Kerimba or Mabiha country on the east and 
the Lujenda valley on the west. 

56 b. Lomwe is spoken in the region west of the Makua people and east of the Lujenda valley 
and Lake Chilwa. The northern range of the Lomwe dialect is about 14° of South latitude, and its 
southern limits lie a little to the south of the l6th parallel. 

57. Icuabco (7r Cuambco is spoken in the coast district of Ouelimane, north of the Zambezi delta, as 
far as the Mazemba or Tejungco rivers. Inland its range reaches nearly to Mounts Ciperconi and 
Mcotomconto and the Upper Lukugu river. 



GROUP P 

THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



58. Ci-mazarw (Ci-kunda or Ci-gunda) 
58 a. Ci-podzco 

59. Ci-nyungwi ('7«/e') 59 a. Ci-sena 



60. Ci-mbco (Ci-cinjiri) 

61 a. Ci-mananja (South Nyanja) 

6r. Ci-nyanja (East Nyanja) 





. 58- 


58 a. 


59;. 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarca 


Ci-podzco 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbco 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Adze 


N-semco ; 
an-semu 




Paza? 


N-semco 


N-sompco. 
Zenga 


... 


Animal, wild 


N-ama ; 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama. 


Ny-ama. 


beast 


din-ama 








Ci-rombco 


Ci-kcokco 


Ant 


N-yerere. 


N-yerere 


N-yarere. 


N-tuta. 


N-yerere. 


N-yerere. 




Gugu; ma+. 




Ma-gugu. 


N-cirafu 


N -yanyaco. 


Li-ntumbwi 




Nye; 




Nye; 




Li-ntumbu. 






ma-nye. 




ma-nye 




M-dzcodzco 






N-dcodeo ; mi- 












Ant, white 


U-cenje. 


U-yece 


Mu-cenye. 


Ka-lanzi 


Ci-swe. 


N-swa. 


(termite) 


U-jeci ; ma-. 

N-yamu; 

din-yamu 




U-cenpe(59a) 




In-swa. 

Ka-lanzi. 

U-lomwe 


Ci-swe. 
N-gumbi 


Arm 


N-gconco ; mi- 


N-kcono3 ; mi- 


M-kconco. 
N-gconco; mi- 


N-cafu 


M-kconco 


M-kconco. 
Janja 


Arrow 


Mu-bvi; mi- 


M-phina 


Mu-bvi. 


M-pamba 


Mu-bvi. 


Mu-bvi, 






(same in 


Mu-zeve ; mi- 




Ci-songa. 


Mu-vi ; mi- 






plural, but 






N-cetco 








-dzi = plural 














concord) 










Axe 


M-badzto or 


M-badzco 


M-badzw or 


Li-wagco 


N-kwangwa. 


N-kwangwa 




Badoj. 




Badu ; 




Ka-temco. 


or Xwangwa 




Ka-nyimbwi ? 




ma-badcd 




Gcoma. 
Ganco. 
Ka-nyembe. 
Pomp we 




Baboon ... 


Bongwe. 
Korco; 
a-kor&> 


Bongwi 


Bongwe; a+. 
Koro; 
a-koro 


Bongwe 


N-yani 


N-kwere or 
Mn-kwele. 
M-xweri ; wa- 


Back 


N-tana ; mi-. 


Wa-korokoro. 


M-sana. 


Gongco 


M-sana. 


M-sana. 




Ku-nduyu 


Perepere 


Ku-nduyu 




M -buy CO 


M-buyco 


Banana 


M-figu 


Figu (li-) ; 


Ma-figu ipl.) 


Ma-gorubwa 


N-tcoci. 


N-tcoci 




[Portuguese) 


ma-f 




(pl.) 


M-lanya 




Beard 


N-debvu or 
N-devu 


N-debvu 


N-debvu or 
N-devu 


N-debvu 


N-debvu 


N-debvu 


Bee 


N-juci or 
N-uji ; 
din-uji 


N-yui, 
N-uzi 


Ny-uci. 
N-uji ; 
din-uji 


Ka-luma 


N-juci 


N-juci 


Belly 


Ci-fu or 


Mimba 


Ci-fu. 


Cin-tumbco 


Mimba 


Mimba 


Ji-fu. 




Mimba. 




[abdomen). 






Mimba 




Ma-tumbco 




(Ci-pfu = 

stomach. 
Ci-nena = 

pubes) 




Bird 


M-balame 


M-barame 


M-balame 


M-balame 


M-balame 


M-balame 


Blood 


Mu-lcopa 


Mi-rcopa 


Mu-l&jpa 


Ma-gasi 


Mw-azi 


Mw-azi 


Body 


Ma-nungu ; pi 
mama-nungu 


Ma-nungto 


Ma-nungoj 


Tupi 


Tupi ; ma -1- 


Tupi ; ma-t-. 
Ma-lungco 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



237 





58. 


58 a. 


59-„ 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazaroo 


Ci-podzu 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbco 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Bone 


Kugcodco or 
Gcogcodcd ; pi. 

ma + 


Gcogcodu 


Ku-geodo3. 
Gcjgcodu 


Li-gcodco 


Pfupa 


Ci-fupa, 
Fupa 


Borassuspalm 


Bvumoj; ma + 


M-dikwa 


Dikwa 


Bvumoi 


M-vumco. 
M-laza 


Ci-gwalangwa 


Bow ... ... 


U-ta or U-ra ; 
//. au-ra 


U-ta ; ma-f 


U-ta, U-ra; 
au-ra (pi.) 


Cima-nganze 


U-ta 


Wu-ta or 
U-ta 


Bowels 


Ma-rumb<a 


... 




. .. 


Ma-tumbco 


Ma-tumbco 


Brains 


W-ongu or 
Y-onco ; dzi- 


W-ong«a 


W-ongeo. 
Y-onco ; dzi + 


Tompwe 


Uw-ongco 


W-ongco, 
Uw-ongco 


Breast (male) 


Ci-kua 


... 


Pa-m-tima. 
Didi. 
Ci-fua or 
Ci-kua 


Pa-m-tima-nzi 


Ci-pfua ; 
zi-pfua 


Ci-fua 


Breast 


Bere or Be ; 


Bere ; ma + 


Bare; 


Li-zamwe; ma- 


Bere; 


Ma-wele 


(female) 


nia + . 
Tconyco ; ma + 




ma-bere. 
Zuku; ma-f 




ma-were 




Brother ... 


M-bali ; 


M-bali 


M-bali. 


M-bali 


Njira. 


M-longco. 




a-bali. 




N-sia, 




M-bale. 


Mpwa. 




N-sia or 




N-jira. 




M-longco 


M-bare, 




N-jira; di + . 




M-pwa 






M-bale 




M-pwa. 














Drongco 












Buffalo 


Ny-ari or 
N-ari 


Nz-ati 


Ny-ati 


Ny-ati 


Nj-ati 


Nj-ati or 
Ny-ati 


Bull 


N-ombe 
ya ka-pali 


N-ombe 
mo-mbwa-na 


... 


... 


M-pongco 


M-pongco 


Buttocks ... 


Ma-rakco or 
Ragco ; ma + 


Ma-takco 


Ma-takco 


Ma-takco 


Ma-takco. 
N-kcolco 


Ma-takco 


Canoe 


Mw-adia. 
C-ombco ; 
vi-ombco 


Mw-adia 


Mw-adia. 
Mu-kondco. 
C-ombco ; 
pi-ombco(59a) 


Bw-atco 


N-galawa. 
Bw-atco; ma + 


Bw-atco ; ma + 


Cat 


M-bhaka ; 
a-phaka 


M-phaka 


M-paka 


M-lamu. 
Mw-enye 


M-paka 


M-paka. 
M-bwiyaco 


Charcoal ... 


Kala; 
ma-kala 


... 


... 




K-hala. 
Tsimbe ; ma + 


Ma-kala 


Chief 


M-fumu; ma-. 


M-fumu 


Mambco. 


M-fumu 


M-fumu. 


M-fumu. 




Ji-ni ; vi-ni 




Mu-pinda. 
Fumu 




Lundu. 
Bambco. 
Ci-rembwe. 
M-buye 


M-kulu 


Child 


Mw-ana ; 


Mw-ana ; 


Mw-ana ; 


Mw-ana ; 


Mw-ana. 


Mw-ana ; 




ana 


ana 


ana 


ana, b-ana 


Ka-nda 


w-ana 


Cloth 


N-guo; 
difi-guco. 
N-kuco ; zifi- 


N-guto 


N-guco; 
din-kuco or 
difi-guco (pt.) 


Li-fuka 


N-garu 


N-caru 


Cold 


Ci-ridu ; 
vi-ridu (? Port. 
'frio,freido') 


••• 


Ci-ridu 


... 


Zizira. 

Ci-sanu 


Zizila. 

M-pepco 


Country ... 


Idz-ikco ; 


T-igu 


Dz-ikco ; 


N-taka 


Dz-ikco ; 


J-ikco; 




ma-ikco. 




ma-ikco 




ma-ikco 


ma-ikco 




N-drunda; 














mi-runda 












Cow 


N-ombe; di + 


N-ombe. 


N-ombe; 


N-ombe; 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 




ya n-sjka-na or 


I-siga-na 


zi- or di-. 


ziii-ombe 




ya taji 




di-sika-na 




N-ombe 
ya n-sika-na 









238 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





58. 


58 a. 


59-„ 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarcij 


Ci-podzeo 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbco 


Ci-mananja 


Cinnyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Crocodile ... 


N-cona; pi. 
a + or di + 


N-cona 


N-cona. 
Nya-kcokco 


N-conantondco 


N-cona 


N-oona, 
Mn-cona. 
M'amba 


Day 


Tsiku or 
Siku. 
N-tana. 
M-punga 


Ma-sikati 


Siku 


Tsiku 


N-siku 


Siku. 
U-sana 


Devil 


N-zimu 


A-flti 


N-dzimu. 
Tsa-n-dukwa 


Li-fcoka; ma + . 
Gcogco 


M-zimu 


M-zimu ; 
wa-zimu 


Doctor 


Nanka ; ma + . 


... 


N-ganga ; zi + 


... 


Si-nanga 


Si-nanga 



Dog 



Sa-penda ; 
ma + . 

Mw-iyanya ; 
a-yanya 

Mw-ana-m-bwa Mw-ana-m-bwa Mw-ana-m-bwa ; Im-bwa 

ana-m-b^va. 



Donkey ... Bum; ma + 
Door, doorway Ci-tsekco ; vi-. 

Ci-dzaco. 

N-suco ; mi- 
Dream ... Tulco; ma + . 

N-dcota 



Drum 

Ear 

Egg 

Elephant .. 

Excrement 
Eye 

Face 

Fat 

Father 



In-coma ; 

pi. din + 
B-aru ; 

m-aru 



N-suco. 
M-suco ; mi- 

Ku-rcota 



N-coma 
Ku-tu 



Zai or I-dzai ; Zai, 



Fear 



fl. ma-zai 
Dcou or 
N-tcou ; pi. 
an-tcou 

Malu-bvi 

L-isco ; 

m-esco. 

D-isco ; 

mad-isco 
Keope ; ma + . 

Ci-usco 

Ma-kura 

Baba ; a -)- . 
The honorific 
Sa- or Se- 
prefix 



Ma-nta. 
Ycopa, 
Gcopa 



Li-zai; ma- 
N-zco 



Matu-bvi 

D-isco ; 
ma-sco 



N-khcope 



Ma-futa 



Gcopa 



M-bwa ; 
zim-bwa 

Ci-sekeo ; pa-. 
N-suco 

N-dota 



N-coma ; 

zi- or di- 
Ku-tu ; ma-H. 

Ba-rco ; 

ma-rco 
Zai ; ma + 

N-zcou 



Matu-bzi 

D-isco ; 

ma-sco. 
M-bconi 

Kope; 

n-keope. 
N-kuma 
Ma-futa 

Baba. 

The honorific 
Sa- or Se- 

■prefix 



Ma-nta. 
Gcopa 



Ci-tsekco. 
N-kcowa 

N-dota 



N-coma 
Li-pilikanilco 



Lin-danda 

N-dembco. 

Ma-tsutame 

Ma-ngwenu (?) 

Dz-isco ; 
ma-sco 



Ma-futa 



Garu 



Ci-tsekco; zi-. 
Pa-kcomco 

N-tulco ; 

a-tulco. 

N-dcota. 

Ma-lcota 
N-coma 

Ku-tu or 

Khu-tu ; 

maku-tu 
Dzira ; 

ma-zira 
N-jcobvu. 

Dzimwe 

Tu-bzi ; ma+. 

M-cimba 
D-isco, &'c. 



Ma-nta 



Garu 



Bulu ; ma -f 

Ci-cekco ; vi-, 

Fa-kcomco 

Lcota. 
Ku-lota 



N-coma ; zi -(- 
Ku-tu; ma + 

Zila 
N-jcovu 



Tu-bi or 

Ma-vi 
D-isco 



N-kcope. 
Ci-tsco 

Ma-futa. 
Ncona 

Tate; 
a-tate. 

Probably also 
the honorific 
Tsa- prefix. 
This is some- 
times Atsa- 

Ma-nta. 
Ci-ntente. 
Ci-ntewe. 
N-tenu. 
(Ku-copa=^'^.) 



Ma-sco. 
N-kcope 

Ma-futa 

Tate; 
a-tate 



Ma-nta. 
(Ku-copa='Z'*.) 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



239 





58. 


58 a. 


59:„ 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazaru 


Ci-podzoi 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbcij 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Finger 


Ci-bunco ; vi- 


Ci-bunco; vi- 


Mu-nwe ; mi-. 
Ci-bunu ; vi-. 
C-ara;pi-(59a) 


Ka-pfunya 


C-ala ; 
dz-ala 


C-ala ; 
vy-ala 


Fire 


M-oteo ; 
mi-otca 


M-5tco 


M-otco 


M-oto>. 
Nan-sail 


M-5taj 


M-5toj 


Fish 


N-somba or 
I-somba ; 

di- or yi- 


N-somba 


N-somba or 
I-somba; 

di-, yi, or zi- 


N-somba 


N-somba 


N-comba 


Foot 


Ny-al<o. 


Ny-ala 


Ny-aloj. 


Mw-endoa 


Mw-endco. 


Mw-endco. 




Tavu; ma+ 




Mw-endcij. 
Tavu; ma-f. 
N-sayeo 




Pazi 


Pasi or 
Pazi 


Forest 


Mu-situ 


M-situ 


M-situ 


N-situ 


M-situ. 
N-kalangco. 
Teiigco 


N-kalangoj. 
M-situ 


Fowl 


Mw-ana-m-kuku. N-kuku 


Mw-ana-n-kuku. 


N-kuku. 


N-kuku 


N-kuku 




Yi-kuku ; di-. 




Kuku, 


Dzoye 








Sekese 




Yi-kuku ; 
di-, zi- 








Frog, toad 


Nya-cidwe ; 


... 


Nya-cidwe ; 


... 


C-ule ; a + . 


C-ulwe. 




a + 




a-l-. guri. 
Sezi; ma + 




Nam-tusi 


Ci-lcolombe 


Ghost 


M-dzukwa. 
N-dukuyu ; 
ma + . 

Kwiri ; a + . 
N-zimu ; mi- 


Dzimu 


Mu-zukwa ; 
a-zukwa. 
N-dukuyu. 
Kwiri ; a + , 
N-zimu ; mi- 




M-dzukwa 


Ci-dzcodcogwa; 

pi. vi-. 
M-zimu 


Giraffe 




... 


... 


... 


. .( 


. . . 


Girl 


Mw-ali ; 
mi-ali. 

Mw-ensika-na. 
Butu or 
Buru ; ma + 




Buru; ma + 




M-sika-na. 
Namw-ali. 
Ka-tsimba. 
Butu 


Mw-ali. 
Butu 


Goat 


M-buzi 


M-buzi 


M-buzi; di + 


M-buzi 


M-buzi. 
Gcogco 


M-buzi. 
Gcogco 


„ (he) ... 


Bcokco ; ma 4- 


Sa-bukbi 


Buko) ; ma- 


M-pema 


Tonde, 
Ci-tonde 


Pepe. 

M-pongeo 


„ (she) 


M-buzi 
ya tsika-na 


... 






M-cota. 
M-buzi 
ya kcolco. 
M-scoti 


M-buzi ya 
taji 


God 


Mu-lungu or 
Mu-iungu 


Mu-lungu 


Mu-rungto {also 
= ' rain ') 


M-pambe 


M-lezi. 
M-pambe. 
Mu-lungu. 
Ci-uta ' 


Mu-lungu 


Grandparent 


M-buya 


... 


M-buya 


Khulco; ma 4-. 


Am-buye 












M-buye 




Grass 


Ma-nyasi 


Ma-nyasi 


Vlau-dzu. 


Ma-nyazi Mau-dzu, 


Ma-iiju 








Ny-asi ; ma-t- 




U-dzu 




Ground 


U-kaka;ma+. 


Ma-taka 


raka. 


N-taka N-taka 


N-taka 




N-kaka. 




U-kaka 










Ma-raga (//.). 














Taka 












Ground-nut 


Ma-nduwi 


Ma-ndHi ] 


Ma-nduwi. 


Ci-wirinkate N-tedza 


N-teza. 








Dzi-ndwe ; ma- 






M-balala 



' M-lezi, from Ku-leza, to sustain, Ci-iita ■ 
'thunder'. 



■ the rainbow. M-pambe = the ' exceller ', also ' great rain ' and 

R 2 



240 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





58. 


58 a. 


59- 


60. 


6la. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarco 


Ci-podzoj 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mtxa 


Ci-maiianja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kundaj 




59a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Guinea-fowl 


Kaiiga 


Kanga 


Kanga 


N-jcopiloj 


N-kafiga 


N-kanga 


Gun 


M-futi 


Futi 


M-futi 


M-otto {'fire ') 


M-futi 


Futi 


Hair 


Sisi or 
I-titi 


Sisi 


Ititi. 
Tsisi 


T-sitsi 


Tsitsi. 
M-pombe 


Cici 


Hand 


Danfea or 


Dz-anja ; 


Dz-anja ; 


Dz-anja ; 


Dz-anja ; 


J-anja ; 




Danta ; 


m-anja 


m-anja. 


m-anja. 


m-anja 


m-anja 




m-anta 




Da-nta ; 
m-anta 


Ka-funya 






Head 


Mu-ru 


M-sorco 


M-sorco 


N-solo) 


Mu-tu 


Mu-tu ; 
mi-tu 


Heart 


N-drima ; 
mi-rima 


N-rrima 


M-tima 


M-tima 


M-tima 


M-tima 


Heel 


I-tiri. 
Ci-feili. 
Tavu ; ma + 


Ji-sondco; bi- 


Ci-tiri. 
Ci-tende. 
Tavu ; ma -f 


Cin-zongtonikti. 


Ci-tende ; dzi-. 
Ci-ndende 


Ci-katoa ; vi- 


Hide 


Tembe ; ma + 


... 


N -tembe; ma -f 


... 


Ci-kcopa, 


Ci-kwetu. 



Hide 


Tembe ; ma -f 




N -tembe; ma -f 




Ci-kcopa, 
Ci-kwapa. 
N-guco {of 
sheep or 
goat) > 


Ci-kwetu. 
N-gulu 


Hill 


Piri 


... 


Piri 


... 


Ci-tunda. 
Piri 


Piri 


Hippopotamus 


Tomondco 


M-vii 


M-vu 


Dcomondco 


M-vu ; 
am-vu. 
M-pangwe S 


M-vuii. 
Ci-gwele 


Hoe 


Ji-simba; vi- 






... 


Kasu. 
M-dzedze. 
Gcoco 


Kasu ; ma-l-. 
Ci-nk<oma 


Honey 


Uwi. 
Ma-sinci 
a n-uji 


Ma-ta 


Uci. 

Ma-sinci 
a n-uci 


N-juci 


Uci 


Uci. 

Ma-seka 


Horn 


Ny-anka 


Ny-anga 


Ny-anga 


Ny-anga. 
Nandadalala 


Ny-anga 


N-ciwa. 
Ny-anga. 
Li-penga 


House 


N-umpa or 
N-umba; di- 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umba. 
Banja 


Ny-umba. 
Li-banda 

{oblong) 


Hunger 


N-taia 


N-daya or 
N-da 


N-jala 


Ca-lema 


N-jala 


N-jala 


Husband ... 


Mu-ombw-ana 
a-. Ma-muna 

a + 




Baya 


* ■ ' 


Mvva-miina 


Wama-muna 


Hyena 


Ma-nkunu or 
Nya-nkunoj 


Tika ; ma -f 


Tika 


Pesi. 
Lubvu 


Fisi; ma-1- 


Fisi ; wa-f. 
Fici 


Iron 


U-tali 


M-para 


U-tale 


Dzi-fuzco 


Ci-tsulco. 
M.pala 


Ci-oulco 


Island 


N-sua; di + 


Pan-sua 


N-sua 


Ci-gunda. 
Ci-senjerere. 
Ka-lungu 


Ci-si ; 
dzi-si. 
Ci-lumba 


Ci-lwa ; vi-. 
Ci-rumba; vi 


Ivory 


Ny-aiiga 


Ny-anga 


Ny-anga 


N-demboj 


Ny-anga 
ya n-jcobvu 


Ny-anga 
ya n-jcovu 


Knee 


I-bondco ; ma- 


Bondoj 


Bonded ; 
i-bondco 


Bondco 


Bondco 


Ci-gonconco. 
Bombconco 


Knife 


M-beni 


M-peni 


M-peni. 
Ci-su 


M-beni. 
M-kalco. 

M-pojpcD 


M-peni 


M-penL 
Ci-pula 



' Showing thai the otiginal sense o/N-gubco {cloth) was a hide for wearing apparel. 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



241 





58. 


58 a. 


. 59-^ 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazaru 


Ci-podzcd 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbeo 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Lake 


Ny-ansa ; 

di+ or ma.+ 


— 


Tavare. 
Ny-anza 


... 


Tamanda. 
Dziwe 


Ny-anja 


Leg 


Mw-endto 


Mw-endco 


Mw-endoj 


Mw-end&j 


Mw-end<o 


Mw-endto 


Leopard . . . 


Nya-lugwe 


Nya-rugwe 


Nya-lugwe 


Ka-mbuku 


Nya-lugwe 


Nya-lubwe 


Lion , 


N-kalamea 


... 


N-ka1am&3. 
M-pondor&> 


... 


M-kangeo 


M-kango> 


Lips 


Mw-i(oma>. 
Mi-icomco 


Mu-rownw 


Mi-rcomco 


Mi-lcomca 


Mi-l(omco 


Mi-lcomco 


Magic 




Uflti 


Ma-le 


Tsenga 


U-flti. 
Tsenga. 

Ma-ere 


U-flti 


Maize 


Piamanga 


Ma-pira- 
manga "■ 


Ma-pira- 
manga 


Pa-mangwe 


Ci-mafiga." 
Ka-gcolco 


Ci-manga 


Man 


Mu-tu; a-tu 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-tu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 






a-ntu 


a-ntu or 
wa-ntu 


//. zi a-ntu 


a-ntu 


wa-ntu 


Man, vir. ... 


Mu-mbw-ana. 
(U-swaka = 
manhood) 


... 


Mwa-muna. 
Mu-mbw-ana. 
M-swaka 


Mwa-mna 


Mwa-muna 


Mwa-muna 


Meat 


N-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


M-ncofu. 
Ny-ama. 
N-kwiru 


Ny-ama 


Medicine ... 


N-drombwe; 
mi-rombwe 


... 


Ma-ngware. 
Mu-tombwe 


... 


Ma-nkwala. 
U-sinanga 


Ma-nkwala 


Milk 


U-kaka 




U-kaka 




M-kaka, 
N-kaka. 
Ma-ziwa. 
Ma-ere or 
Bere. 

(Ku-kama = 
verb) 


Li-kama 


Monkey . . , 


Kulo. 
N-simbu 


Koraj 


Kolw. 
Pusi. 

N-pima. 
Bonkwe 


N-janjama 


Pusi ; a + . 
N-cima 


Pusi 


Moon 


Mw-eri ; mi-. 
Dendendi ; 

ma + 


Mw-edzi 


Mw-ezi. 
Mw-eri 


N-dende- 
ke-zuwe 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-ezi 


Mother ... 


Mama 


... 


Mama. 
N-dende 


... 


Mai ; ma-. 
Maco 


A-mai 


Mountain ... 


Piri 


Piri 


Piri 


Piri 


Piri ; ma + 


Piri 


Mouth 


Mu-rojmco. 
Nga-nwa 


... 


Mu-rtomco 


... 


Ka-mwa 


Ka-mwa 


Nail (of finger 


N-gtole. 


Ky-ara 


Ny-ala or 


Ci-ka-nam-bira 


Ci-kabadco. 


Ci-kabadco 


or toe) 


N-yaya, 
N-aia ; 

din-aia 




N-para; zin-. 
N-gore(59a) 




Ka-dabci> ; ti- 




Name 


Dz-ina 


Dz-ina 


Z-ina 


Dz-ina 


Dz-ina ; 
ma-ina 


J-ina ; 
ma-ina 


Navel 


Mu-jombtci ; mi-. 
Mu-omboj; mi- 


... 


... 


... 


M-combco. 
Ci-dudu 


M-combeo 


Neck 


ECcosi or 
Kuti. 
Ci-gcogcj 


Kcosi 


Kcozi 


Ci-k«ta 


Kcosi, 
Khcosi 


Khcosi 



Ma-pira-manga = sorghum of the sea coast. 



242 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





58. 


_ 58a. 


59.^ 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarca 


Ci-podzco 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mboj 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Night 


Ma-tiku. 
(Dima = 
darkness) 


Ma-siku 


U-siku 


U-siku 


U-siku. 
Tsiku. 

(M-dima = 
darkness) 


U-siku. 
(Ci-dima = 

darkness) 


Nose 


Punoa ; //. mi- 


M-punu 


Puneo 


... 


M-punca 


M-punco 


Ox 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-tonga 


N-ombe 


M-fule. 




ya ka-pale 




ya ka-padco 




ya m-fule 


N-ombe 


Paddle 


N-ombco. 
(Ku-capa = 

verb) 


... 


N-ombo3 


... 


Capa, 
Kapa. 
N-gomboj 


N-kafi 


Palm wine, 


W-iema. 


U-cema 


U-cema 


N- scam to 


U-cema 


U-cema 


beer 


Badwa; ma + 












Parrot 


Cin-cerekete. 
Lomwe 


Tangwi 


N-gcowe. 
gi-mpie 


Ci-nkwe 


Ci-nkwe ; dzi- 


Ci-nkwe ; vi- 


Penis .,. ... 


Sondco. 
M-borco; di + 


M-borco 


Sondu 


M-bcolca 


M-bcolco, 
M-bcale.i 
Cende 


M-bolco 


Pig 


N-kumba ; 
mafi- 


N-kumba 


N-kumba 


Gudani 


N-kumba 


N-kumba. 
N-guluwe 


Pigeon 


Kaiiga-iwa, 
N-Wtianga-iwa 


J-iwa 


Kanga-iwa 


... 


N-kunda. 
N-jiwa 


N-kunda 


Place 


M-burci). 
Dalu ; ma + 


M-butw 


M-buteo 


M-butco 


M-butco. 
Ma-lco 


M-buteo. 
Ma-lco 


Rain 


Mu-ungu ; "^ 
mi-unku (//.) 


Mu-lungu.'' 
Ana-vumba 


M-vula 


M-bvula 


M-bvula 


Vula 


Rat 


Ciu 


N-ciru ; ma- 


Ciru 


Koswe. 
Gudani ? 


Koswe ; ma + . 
M-puku 


Koswe. 

M-bewa 


Rhinoceros 


Ci-pempere;vi- 
Dcogco. 
Pwele 


... 


Ci-pembere. 
Pueti 


•'• 


... 


Ci-pembere 


River 


D-ombasi. 
N-giico ; 
mi-guca 


Ny-anza 


Ny-anja. 
Ci-mazi. 

Mu-kurco 


Ny-anja 


Ny-anja. 
M-tsinje 


M-cinje 


Road 


N-sia 


N-sia 


N-jira 


N-jira. 
Kw-alala. 
N-kwasa 


N-jira 


N-jila 


Salt 


Mw-enyu 




Mu-inyco 




M-cele, 
M-cere. 
Ci-cere. 
Ci-kungu. 
Ci-dulco 


M-cele 


Shame 


Ma-nyasi. 
Ma-nyado) 


... 


Ma-niazwi 


... 


Ma-nyazi. 
U-nyala 


N-ceoni. 
Ci-sconi. 
Ma-nyazi 


Sheep 


Bia; di + 


Bia 


M-bira. 
Bvu. (Bvu- 
rume = ram) 


N-k(osa 


N-kcosa. 
Bira 


M-belele. 
N-kcosa 


Shield 


Dcoa ; ma + 


... 


... 


... 


Ci-kcopa. 

M-kupco 


Ci-kcopa 


Shoulder ... 


Ci-turi ; vi- 


... 


Pewa 


... 


Ma-nyembe. 
Puzi ; ma + . 
Pewa ; ma + 


Pewa; ma-f. 
Ci-kcota 


Sister 


N-ronk5rici). 


M-bau. 


Mw-ana-n-kazi M-longco 


M-longco; a- 


M-longco; wa- 



M-bai. N-gu. Mw-ana- 
M-pwa siga-na 

' Derived from -bcola, to pierce j a widespread Bantu verb-root also meaning ' sting '. 
' Compare root-word for God, -lungu, in East African Bantu. 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



243 





58. 


58 a. 


59^. 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazaro> 


Ci-podzco 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mboo 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a, Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 



Skin 


Kiinkil. 


Kungu 


Kanda. 


Kungu 


Kungu. 


Kungu. 




I-kamba 




N-tembe 




Ci-kcopa 


Ci-kwetu 


Sky 


Tambeo; ma + 


Tambeo; ma + 


N -tambeo 


Ku-dzulu 


Khcogcolcd. 
Tambeo. 
Kumw-amba. 
M-nenere 


Mi-tambco(^/.) 
M-lenga 


Slave 


Ka-poreo 




... 


... 


Ka-pcolco. 

M-ntemba. 

M-donda. 

M-dza-kazi, 
Tulco 


Ka-polco. 

M-kcole ; wa- 


Sleep 


Ji-ruco or 


Ji-ruco 


Tulto 


Tulco 


Li-tulco 




Ci-ruco. 














Tu-lco 












Smoke 


Uci ; ma + 


Uci 


Uci 


N-tunzi 


Utsi 


Uci 


Snake 


N-uka 


N-toa 


Ny-coka 


N-jcoka 


N-jcoka. 
(Mamba 

= cobra, 
M-pwi 
= viper) 


N-jeoka. 

M-pili 


Son, boy ... 


Mwa-ima. 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana 


Mw-ana wa 


M-nyamata 


Mw-ana. 




Mw-ana 


nombw-ana 


mwa-miina 


m-lumbw-ana 


(youth). 


M-nyamata 




m-ombw-ana; 








Mw-ana 






ana ombw-ana 








wa mwa-miina 




Song 


Ny-imbco; di + 


Ny-imbco 


Ny-imbco ; zi- 


Ny-imbco 


Ny-imbco 


Ny-imbco. 
Ma-lumbco 


Spear 


Dipa. 

N-tuiigu; a + 


Mwa-rangco 


Dupa 


N-kondco 


N-tungco. 
N-gamco 


N-tungco 


Spirit, soul 


Mu-unkwa. 
N-zimu ; a + 








Manda ; a -F . 
M-zimu ; 
a-zimu. 

M-oyeo 


M-zimu. 
M-oyco 


Star, planet 


N-eneri, 
n-neri 
N-inyezi ; 

ma + 


Tondcoa 


N-tondcowa. 
Ny-enyezi. 
Tanda 


Ny-enyezi 


N-yenyezi. 
N-dondwa. 
N -tanda 


N-tondwa 


Stick 


Golomondto. 


N -donga 


N-gcoleomondco. N-dcodco 


N.deodco. 


N-dcodeo, 




Fimbco 




M-simbco 




N-gcolcomondco 


M-simbati 


Stone 


Mw-ala; mi- 


I-bwe, 

ma-bwe 


Mw-ala 


Tsanga-la-bwe 


Mw-ala ; 
mi-ala 


Mw-ala ; mi- 


Stool 


M-pandoj ; mi- 


... 


Panyco. 

Mu-panda 
(59 a) 


... 


M-pandco 


M-pandco 


Sun 


Dzuwa, 

Zua ; ma + 


Zua 


Zuwa, 
Dzuwa 


Dzuwa 


Dzuwa 


Jua 


Tail (of an 


N.jia ; 


... 


Mu-pira 


... 


M-cira 


M-cila 


animal) 


mi-jia 












Tear 


M-sori 


M-sori 


Tscozi; ma + . 
M-scozi, 
N-scodzi ; 
mi- 


M-scozi 


M-scozi ; mi- 


M-scozi ; mi- 


Testicles ... 


Ma-jendi. 
M-pumba. 
Ci-tconconcd ; 

vi- 


Ma-jende 


M-pumba. 
Ma-cende 




M-pulumco. 
Ma.tcodzco. 
Ma-cende, 
Ma-cenda 


Ma-cende ? 


Thief 


M-bava. 
J-ito. 

Wo-yanda ; 
cu-yanda 


M-bava j ma- 


Bava 


M-bala 


M-bala. 
M -kungu 


M-kungu. 
Wo-kuba 



244 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





58. 


58 a. 


59-^ 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazareo 


Ci-podzco 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbco 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Thigh 


... 




Mu-endco. 
Cafco 


... 


N-cafu 


N-cafu 


Thing 


Ci-ntca; vi- 


Ci-ntu ; //. 


Ci-ntu ; 


Ci-ntu 


Ci-ntu ; 


Ci-ntu ; 






vi-ntu or 


bzi-ntu or 




dzi-ntu. 


vi-ntu. 






pi-ntu 


pi-ntu ( 59 a) 




Ka-ntu ; 
ti-ntu 


Ka-ntu ; 

ti-ntu. 

C-uma 

(things, 
property) 


Thorn 


Mu-nka 


Mu-nga 


Mu-nga 


Mu-iiga 


Mu-nga 


Mu-nga 


Tobacco ... 


Foria, 

Foiya 


Fcodia 


Fcodia 


Fcodia 


Fcodia 


Fcodia 


To-day 


Dam-bwinco 


Dam -bunco 


Lelco, 
Lerco 


Lerco 


Lerco 


Lerco, 
Lelco 


Toe 


Ci-bunto or 


Ci-ara ; 


Ci -bunco 


Ka-funya 


C-ala, 


C-ala ; 




Ji-buncL> 


pi-ara 






Z-ala 


vi-ala. 




ca tavu 










Ci-kongo3 


To-morrow 


Ma-ngwana 


Ma-ngwana 


Ma-ngwana. 
Mu-ku^a 


... 


Mawa, 

Ma-ngwana 


Mawa 


Tongue 


I-yumi 


Li-rumi 


Ri-rimi 


Lu-lime 


Li-laka. 
Lu-limi, 
Li-lumi 


Li -lime 


Tooth 


Dz-inoj 


Dz-inco ; 


Z-inco 


Dz-inco ; 


Dz-inco ; 


J-inco ; 






ma-nco 




ma-nco. 

M-singco 

(molar) 


ma-iiico 


ma-inco 


Town, village 


Mu-di 


Mu-dzi 


M-zinda. 
Mu-dzi 


M-zinda 


M-zinda. 
Mu-dzi ; mi- 


Mu-dzi, 
M-zinda 


Tree 


Mu-ri. 
N-tengco; 
mi-tengco 


Mu-ti 


Mu-ti; mi-ti 


M-tengco 


M-teiigco 


M-tengco 


Twins 


Ana-pata (pi.) 
Pata ; ma + 


Ma-pata 


Anam-pasa 


M-pasa 


M-pasa 


Wa ma-wili. 
Ma-wira 


Urine 


Mi-rundco. 
Ci-kodzoj 


Mi-tundco 


Mi-tundco 


M-kcodzco 


M-kodzco 


Ma-kcojco 


Vein 


Dzi-via; mi-via 


... 


Nka-konkaka. 
U-dzingco. 
Ru-zuangco 


..» 


M-sempa or 
M-tsempa. 
M-dzipe 


... 


War 


I-kondco. 
Dipa ; ma + 


N-kondeo 


N-kondco 


M-pamba 


N-kondco 


N-kondco 


Water 


Ma-dzi. 
Ma-sin je, 
Ma-sinke 


Ma-sinje 


Ma-zi 


Ma^dzi 


Ma-dzi 


Ma-ji ^ 


Well, source 


M-cela 




Mu-pera, 
Mu-dzera 


.,. 


Ci-sime 


Ci-time 


White man 


M'tsunku 
M-dzunku 


N-zungco 


M-zungu ; a- 


M-zungfu 


M-zungu, 
N-zungu ; a- 


M-zungu ; wa 


Wife 


N-gadi, 
N-gadie ; 
a-gadie 


N-kazi 


M-kaz' ace 

( = his wife) 


N-kazi 


N-kazi. 

M-tsanco ; 
a-tsanco 


M-kazi; wa- 


Wind 


Pevwco, 
Pepco, 
M-pepco. 
M-uya 


Pewoj 


M-pep<o 


M -pepco 


M-pepca 


M -pepco 



' Ci-ny-ezi means dampness, moisture. 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



245 





58. 


58 a. 


59- 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarco 


Ci-podzci> 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbco 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Witch 


M-kwiri. 
Ku-mbasa. 
(Ku-lodza = 

verb) 


M-kwiri 


M-fiti 


M-sawi 


M-fiti 


Wau-fiti 


Witchcraft 


U-kwiri 




U-fiti 


U-sawi 


U-fiti 


U-fiti 


Woman ... 


M-tsi-kana 


M-si-gana 


M-kazi 


M-kazi 


M-kazi, 
N-kazi; a-. 
M-bumba.* 
M-si-kana 


M-kazi ; wa-. 
Wam-kazi ; 
wana-kazi. 
M-bumba; 
pi. acim- ( = 
a dependant) 


Womb 


Budu ; ma -f 


... 


... 


*•• 


... 


Mimba 


Wood (fire- 


Kuni ; di -f 


Kuni ; 


N-kuni 


N-kuni 


N-kuni 


N-kuni. 


wood) 




n-kuni 








M-tengco 


Yam 


M-pama 




M-pama 


Ci-cece 


Ci-lazi ; dzi-. 
Peta. 
M-pama 


Cim-benya; vi 


Year 


J-aka 


J-aka ; 


C-aka ; 


Ny-aka 


C-aka; 


C-aka ; 






pi-aka 


bz-aka, 
py-a.ka. 
Gore ; 
ma-gore 




dz-aka. 
Ma-kunu 


vi-aka 


Yesterday... 


Zuru 


? N-zura, 
? N-zil« 


Zuru 


... 


Dzulca 


Jul CO. 

Jana 


Zebra 


M-ziu ; mi- 


M-bizi 


M-bizi 


... 


M-bidzi 


M-biji 


One 


Pojsi, 
-bcote 


Pcosi, 
-btozi 


Pcosi, 
-bcodzi 


Mudzi 


•mcodzi 


-moaji 


Two 


Piri, 
-biyi. 

lei, -ili, -ei, 
-wiri 


Piri, 
•wiri 


Piri, 
-wiri 


•wiri 


-wiri 


-wili 


Three 


Raru, 
•tatu 


-tatu 


.tatu, 
-thatu 


-tatu 


-tatu 


-tatu 


Four 


Ci-na, 
-nai 


.na 


■na, 
■nai 


-nai 


-nai 


-i-nai 


Five 


•tanu, -t^anu, 
-sanu. 
-^anu 


-sanco 


■panu 


-sanu 


-sanu 


-sanu 


Six 


-tantatu. 
Tan-a-bode 


•tandatu 


■tantatu 


N-tanda 


-sanu ndi 
-mcodzi 


-sanu ndi 
i-mcoji 


Seven 


Ci-nomwe ; 


-nomwe 


Ci-nomwe, 


? 


-sanu ndi 


•sanu ndi 




-nomwe. 




-nomwe 




-wiri 


-wili 




Tan-am-biyi 












Eight 


Sere. 


A-sere, 


Seri, 


-tanataru 


-sanu ndi 


-sanu ndi 




Tan-a-taru. 


-sere 


Sere 




-tatu 


-tatu 




-^anu 














ndi -tatu 












Nine 


Femba. 


Femba 


Femba, 


? 


■sanu ndi 


-sanu ndi 




Tan-a-nai 




-pfemba 




-nai 


-i-nai 


Ten , 


Kumi 


Kumi 


Kumi, 
Khumi 


Kumi 


Kumi 


Kumi 


Eleven 


Kuminapoosio;>- 


Kumi na boizi 


Kumi na pusi. 


M-pambu 


Kumi ndi 


Kumi ndi 




Kumi ni bote. 




Kumi na 




ci-mcodzi 


i-mcoji 




(Kumi na ei = 




m-budzi 










twelve) 














' See Yaco. M-bumba means a female 


relation or dependant. 





246 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





58. 


58a. 


59- 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarcD 


Ci-podzco 


Ci-nyufigwi 


Ci-mboj 


Ci.mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 


(East 












Nyanja) 


Nyanja) 


Twenty ... 


Ma-Yumei. 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


J 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




Ma-kum'ei 


a-wiri 


a-wiri. 

Ma-kumi 
ma-wiri 




a-wiri 


ya-wiri or 

Ma-kumi 

a-wili 


Thirty 


Ma--yum-a-raro). 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




Ma-kumi 


a-tatu 


ma-thatu 


ff 


a-tatu 


ya-tatu 




a-raraco 












Forty 


Ma-Yum-a-nai. 


Ma-kumi a na 


Ma-kumi 




Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




Ma-kumi 




ma-nai 




a-nai 


ya-nai 




a-nai 












Fifty 


Ma-Yum-a-banu. 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




Ma-kumi 


a-sanu 


ma ^anu. 




a-sanu 


ya-sanu 




a-tanu. 




{Sixty = 










(Sixty = 




Ma-kumi 










Ma-kumi 




ma-tantatu) 










a-tantatu. 














Seventy = 














Ma-kumi 














a-nomwe) 












Hundred ... 


Dzana, 
Zana ; ma -f 


Zana 


Dzana 




Dzana 


Zana. Cila.' 

(The Arabic 
, numeral Mia 
more often 
employed) 


Thousand... 


Ci-kwi, 


Ci-kwi ; 


C-uru ; 


... 


Ci-kwi 


Kalume 




Ji-gwi ; 


pi-kwi 


bz-uru. 




(derivedfroin 






pi. vi-kwi, 




Ci-kwi ; 




No. 58) 






pi-kwi 




pi-kwi (59 a) 








I, me, my ... 


I-mi. 


I-mi, 


I-ne. 


I-ne. 


I-ne. 


I-ne. 




Ndi-, Na-, N-. 


I-mi wanco. 


Ndi-, Nd-. 


Ndi-. 


Ndi-. 


Ndi^. 




-ndi-. 


Ndi-. 


•ndi-. 


-ndi-. 


•ndi-. 


•ndi-. 




-a-fika. 


-a-fika 


-a-figu, -a-nga 


-a-nga 


-a-nga 


-a-nga 


Thou, thee, thj 


f I -we. 


I -we. 


I -we. 


I -we. 


I -we. 


I -we. 




U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 




-u. 


-ku-. 


•ku-. -aci) 


•ku^. 


•ku-. 


•ku^. 




-a-gco, -a-kco 


-a-k« 




-a-kco 


-a-kci3 


-a-kcd 


He, him, his 


I-yene, I-eni. 


I-ye. 


I-ye. 


I-ye. 


I-ye, U-yu. 


I-ye- 




A-. 


A-. 


A-, Wa-. 


A-. 


A^, Ye-, 


A-, Wa-. 




■m'-. -256, 
-a-pe 
I-su, I-si-, 


-m-. 


-mu-, -m^. 


-m- 


•m^. 


•m^, •mu-. 




-a-ce 


-a-ce 




-a.ce 


-a-ce 


We, us, our 


I-fe 


I-fe. 


I-fe. 


I-fe. 


I-fe. 




I-su-wanco. 




Ti-. 


Ti-. 


Ti-. 


Ti-. 




I.. 




-ti-. 


•ti-. 


-ti-. 


•ti-. 




-e-su 




-a-tu 


-a-tu 


-a-tu 


-a-tu 


Ye, you, your 


I-ryu. 


I-mwe 


1-mwe. 


I-nu. 


I-nu. 


I-mwe. 




Mu-, M-. 




Mu-. 


Mu^. 


Noj-, Mu-. 


Mu-. 




-e-nyu 




•ni, -ku, -ni 
(oij.). -a-nu 


-a-nu 


•ku-. 

-a-nu 


-a-nu 


They, them. 


A-wene. 


AWM 


I-wco. 


I-wco. 


I'Woj, Aweo. 


Iweo, Awoj. 


their 


A-. 




A-, Wa-. 


A-. 


A-. 


Wa-. 




•a-, -a-o 




•a-, -wa-. -a-o 


•a-, -a^o 


-a-, -a-o 


•wa^. -a-o 



Cila (Di-cila, Li-cila) is a vague numeral for a large niimber, which appears in Yaa3 and Ngindoi 
as ' twenty ' or ' hundred'. See also North Congo and Fernando Pd vocabttlaries, p. 230. 



GROUP P : THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



247 





58. 


58 a. 


59- 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarw 


Ci-podzco 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbco 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


All 


-ote-ne 


-onse-ne 


•entse. 
-ontse. 
-entsene 


-onse 


■onse 


-onse 


This, these 


-uyu, -awa ; 


•uyu ; aco ; d^c. 


-yu, -wa ; -yu, 


-u, -awa ; -u. 


-nco (u-nco ?, 


( The same as in 




6-f. 




-yi; -ri.-ya; 


ii, 6^;;.: and 


a-nco, u-nco ?, 


Mananja, 




-wene-u, 




-ci, -bzi (-pi, 


■much as in 


i-nco .', li-nco. 


allowing for 




•wene-wa, 




59 a) ; -yi, -zi; 


Mananja 


a-nco, ci-nco. 


slight differ- 




c^"^. 




■ru, -ri-, -tu ; 

-ka ; -bu ; -ku ; 

-pa; -mu 
Uyu, awa ; 

uyu, iyi ; (S-'c. 
-nco (u-nu, 

wa-noj ; u-nto, 

i-nco ; &'c.) 




zi-nco, 6^(r.) 
Uyu, -yu; -co, 

awa ; uw^u, 

-u ; iyi, -i ; 

-li, ili ; -co, 

awa ; -ci, ici ; 

•dzi, idzi ; 

-i, iyi ; -zi, 

izi ; -li or -lu, 

ili ; -ti, iti ; 

-ka, aka ; -bu, 

ubu or -wu, 

uwu; -ku, 

uku; -pa, 

■apa ; -mu, 

umu 
•mene (u-mene, 

a-mene, 

u-mene, 

i-mene, 

li-mene, Src.) 
A^mene-yu ; 

a-mene- wa ; 

u-mene-u ; 

i-mene-i ; 

li-mene-li ; 

•mwe (u^mwe, 
a-mwe, Qfc.) 


ence in concord 
particles. 
■mwe is much 
in use as a 
demonstrative 
root.) 


That, those 


•ye(u.ye;a-ye; 




•yco, wco ; yu, 
yco ; rto, ya ; 

Uyto, aweo ; 


... 


Uyco ; aco ; uco ; 

iyco ; is'c. 
•ja or -dya 

(u-ja ; a-ja ; 


... 










u-ja; i-ja; 










•re(uTe; wa-re; 




li-ja ; &•€.) 





u>re ; i-re ; 
ri-re ; ya-re ; 
&^c,) 



Bad ... 
Black... 

Female 



-i-baya 
•rimba. 

•psi-pa 
■tsika-na. 

•seva 



•i-baya 
•rimba 

•siga-na 



Fierce, sharp, -gaie 
bitter 



•I'pa 
•swi'pa. 

•psi'pa 
•sika-na. 

•seba 



■kari 



•sakala 
■da 

•kazl 



•ipa 
•da. 

•bi 
•tadzi, 

■kazi, 

-m^seoti. 

m-kcota. 

•kcolco 
•kali 

(•kali-pa) 



•Ipa. -bi 
-ku^da. 
•bi 
•kazi. 

•taji {animals) 



-a u-kali 



248 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





58. 


58 a. 


59- 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazarco 


Ci-podzco 


Ci-nyungwi 


Ci-mbco 


Ci-mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci-kunda) 




59 a. Ci-sena 


(Ci^cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Good 


•didi 


-didi 


-didi 


•bwinoj 


-bwinco. 
-kcoma 


■bwinco 


Great 


-n-dumu-ka 


-n-dimu-ga 


•kulu 


-n^kulu 


-kulu. 
•tatao. 
•nete. 
^tunta 


-kulu 


Little 


•nconu 


■nconu 


-nconca 


-u-nconci) 


■iiconco. 

-ce-pa 


•nconco 


Long 


-co-la-pa, 
-co-ya-pa 




•tari 


... 


•tali, 
-tali-ka, 
•tani^mpa. 
Ku- 


-tali 


Male 


-m-umbw-ana. 


-i-nombw-ana 


Mwa-muna. 


M-pongco. 


•miina. 


Mwa-muna. 




-ya m-cobw-ana. 




-pongu 


a-miina 


•pongco 


M-pongco 




Sa- m-pongco 












Old 


-a-gai 


... 


-karamba 


... 


-kale, 
-kalamba 


•kale 


Red 


-fia 

((o-fia) 


... 


•fuira 


... 


-psyu, 
-pyco. 
-fiira 


-a ku-fuila 


Rotten 


-vunda 


... 


-bvunda 




•cola, 
-bvunda 


-vunda. 
•cola 


Short 


•via 

(co-via) 


... 


-fupi 


... 


•fupi, 
fupi^ka 


•fupi 


Sick 


-m-yada 


-dwara ? 


-dwara. 
•tenda 




■dwala 


■dwala 


White 


-cena, 
•jena 


•cena 


•cena 


-yera 


•era, 
-yera. 
-dembe. 
•mbu. 
•tuwa. 
-ndala 


-yera 


Above, up, on 


Pa-dzuru, 




Ku^zuru, 




Pa-mw-amba. 


Pa-mw-amba 


top 


Pa-duyu 




Pa-zuru 




Ku-dzulu. 
Nena 




Before 


•tswgoru 


... 


Ku-dzugorco, 
Pa^tscogoru 




Tscogoico, 
Pa-tsogorco. 
Ca-mimba. 
Cam-pumi 


•ccogcolco 


Behind 


Kun-duyu 


... 


Mum-buy&j, 
Kum^buyca. 

Mun^duri 




M-buyco, Pa- 


-m-buyco 


Below, down 


Pati 


... 


Pa-nze, 
Pa-ntsi. 
Mu-fufuntsi. 
Mu^nyantsi 




•nsi, Pa-nsi 


•nci, 

Pa-nsi^po) 


Far 


-gun-daia 


... 


N^gure. 
Ku-tari 


... 


•tari, 

Ku-tari 


Ku-tali 


Here 


Timco, 
Kunu. 
Panco 


Apa 


Kuncd 


Kunco 


Kunco. 
Panco. 
Pompa 


Kunco. 
Apa 


In, inside ... 


Wgari. 
M-, Mwi-, 
Mu- 




Mu^kati 


... 


Mu-, M'-. 
Momwe 


Mkati. 
Mu- 


Middle 


Pa-kati 




Pa-kati 


... 


Pa-kati 


Pa-kati 


Near 


■andamana 




Pa-fupi 


... 


Pa-fupi 


Pa-fupi 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 



249 





58. 


58 a. 


59;^ 


60. 


61 a. 


61. 


English 


Ci-mazaru 


Ci.podzcD 


Ci.nyungwi 


Ci-mbco 


Ci.mananja 


Ci-nyanja 




(Ci.kunda) 




59a. Ci-sena 


(Ci-cinjiri) 


(South 
Nyanja) 


(East 
Nyanja) 


Outside ... 


Ku-dambco 




Ku^npa 


... 


-nja 

(Pa-nja), 
Ku-nja 


■bwalco 


Plenty, many 


■inji. 

-mw-eni 


-nji pa 


-z-inji 


Ma-ere 


-m-biri 


-m.biri. 
-ny.inji. 
-n-khana 


There 


Apai. Awoo, 




Apco. 


Apu 


Apco. 


Apco. 




Aveo, 




Ku.re. 




Ukco 


Ukco 




Apu. 




Ukco 










Apaa-a. 














Ukco 












Where? ... 


Ku-ti 1 


... 


Komwe ? 
Ku.pojni ? 


... 


Ku.ti ? 
Pa^ti ? 


Ku-ti ? 
Pa-ti ? 


No! 


Tayu ! 
Nyonyco ! 


... 


Tayu! 
Aiai! 
Kwe! 


I.ai! 


lai! 

I^si! 


lai! 


Not (with verb. 


Se-, Si-, Ka. 




Si- (allpers.). 


Si- 


Si^,Sa^';N.ka-; 


{Much the 


as prefix, in- 


and much as in 




Ne-, Ka^, 




U.ki^; •sa^; 


same as in 


fix, or suffix) 


No. 59 




Wkha- (59 a); 
-rini, -ribe, 
•be, •bi; -tayu 

(59 a) 




•i (.tai, ■te), 
•be, -bi, or •je 

(suffixes 
applied gener- 
ally to aux- 
iliary verbs) 


Maiianja) 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


.bubudwa 




•menya 


... 


•menya 


•menya 


„ buy, sell 


•gura 


... 


-gula, 
•gura 


•gula 


-gula. 
-suma 


■gula 


„ come ... 


•da, 
■da 


... 


-dza 


•dza 


•dza 


•ja 


„ cut 


•dura. 




•dula. 


•dula 


•dula. 


•dula. 




•duya. 




•gwata 




-tema. 


■tema 




-rema 








•kakata 




„ dance ... 


•jina, 
-ceta 


.bvina 


•bvina, 
-bzina 


•bvina 


•bvina 


-vina 


„ die 


•kwa 


... 


■fa 


•fa 


•fa 


■fa 


„ eat 


■ya 




■dia 


•dia 


•dia 


•dya 


„ give ... 


•vasa, 
•pasa 


... 


■patsa, 
-pasa 


■patsa 


•patsa 


•paca. 
•ninka 


., go 


•nenda, 


... 


-nenda. 


■nka 


•nka. 


-yenda. 




•enda. 




-yenda 




■yenda 


■muka 




•famba. 














•pita 












„ kill ... 


•upa 


... 


-pa 


■pa 


-pa 


•pa 


„ know ... 


•dziwa 


... 


-ziwa, 
■dziva 


-dzive 


•dziwa 


•jiwa 


„ laugh ... 


•teka 


• . • 


-seka 


■seka 


•seka 


•seka 


„ leave off, 


•leka 


• >r 


-reka 


.. . 


-leka. 


•leka. 


cease 










■sia 


•sia 


„ love, want 


•konda 


> Si -ndi = 
Su 
Sa 


-funa 

not I. Si 
not thou. Si 
not he. A 


■konda 

ti = not we. 
mu = not ye. 
sa = they not. 


•konda. 
-anja, 
■yanja. -funa 


•konda. 
•funa 

{search for) 



2SO 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



58. 
Ci-mazarco 
(Ci-kunda) 



58 a. 
Ci-podz&3 



Ci-nyungwi 
59 a. Ci-sena 



60. 

Ci-mbto 

(Ci-cinjiri) 



61 a. 

Ci-mananja 

(Soutli 

Nyanja) 



61. 
Ci-nyanja 

(East 
Nyanja) 



To 


Ku- 


„ see 


-cona 


„ sit, remain, 

abide 
„ sleep ... 


■kaia 
•gcona 


„ stand, stop, 

be erect 
„ steal ... 


■imea 

-ba, 
•iba 



Ku- 



Ku- 
•ona 

-kara 

•gcona 



-da. 
■ima 
-ba 



Ku- 



-ba 



Ku- 



KUr 



ona. 


•ona. 


-bcona 
kala. 


-penya 
-kala 


-tsala 




gcona. 
-lala 


-gcona. 
-lala 


{to be worn 




out) 




ima 


■ima 


ba 


-ba. 




-landa 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN CI-MAZARO) AND CI-PODZO) 

No preprefixes, except in Class 16. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, m, u-, -yu) ; 2. A- (a-, wa) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N^, W- (mu-, m-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i) ; 
5. — , D'-, Dz'., Di-, Li^ (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a) ; 7. Ji-, «■, Yi(?) (ci) ; 8. Vi-, Pi., Bi^ (vi) ; 9. N^, Ny-, 
— (n-, i) ; 10. Di-, Din-, N-, Ny- (di) ; 11. missing?; 12. missing?; 13. Ka- (ka), //. Vi^ ; 14. U-,Wu. 
(u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Apa- (pa) ; 17. M-, Mu- (m-, -n). 

The Sa- or Se- (father) prefix and Na- (mother) prefix are present. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN CI^NYUNGWE AND CI^SENA 
Slight traces in Class 9 of preprefixes in Ci-nyungwi. 

Class I. Mu-, M. (Ngu-i) (mu-, m, yu-, u-, iigu-) ; 2. A-, Wa. (older form, Va^) (Mba^ i) (wa, 
mba-); 3. Mu^, M- (»gu^>) (u-,ngu) ; 4. Mi. (Nji- ') (i-, yi, nji-) ; 5. — . Dzi-, Dz'-, D'- (Ndi-^) (ri, ndi-) ; 
6. Ma- (Nga-') (ya-, a, ma-?, figa-) ; 7. Ci^ (? Si- in Ci-nyungwe) (Nci-') (ci, nci-, nc'a); 8. Bzi-, Bz'-, 
Psi-, Pi- (Ci-sena) (Mbzi-, Mpi-') (bzi, mbzi-, mpi-) ; 9. In- (Im-), N- (M-), Ny-, I-, — (Nji- ') (i-, yi, nji-) ; 
10. same as 9, and Zi- (59), Di- (59 a) (Nzi-, Ndi- ?^) (zi-, di-, nz'a-) ; 11. Ru-, Ri- (?Ndu-^) (ru-, ndu ?, 
ndi-) ; 12. Tu- (Nthu-') (absent in Ci-sena, where its place is taken by Pi- (8) ; very little used in 
Ci-nyungwe, and then generally prefixed to the singular prefix of another Class. Concord, tu, nthu-, 
nth'-) ; 13. Ka- (Nkha-^) (little used in Ci-nyungwe and generally prefixed before the retained prefix of 
the word which Ka- turns into a diminutive. Concord, ka, iikha-) ; 14. U-, Bu- (Mbu-^) (u-, bu, mbu-) ; 
15. Ku- (Nkhu') (ku, nkhu-) ; 16. Pa- (Mpha-') (pa, raplia-) ; 17. Mu- (Nghwa-') (mco-, mu-,iighu-). 

The Sa- or Tsa- (masc, honorific) and the Na- or Nya- prefixes are present. 

PREFIXES, &C., IN CI-MBO) (CI-CINJIRI) 

Traces of preprefixes in No. 9 Class. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (mu-, m, u-) ; 2. A-, Wa-, ? Ba-'* (a-, wa) ; 3. Mu-, M- (mu-, m-, u) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, 
i) ; 5. Li-, Dzi- (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ?) ; 7. Ci- (ci) ; 8. ? ; 9. In- (Im-), N-, Ny- (i ?) ; 10. ? same as 9 
(concord?); 11. Lu- (lu) ; 12.?; 13. Ka- (ka); 14. U-, Bu- (u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa); 
17. Mu- (mu-). 

^ With nasal directive N- (M-). 

^ / have heard ' Ba- ' /or No. 2 -prefix inland^ south of the Rum, near Mount Ciperwni. 



GROUP P: THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES 251 

PREFIXES, &C., IN CI-MAWANJA AND CI-NYANJA 
Traces of preprefixes in Classes 16 and 17. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (»gu->) (m-, mu, u-, yu-) ; 2. A-, Wa- (61 a) (a-, wa) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N- (Ngu-') 
(mu-, u, figwa) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i, -yi) ; 5. — , Dzi-, Dz'-, Di- (li) ; 6. Ma- (Nga-^) (ma-, a) ; 7. Ci- (? Nci-) 
(ci) ; 8. Dzi-, Zi- (zi) ; 9. — , N-, Ny- (i-, yi, n-, nj-) ; 10. — , N-, Ny-, Zin- (zi) ; 11. Lu-, Li- (scarce) 
(lu, li), //. No. 6 superadded); 12. Ti- (rare except in East Nyanja) (ti) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U- (bu) ; 
15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Apa-, Pa- (Mpa- ') (pa) ; 17. Umu-, Mu-, M- (mu-, m-). 

The Tsa- or Sa- (' master of '^plural, A-tsa-) and the Na- (plural, A-na-) prefixes are present, 
with concords of 1st and 2nd Classes. The plural A- or Wa- (No. 2) is often used'' as an honorific 
prefix in a singular sense. Sometimes this is combined with Ci- (No. 7) and produces by fusion Ca- orCe- 
(or Ke-). To this again may be prefixed A-, so that Ace- is a common honorific prefix. Na- is some- 
times followed by M- (N-) and Ka-, producing the compound prefix Namka or Nanka. 

Note also the particle I-, applied often to the pronominal and adverbial roots or prefixes, ' with the 
idea of emphasis ' (Ruffele-Scott, Mananja Dictionary). 



58. Cimazarco is spoken on the Lower Zambezi between the Ziwe-Ziwe and Shir^ confluence and the 
beginning of the delta. 

58 a. Cipodzu is spoken in the Zambezi delta between the River Mahindoo in the north and the Luabco 
in the south. 

59. Cinyungwi is spoken on both banks of the Lower Zambezi, west of the Ziwe-Ziwe confluence at 
Sena, especially at Tete and Sena, as far west as the 32° of East longitude, where it grades into Cinseiiga 
and Cinyai, and as far north as the Makanga country, the watershed of Lake Nyasa, where it grades 
into Maravi or Cipeta. 

60. Cimbo) is spoken on the Lower Shird and in the Macinjiri country south of the Ruco ; also along 
the east bank of the Lower Shird river down to Mount Morambala. 

61 a. Cimananja is spoken in the Shird Highlands and the regions of south Nyasaland where Yaco 
does not prevail. It extends from Mount Mlanje and Lake Cilwa on the east to the Ruco river and the 
west Shire district on the south and west. 

61. Cinyanja is spoken in the coast-lands along the east of Lake Nyasa, from about 11° 30' South 
latitude southwards to about 13° 30'; also on the islands of Likcoma and Cisumulu ; and wherever 
Anyanja settlements still exist among the Yao) people of east Nyasaland. 

' These forms are relics of the ^prefix plus directive nasal ' which appears more prominently in 
Ci-nyungwe and in soutk-west and south Bantu. 

^ ^ Almost universal before names of people'. Rev. Herbert Barnes in 'Nyanja-English Vocabulary' 
1902. 



GROUP P 

THE SOUTH NYASALAND LANGUAGES {contmued) 
61 b. Ci-peta (Ma-ravi) 61 c. Ci-cewa (West Nyanja) 62. Ci-nseiiga (Senga) 



GROUP Q 

THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA-PUNGWE-SABI LANGUAGES 

63. Ci-nyai (Ci-nyau or Lcoze) mid Ci-nanswa 
64. Karana ' dialects (Ci-swina, ^una, &=€.) 64 a. Ci-ndau (Va-ndau, ' Sofala ') 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62.^ 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(puna, &'c.) 


(Va-ndau, 
'Sofala') 


Adze 


Ka-temco 




M-bazcd 




M-bezco. 
Tsendco 


Tsendco. 












M-bezco 


Animal, wild 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


... 


Ci-rombco. 


M-buwu, 


beast 










I-muka, 
M-huka. 
Ci-kara 


Ci-rombco. 
M-huka 


Ant 


Ny-erere. 


Li-ntumbwi 


M-pasi, 




Hu-nyunyu. 


Cu-sunji, 




Li-ntumbu ; 


(pi. same) 


M-pansi. 




Ru-menyco. 


Usiinji or 




mali + . 




M-nyanyau 




-sweswe 


Sonzi. 




Nyanyao 








(ma- ; bu-) 


Tscotsa 


Ant, white 


N-swa, 


... 


C-usi. 


Mu-tate ? 


Mi-cenye(^/.). 


Mu-cenje. 


(termite) 


Ci-swe 




Mu-swe 




Sxwa. 

Mi-juru (//.) 


Mu-tate. 
I-pwa 


Arm 


M-kconca. 


Z-anja ; 


Kw-anja ; 


L(u-bcokco 


Ru-bcokco ; 


Bcokco ; ma + 




Dz-andya ; 


m-anja 


m-anja 




pi. ma- 






m-andya 












Arrow 


Mu-bvi 


Mu-vi; mi- 


Mum-vwi 


Gcoba. 
Sakasa 


Mu-sebe. 
N-gcobe. 
Mo-riene. 

Mco-vi 


Um-paca; mi-. 
Mu-pewe. 
M-hatu 


Axe 


M-kwankwa. 


Xwangwa 


M-bazco. 


U-bga. 


I-panu. 


M-behura; ma-. 




Geoma 




Ka-temco ; tu-. 
Ci-temco 


I-sanu 


Ganco. 
Demco. 
Di-muru. 
Badzco. 
Hub 7a 


Baja. 
Santco 


Baboon 


N-kwere. 
Ny-ani. 
N-cimbcij 


M-xweri; wa + 


Kcolcoe 


Tede; ma + 


[.gudu. 
Dirco. 
I-bvene. 
Gudco 


Dede. 
Korco ; 
pi 7;, + . 
Pfene 


Back 


M-sana. 
M -buy CO 


M-sana 


M-sana. 
Ku-vuli 

(cf. shadow) 


M-tcotco 


Vl-pana, 
Mu-sana. 
Ci-bunco , 


Mu-sana 


Banana ... 


N-tcoci 


N-toice 


Ci-konde ; vi-. 
Mumbu 


... 


Hcobco. 
Hcova 


Kcobco ; ma-f- 


Beard 


N-debvu 


N-debvu 


N-devu 


Dempfu 


N-debvu. 
In-devco 


M-bxrutS.nco 



' To this group belongs the 'Kilimanse', ' Chilimanse' of African explorers of the middle nineteenth century. 
Karana is the Makalaka of Livingstone. There is considerable dialectic variation in Karanga or Karana as well 
as in the local pronunciation of the principal name of the language, which was formerly Karanga and now is more 
often Karana (to the Becuana peoples it is Kalaka). The principal local dialects are (besides Ci-ndau) .• Ci-manyika, 
Ci-govera, and Ci-mali. But there is not enough information to hand to separate them further. 



GROUPS P, Q : THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC., LANGUAGES 253 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63. 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(^una, &^c.) 


(Va-ndau, 
' Sofala ') 


Bee 


Nj-uci 


Nj-uci 


N-zimca 




Iny-coci 


Iny-uci 


Belly 


Ci-pfu, 


Mimba 


Vumoj 


Ptombu, 


Lmimba. 


In-da-ne. 




Ki-pfu ; 






m-ptombu 


Dumbco. 


U-tumbco 




pi. -psi. 








Ci-sii. 






Mimba ; ma + 








I-niimbu 




Bird 


M-balame 


M-barame 


K-ojni ; 
t-uni. 
C-uni 


I-piri. 
N-ycone 


I-piri 


I-ciri or 
I-piri 


Blood 


Mw-azi 


Mw-azi 


Mu-reopa 


Ma-lcopa 


Ma-rcopa 


Rcopa. 

Mu-siya 


Body 


Tupi. 
Ma-rungca 


Tupi ; ma + 


Mu-wiri 


M-bili 


Mu-biri 


Mu-htiiri 


Bone 


Pfupa or 
Li-fupa 


Fupa 


M-fupa ; mi- 


Fupa ; ma + 


I -pfupa. 
Godco 


Gcodco. 

Fupa ; ma + 


Borassus palm 


M-vumco 


M-vumco 


... 


... 


M-lala 


Mu-cindwi ? 


Bow 


Bu-ta, 


Wu-ta ; ma + 


U-ta; 


Lco-ta 


Bu-ta. 


Bu-ta ; 




U-ta; 




mau-ta 




Bu-dade. 


mbu-ta 




pi. ma + 








1-dantire 




Bowels 


Ma-tumbco 


Ma-tumbu 


Ma-ra 


... 


Mabu-ra 


Mimba. 
N-kumbu. 

Wu-ra 


Brains 


B-ongco 


Uw-ongco 


Tompwe. 
W-ongoj 


**' 


Bu-ruru. 
Bu-rupi. 
Bu-ruzwi 


U-ruvi ; ma- 


Breast(man's) 


Ci-pfua. 
N-tima 


Ci-fua 


Ki-fua 


Hana or 
Gana 


Ci-fuba. 
Hana 


^i-fiia 


Breast 


Bere ; ma + 


Ma-were (pi.) 


Ma-ziwa 


Gamu ; 


I-^amu, 


Dundu. 


(woman's) 








pi. ma + 


I-samu. 
Ma-zuku (pl.) 


Diti ; ma 4- 


Brother ... 


Sibweni. 


M-bare. 


Ka-rangcozi ; 


Nungu-na. 


Hama, 


Kcoma ; ba + . 




M-pwa. 


M-longco 


vi-. 


Mco-lukco-ana 


M-kcoma. 


Ne-vanji. 




M-bali. 




M-kwa. 




M-kuru. 


Mu-nukuna, 




N-jila or 




M-lisa 




Mu-nu. 


Mu-kuna 




N.gila 








Mo-rombala. 
U-nunu-na 




Buffalo ... 


Nj-ati 


Ny-atl or 
nj-ati 


M-buca 


Parapara 


Iny-ati 


Iny-ati. 
^awa 


Bull 


N-ombe 
a-ina 




N-ombe 
i-lume 




N-kconco. 
I-handira. 
I-hconco. 
I-hunzi 


Mu-kconco 


Buttocks ... 


Ma-takco 


Ma-taku 


Ma-takco 


Nunzi 


I-batu. 
Ma-takco. 
Dakco 


M-bata ; 
man-bata 


Canoe 


Bw-at<o ; ma + 


Bw-atoj 


W-atco, 
Uw-ateo ; 
maw-atco 


Lgwa 


Bh-atco, 
Bv-atco. 
I-gwa 


M-garaba ; 
ma-garaba 
(Wgalawa) 


Cat 


M-paka 


Ceona; 
vva-cuna 


M-buyaco. 
Ccona 


... 


Une-mange 


Cima-ngcobe. 
Paka 


Charcoal ... 


Kala ; ma + 


... 






Ma-rahla 


Ma-simbi 


Chief 


M-fumu ; vva + 


M-fumw 


Fumu, 
N-fumu. 
Akw-eni. 
A-bwana 


Mambu 


Dipe, pe ; 
//. ba-se. 
I-cinda. 
Mw-ene. 
I-hcosi. 
I-hcosi ape ?. 
M-rongco. 
Mambco 


Mambco ; //. 
maji-mambco. 

Mu-cinda 



2S4 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





6ib. 


6lc. 


62.^ 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(puna, &=€.) 


(Va-ndau, 
'Sofala') 


Child 


Mw-ana ; 


Mw-ana ; 


Ka-saza; tu-. 




Miiw-ana ; 


Mw-ana; 




w-ana 


w-ana 


Mw-ana 
m-tontco. 

Lu-cece(ma-f-) 




pi. b-ana. 

M-cece. 

Ci-bhyere 


ab-ana. 
pi-pwere 


Cloth 


N-saru 


Saru 


Salu. 
N-yula. 
N-anza 


N-guza 


Jira. 

N-gubco 
(a goatskin 
pelt) 


Jira or 
Gira. 

Guvco ; ma -1- 


Cold 




... 


M-pepco. 
U-tontole 


M-tutu 


Im-epco. 
Candco 


Im-epco 


Country ... 


Dz-ikto ; 


Z-ikto, 


Ci-alu 


In-yika. 


Iny-iga 


Iny-iga. 




ma-ikco 


rauz-ikco 




Ma-vu 




N-ika ; ma + 


Cow 


N-ombe wa 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 




Ifi-ombe 


M-gombe 




m-kazi ; 


ei-kazi 


ana-kazi 




hadzi. 


kazi ; 




pi. zi + 




or i-kazi 




I-mcou 

(? ostrich) 


pi. m-gombe 
zio-kazi. 
Umbe 
kaji 


Crocodile ... 


N-cona 


Nfi-tona 


M-wena, 
N-wena 


N-gwena 


I-gambinga. 
I-gagwe, 
I-garhwe, 
I-ga-ywe 


N-gcomombeo ; 

ma 4-. 
N-gwena 


Day, daylight 


Tsiku. 


Siku. 


N-siku. 




I-^uba. 


I-^uba, 




Sana 


M-sana 


(Ka-suwa = 
daylight) 




M-si, 
Mu-si 


Zuva ; ma -(■ . 
Ma-pati {pi) 


Devil, evil 


Tstoka; ma + . 


Ci-wanda ; vi- 


Li-^awi ; ma- 




Ci-bandu. 


Mu-caici or 


spirit 


M-zimu ; wa- 








C-erco 

{spirit) 


Mu-paipi. 
^awe 


Doctor (medi- 


Si-nanga; wa-f 


Si-nanga 


N-gaiiga 




I-nanga 


Ci-remba 


cine man) 














Dog 


Garu ; wa 4- 


Garu 


Im-bwa ; 
zim-bwa 


Im-bga 


M-bha. 
M-bcoga 


Im-bYa. 
Im-bwa; 
mam- 


Donkey 






... 




M-bizi {zebra) 


M-bongorco. 
Bemhe 


Door, door- 


Ci-tseka>, 


Kumu 


Ci-sasa. 




I-gconi. 


Ruvi ; ma + . 


way 


Ki-tsekco. 
Pa-keomco 




Mu-liangco 




M-kcoba. 
M-subco. 
Dimba 


Mu-suvco 


Dream 


N-dcota 


N-dcota 


C-cozi 




Rcota 


Rcotco; ma-l- 


Drum 


N-osma ; 

pi. zi + 


N-coma 


N-coma 


N-gcoma 


N-gcoma. 
I-dumba 


N-gcoma ; ma- 


Ear 


Ku-tu ; ma-(- 


Ku-tu ; ma -f 


Li-twe. 
Kwa-tu ; 
ma-tu 


Zebe 


N-zebe or 
N-zeve. 
I-gere. 
I-twi 


Ku-zwa. 
In-dzeve 


Egg 


Dzira, 
Dzela 


Dzira 


I-gumbi 

or Li- ; ma- 


Zae; ma + 


I-zai 


Zanda; ma-1- 


Elephant ... 


N-jcobvu 


N-jcobvu 


N-zcovu 




N-^cowu 


N-jcohu ; ma- 


Excrement 


Tu-bzi 


Tu-vi 


Tu-vi 




Ma-tcokeo. 
Matu-zwi 


Matu-vi 


Eye 


D-isco, 


L-isco 


R-isco ; 


Egco ; m-egco 


Z-isco ; 


N-jisco ; 




Dz-isco ; 




m-esco or 




m-esco 


ma-jipeo 




ma-SCO 




me-nsco 








Face, fore- 


Ci-dzcj ; 


Kuma-sco 


Kuma-nsco 




Ima-n^co 


Hcope. 


head 


pi. psi-. 

Mma-sco. 

M-pumi 










Bu-su 



GROUPS P, Q : THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC., LANGUAGES 255 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(puna, (S^c). 


(Va-ndau, 
'Sofala') 



Fat, oil ... 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 




Ma-futa 


Ma-futa 


Father 


Tate, 


A-tate 


Wa-ta. 


. . . 


U-dade. 


Baba. 




Tete, 




Avv-isi 




Bambu. 


I-pe {'chief)} 




Wa-tate 




(Aw-isi wako)). 
An-sw 




Palea 


Se- prefix 
(orji?) 


Fear 


Ma-nta. 
COpa. 
Ki-ntente 


Ma-ntha 


Ku-copa. 
U-cowa. 
Mw-ezco 


Bu)-tiha 


I-hana 


Kco-utcoca 


Finger 


C-ara ; 


C-ara ; 


Mu-nue ; mi- 


Mu-ngcoe; me- 


Mu-nwe 


Ci-niie ; 




ps-ara 


vy-ara 






(Gu-nwe = 

thumb) 


//. zi-nue. 
Gu-nwe 


Fire 


M-otoj ; mi- 


M-oto> 


M-otco. 
Mu-lilco 


M-otco 


M-otco, 
Mw-otco, 
M-y-otco 


Mo-rirto ; mi-. 
M-5tco 


Fish 


N-somba ; 

tsi + 


N-somba 


Sawi ; ma- 


Lcobe 


I-hobe or 
Yobe 


Hcobe, 
Howe ; ma + 


Foot 


Padzi. 


Mw-endto ; pi. 


Kw-endco ; mi- 


Le-hcoka or 


I-gumbco. 


Mu-renge 




Mw-endto 


Miny-endco 


Ulw-ayco ; 
malw-ayco 


Le-gcoka 


Ny-arca 


{or -renje) ; 
mi-. Ci-renge 


Forest 


N-kalango> 


Thengoj 


M-sanga 




I-paka. 
1-dzese 


Gua^a ; ma -f . 
Saiigco. 
Dondco 


Fowl 


N-kuku 


Kuku 


Kuku 


... 


I-huku. 
Hcokco 


Ukco; ma-f 


Frog 


C-ule ; 
ps-ule 


... 


C-ule; a-f 


... 


I-zura. 
I-taca 


Dafi. 

Mu-tawa; ma- 


Ghost 


Ki-dzcodcogwa 


; M-tunzi ; mi- 


Ci-nsingwa. 


Ma-rombco(//. 


M-nweya. 


Z-ungube. 




pi. psi- 




Ci-wanda. 
Cim-vwili 




Mu-dzimu. 

M-oyco, 

C-erco 


Mu-dzimu 


Giraffe 


... 


... 




... 


Xwisa, 
N-swiza, 
I-scoma 


... 


Girl 


Butu ; ma + 


Butu ; ma + 


M-buntu. 
M-simbi 




Mu-sikana. 
M-andara. 
M-siga-na. 
Hombe 


Mu-swa-na. 
M-handara 


Goat 


M-buzi ; zi- 


M-buzi ; zi + 


M-buzi ; zi + 


Puzi 


M-budzi 


M-buji, 
M-busi ; ma + 


„ (he) ... 


Donde, 
Tonde 


... 


... 


... 


Gcotcogcotco. 
Nongco. 
M-bcoCco 


Gcotcokcotco. 
Gweme 


„ (she)... 


M-buzi 
wa m-kazi 


... 


... 


... 


Nunzwi, 
Dumbzi. 
Bembza 




God 


Mu-lungu. 


Cuu-ta 


Reza, 


Mco-limco. 


Mw-ari, 


Ma-rure. 




M-pambe. 




Leza 


(Mco-limco 


M-nwali. 


Mu-rungu 




Ciu-ta, 




{thunder) 


mco-kuru = 


Mu-dzima 






Cuu-ta 






great God) 






Grandparent 


M-buyto. 
A-m-buye 




Asi-kulu 


... 


U-tateguru. 
M-buya 5 


Mum-kuru. 
Se-kuru. 
Wa-m-buya 


Grass 


Mau-dzu 


U-dzu 


U-pwa ; ma-. 
U-cani. 
U-zu 


Bco-gcoa 


U-swa. 
Bu-hwa. 
M-hcova. 
Ru-swiswi 


C-ani. 
Bu-swa 



Mu-bari =^ parent. 



256 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



61 b. 

Ci-peta 

(Ma-ravi) 



61 c. 

Ci-cewa 

(West Nyanja) 



62. 
Ci-nsenga 



63- 

Ci-nyai, 

Ci-nanswa 



64-^ 
Karana 

dialects 

(^una, (SviT.) 



64 a. 

Ci-ndau 

(Va-ndau, 

'Sofala') 



Ground 



Ground-nut 
Guinea-fowl 



Gun 
Hair 



Hand ... 

Head ... 
Heart... 

Heel ... 
Hide ... 
HiU ... 



N-taka ... M-rcota. 

Pa-si, 

Pa-nsi. 

C-aleo. 

Li-tco 
N-teza. Ka-mburundzi N-ziama 

N-tentsa; mi- 
N-kanga ; N-kanga 



ZI+ or 

tsi + 
M-futi; tsi + 
Tsitsi 

or Tsise ; 

ma + 
Dz-anja ; 

m-anja 

Mu-tu, 

N-tu ; mi- 
M-tima ; mi- 



N-kanga ; 
Li-celwe 



Futi ; zi + 
Sitsi 



Dz-anja ; 
m-anja 



Futi; 
Sisi 



zH- 



C-anzanza 



Mu-tu; mi- Mu-twe, 

Mu-tu 
M-tima ; mi- Mu-tima 



Ma-vu 



Ny-emba 



Vuzi ; ma + . 



L(o-bcokco. 

C-aga or 

C-aha 
I-sorco. 

M-pongoro) 
Dunga 



Ci-tende ; psi-. Ci-tende ; vi- Ka-tende ; vi- Ci-cinoj 
Ci-kongconu ; 

psi- or dzi- 



Ci-kcopa 



Ki-dumbi; psi- 
M-dunda 



Hippopotamus M-vu 



Hoe ... 

Honey 

Horn ... 
House... 

Hunger 
Husband 

Hyena 

Iron . . . 

Island... 

Ivory ... 



Ka-su ; ma -f 

Uci or 
Buci 

Ny-anga 

Ny-umba ; 

zi- or tsi + 

N-jala 
Mwa-muna 

Fisi ; wa- 

Ci-sulco 



Ci-lwa. 
Ci-rumba ; 

pi. psi- 
Ny-anga 



M-vu 



Uici 



Ny-anga 
Ny-umba ; zi -f 

N-jala 

Fisi; wa + 
Ci-tsuru 



M-kupcj. 
M-papa 



Ka-pili 



M-vu^_ 

M-vuu 
Kam-bwili. 

M-suka 
Uci wa 

n-zimu. 

U-uci 
Ny-anga. 

Lu-sengeo 
N-anda ; zi- 



N-gara 
Mu-lume 



Lu-pasa 



N-gomba. 
(Koj-moaga 
at home) 

M-dala 



Ci-mbwe, 

Ci-mbwi 
Ci-sengca. Dare 

C-ela 



Ci-phcole ; vi- Ka-ndindi ; vi-. 
N-sumbu 



Ny-anga 



Miny-anga 
n-jcovu ypl.) 



I-vu. 

M-sece 



N-emu 
I-hanga 



I-pfuti 
Vuzi ; ma -1- . 
Sisi 

Ku-bcokco. 
C-ansa 

M-sorco, 

Mco-sorco 
M-oyco, 

Mw-oyco, 

M^-oyeo 
Ci-tsitsinu, 

Ci-tsin<o. 

N-hende. 

Ci-dondoba 
Debye. 

Palame. 

I-guguta. 

N-gubco 
I-gcomu, 

Ci-gcomco, 

Ka-kcomco 
M-vubu. 

N-gwindi 
I-badza 

B-uci 



Runy-anga. 

I-scona 
I-mba. 

Umba. 

H-umba 
N--qara 
Mu-rumi, 

Mco-rume 
Ci-pere. 

Tika 
I-dari, 

Dale. 

I-mang^ra 
I-ciwi 



Runy-aiiga 
gwe-^cowuj 



Ma-vu. 
Ny-iia 



N-duwe. 
N-zungoD 
Hanga ; ma- 



M-futi; ma + 
Vudzi ; ma -I- 



Many-ara ? 

{fingers) 

Ny-ara 
M-sorco; ma- 

M-oyco ; ma-l- 



Ci-sisinindto; 
^/.zwi-sisinindoj. 
Ci-^inindu ; 
zwi- 

Dehwe, 
N-hewe 



Duntu 



M-vco. 

M-vuhu; ma-f 
Badza 

H-uci 



Ny-anga; raa-l- 

M-basco ; ma-. 

Ny-umba. 

Mba 
N-jara 
Mu-rume 

Tika; ma-f. 

Bere; ma + 
U-tare ; ma-. 

Simbi 

Ci-pirgwa ; 

zwi-. 

3-irwa 
Runy-anga ; 

ma- 



GROUPS P,Q: THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC., LANGUAGES 257 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nseiiga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(WestNyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(^una, (S^f.) 


(Va-ndau, 
' Sofala ') 


Knee 


Kongcancd. 


Koiigconu) 


Konkco. 


Guna; ma+ 


I-bvi. 


I-dvi ; ma-. 




Bonded ; 




N-kcokcola 




(-pfugama = 


Go-ktijve 




ma-ondco 








io kneel. Cp. 
E. Bdniu) 




Knife 


M-peni 


Ci-pula. 
M-kalco 


Ru-ezi or 
Du-ezi ; ma + 


M-paka 


I-panga, 
Banga 


Ci-panga ; zi- 


Lake, sea . . . 


Taware. 
Ny-anja 


Ny-anja 


Ci-tenga 


'•' 


D'ibi. 

I-gawa. 
Ny-anza 


Gandwa 


Leg 


Mw-endto ; pi. 


M-sorco 


Mu-konzco. 




Ci-dzwa. 


Mu-renge; ma . 




ny-endco or 




Kw-endto 




Bimbira. 


Gumbu 




mi-endci) 




{pi. mi-endco 
or m-endco) 




I-gumbco 




Leopard ... 


Nya-ribwe 


Nya-rubwe 


1-ngca, 
Ka-ingoj ; 

//. vika- or 
tu- + 




[-ngwe. 
M-bada 


Kamba ; ma 4- 


Lion 


N-kangto ; mi- 


M-karamco 


N-kalamu 


C-umba 


sumba. 
I-mondorco 


Pondorco. 












^umba 


Lips 


Mi-lcomco 


Mi-ltomeo 


Mi-roomco 


Mi-lcomco 


Vli-rcomw 


Ma-rojmco 


Magic 


U-fiti. 
Ma-ere 


M-siiianga 


Luzi. 
U-fwiti 




Elcowa, 

Bu-royi, 
Bu-rcow^i. 
Bu-iianga. 
Gwere 


Winji ; ma + 


Maize 


Pa-manga 


Ci-maiiga 


Vi-tonga. 
M-sali 


... 


Ci-manga. 
Ci-bakwe 


Bonore ; ma 4- 


Man 


Mu-ntii; wa- 


Mu-ntu ; 
wa-ntu 


Mu-ntu ; wa-. 




Mu-nu ; 
ba-nu 


Mu-ntu; 
ba-ntu 


Man, vir. ... 


Mwa-miina 




Mwana-lume. 
Mu-lume 


VtcD-rume. 
N-kcoma-na. 

(Mco-sika-na, 
young man) 


Vt-rumi. 
(N-zuma, 
young man). 
Jaya 


Mu-rurae 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


N-ama or 
Ny-ama 


... 


ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Medicine ... 


Ma-nkwarco 




... 


Mo-rimu Mu-ti. 


Mu-tombw 












Mu-rimeo. 














M-ponga. 














Iny-anga 




MUk 


N-kaka. 


Ma-ziwa. 


M-kaka 


M-kaka. 


Mu-kaka 




Ma-ziwa 


M-kaka 






(Ku-kama = 

to milk) 




Monkey 


Pusi. 


Pusi. 


Ma-ncanca (//.). 


] 


-pcokto 


Ccdku ; ma -f . 




N-cima 


N-cima 


N-sanji. 
Ceta.^ 

M-boiagwe 






Korco ; 

ji- or ^i- 


Moon 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-ezi 


Vlw-ezi 


•^gu-ezi. Mnw-edzi, 


VEu-eji 










(Gu-eti = 


Mw-ezi, 












tnoonlighi) 


Mv-edzi 




Mother ... 


Mai; 


Maye Wa-ma. 


Mai 


llayi 




pi. wa-mai. 




Nyina. 










Ma- 




Nyeo-ko) 








Mountain ... Piri ; 


Phiri 


^u-piri; ma-f. 


I 


-gcomco 


Dundu ; ma + 




ma-piri 




Cilu-pili 






^ongwe 


Mouth 


<a-mwa 


... 


■Ca-mwa ; tu- 


Mu-rojmca 


V[u-reom&3 


Nail (of finger Ny-ara. 


Ci-kamba ; vi- C-ala ; vy-. Zala Run-zara 


Du-ara ; ma -f 


or toe) 


Ci-kataweo 




Lun^i-ala ; pi. 
n^i-ala. 






Umwe ; 
ma-umwe 



258 


ILLUSTR^ 


i.TIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 






6ib. 


6i c. 


62.__ 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(puna, &^c.) 


(Vandau, 
'Sofala') 


Name 


Dz-ina ; 
ma-ina 


Dz-ina ; 
ma-ina 


Z-ina 


Sidara. 
Setha 


I-zita 


N-zima; ma + 


Navel 


M-ccmbco; mi- 


M-combco 


... 


... 


I-guvu, 
I-combco 


Ci-kuvu 


Neck 


Kcosi 


Khcdsi 


Mu-kcosi 


Hulto 


M-tsipa, 
Mu-tsiba 


Hurto; ma-f 


Night 


U-siku 


U-siku 


U-siku. 
(Finzi = 

darkness) 


Suku 


Bu-siku. 
(Dima = 

darkness) 


U-siku. 
^i-rima. 
Bu-piku 


Nose 


M-punco 




M -pun to 


M-into 


M-inoj, 
Bin to. 
Pconco 


M-irto 


Ox 


N-ombe 


N-ombe 


N-ombe ; 


N-gombe ; 


N-dume. 


N-ombe; ma + 




m-fule 




//. vi- 


pi. in-gombe 


N-zombe; 

zi + . 

N-ombe ; 
zin- or i- 




Paddle 


M-cap« 




Kafi. 

(Ku-capa = 

verb) 


... 


Mu-capco 


Kafe 


Palm wine, 


U-cema 




W-alwa {beer) 


... 


Uc-arwa {peer) 


U-cema 


toeer 














Parrot 


Ci-nkwe ; 
psi-nkwe 


Ci-mpse ; 
vi-mpse 


Ktopektope 


... 


I-hwenka, 
Ci-wenga 


Guanga ; ma + 


Penis 


M-borco 


M-borco 


M-borto 


... 


M-borto. 
Cam-btokco 


M-btolto 


Pig 


N-guluwe. 
N-kumba. 
M-dudu 


N-guruwe 


N-guruwe 




Humba. 
N-guluve 


N-gumbi ; ma + 


Pigeon 


N-kunda. 
N-jiwa 


N-jiwa 


C-iwa ; 
v-iwa. 

N-kunda 




N-jiba 


Gora ; ma + 


Place 


Pto- 

(in many 
combinations). 
(Ma-rto = 
a sleeping- 
place) 


Paja 


C-aru. 
M-alto. 
Pa-. 
Apa ; pto- 


Panto 


I-dzimba. 
Dunu. 

Bu-garto 


U-garto ; ma- 


Rain 


M-bvula 


M-vura 


Vua. 
M-vula. 
Ma-inza. 
(Mi-ltoci = 

heavy rain) 


M-vula 


M-vura 


M-vula 


Rat 


M-bwea, 


Kcoswe 


Li-rindie ; ma-. 


... 


I-gonzto, 


Ngonsto ; 




M-bewa. 




M-bwewa. 




Gto^to. 


ma + 




Kcoswe 




Ktoswe 




M-bewa 




Rhinoceros 


Ci-pembere 


Cirpembele 


Ci-pembele 


Ci-pembere 


I-nema 


Tema, 

N-hema 


River 


Ny-anja 


M-sinje. 


Mana or 


Lo-ngira. 


Kw-izi. 


Mu-rambto ; 






Ny-anja 


Ka-mana 


Ku-ezi or 
Ku-izi 


Rg-wizi. 
Ru-ktoba 


mi-. 
Ru-izi 


Road 


N-jira 


N-jira 


N-zira, 
Nrjila 


... 


N-jjira. 
Mu-gwagwa 


N-jira. 
Mu-va 


Salt 


N-cere or 
M-cere 


? N-cere 


Mu-nyu 


Mw-nyu 


Mu-nyu, 
Mo-nju. 
Cayi 


Mu-nyu. 
Mu-tomba 


Shame 


M-nyara>. 
Ma-nyazi 


Ci-s«ni 


N-stoni 


Ma-nyadzto 


I-^toni. 
Ku-nyara 


Ny-cowa 



GROUPS P, Q: THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC., LANGUAGES 259 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialecls 
(puna, 6^^.) 


(Va-ndau 
'Sofala') 


Sheep 


M-bira. 


Bira 


M-belele; vi + 


Guae. 


I-hwai, 


Bu-iji; raa-f. 




N-kcosa. 






N-godcobge 


Gai. 


Gundata ; 




M-pcoulco i 








I-gondobhye 


ma-f . 
Hondcohwe 


Shield 


Ci-ktopa. 
M-kupoj 




M-papa 


I-isangu 


I-ncobco, 
N-hcowco 


Dcovco 

(N-dcoVco) 


Shoulder ... 


Puzi or 
Pcosi 




Pewa ; ma + 


Pfutsi 


I-pfudzi. 
Ma-peco. 
I-bipitco 


Fudpi 


Sister 


M-longco or 


M-loSgco ; 


Mu-kwasa>. 




I-hanzwadzi. 


Mu-kunda;ba-. 




Mu-rongM 


//. wa-rongoj 


M-lisa. 
M-longcosi 




Bali. 
Hama 


Anju-azi 


Skin 


Kungu 


Khufiga 


Kanda. 

Ntembe. 

Mpapa 
Mu-kumbi. 


Lco-kanda 


I-ganda. 
I-guguta 


Dcobco ; ma + 


Sky ... ... 


M-tambco 


M-tamb<o 


-dinga 


I-denga. 


N-gore; ma-. 








Kum-ulu. 


(U-dinga, 


Gore 


Cf. year 








Leza 


(jO-linga, 
OO-tinga) 






Slave 


Mu-temba. 
Ka-porco;wa + . 


... 


Ka-polco. 

Mu-^ia J 


... 


Mu-randa. 
I-nabha. 


Mu-batwa 




N-tsa-kazi p 
Tu-lco 






Mu-rombco. 




Sleep 


Tu-ru 


Tu-lco. 


OOpe. 


I-hcope, 


H5pe. 








(Ku.lala,7w*) 


(w necope = ^e 
is -with sleep) 


Hope. 
Ku-bata {verb) 


Ku-vata 
{verb) 


Smoke 


U-tsi, 
Wu-tsi 


Uci 


C-usi 


... 


Bu-tsi. 
Ci-utsi 


Vu-ci, 
Vu-si 


Snake 


N-jcoka 


Nocoka 


N-jcoka 


N-ycoka 


Iny-coga 


Ny-coka; ma-t- 


Son, boy ... 


Mw-ana wa 


Mw-ana wa 


Mw-ana ; 




Mv-ana. 


Mw-anaruma; 




mwa-miina. 


mwa-miina 


w-ana 




M-lisa-na. 


ba-. 




N-zombwe 








M-kcoma-na. 
Mfiw-ana 


Mu-rumbY-ana, 
Mu-rumbw-ana 


Song 


Ny-imbco 


Ny-imbco 


Ulu-imbco ; 
pz-imbco 


... 


Ci-imbco. 
Ru-ombco; dzi-. 
Ru-iyco 


Ru-yca ; ma-l-. 
Rgw-iyco 


Soul, spirit 




... 






M-y-eya, 
Mw-eya ; 
mw-iya 


... 


Spear 


N-tungco ; tsi + 


M-kondco 


Fumco ; ma- 


... 


I-pfumco ; ma- 


Mo-kond&};mi-. 
Tungco 


Star 


N-yenyezi 


N-thanda 


Ny-enyezi. 
N-tandala. 
Lu-tanda ; 

pi. vin- 


N-yerezi 


Iny-enyedzi 
or N-jenezi 


N-yaredzi, 
Ny-eredzi. 
Tondco 


Stick 


N-d<oda3 ; zi- 


N-dcodco 


Kcota ; vin + . 
Ka-nkcole 


Su-imbco 


I-swimbco.' 
Mu-dongco. 
Pzimbco, 
Pswimbco 


N-donga ; 
ma+ . 
Ru-ponda 


Stone 


Mw-ala ; 
mi-.ala or 
ni,ala 


Mw-ara ; mi- 


Dz-iwe ; 
ma-we. 
Mw-ala 


Im-bge 


I-bhye. 
I-bve 


Bwe ; ma + 


Stool 


M^pandco ; mii 




Ci-limba 




Ci-garco 




Sun 


Dzuwa, 
Dzurcoa, 

Dz.uruwa 


Dzuwa 


Ka-zuwa. 
Zua 


Suba 


I-2|uba. 
I-zwari. 
Dzcoa 


Zuba 


Tail (of an 


M-cira 


M-cira 


M-cila 


• • • 


Mn-wisi, 


Mu-swe 


animal) 










M-y-ise. 
Mu-pwe 





26o 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





6ib. 


6i c. 


62.^ 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai 


Karaiia 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(puna, S^c.) 


(Va-ndau, 
' Sofala ') 


Tear 


Dzcozi ; 
ma-scozi 


M-scozi 


Mu-nsuzi; mi- 


... 


M-scodzi 


Mu-kcoji ; ma- 


Testicles ... 


Ma-tcodzco. 
M-pulumco 


Ma-cende 


Ma-kandi 


... 


Ri-cende ; ma- 


Ma-cende 


Thief 


M-kungu. 
M-bara 


M-kungu 


Pompwe; vi-f 


Im-bafa. 
I-ncoba 


I-babva 


Mu-bi; ba-. 
Im-bava 


Thigh 


N-cafu 


N-cafu 


Ci-tewerco, 
Ci-tawelco. 
Ci-welto 


Kumba; ma + 


Ci-dhla, 
Ci-dza 
Ci-tumbi 


... 


Thing 


Ci-ntu ; 


Ci-ntu ; 


Ki-ntu; vi-. 


I-zue ; 


Ci-nu ; 


Nc-iroj ; //. 




psi-ntu, 


vi-ntu. 


(C-uma 


ma-zue 


zw-inu. 


zw-irco or 




bzi-ntu. 


(C-uma = 


= things, 




C-irco 


tw-irco. 




Ki-ntu ; 


property) 


property) 






puma 




pfi-ntu {old) 












Thorn 


Mu-iiga ; 
mi-nga 


Mu-nga ; mi- 


Mu-nga 


... 


Mu-wa 


Mu-dziia, 
Mu-ndzwa 


Tobacco ... 


Fcodia 


Fcodia 


Fwaga 


... 


I-fcodya 


Forya, 
For-ya, 
Fcoldya 


To-day 


Lerco 


Lerco 


Lerco 


Eku-zuinco 


Nasi 


Nya-masa. 
Nya-mapi 


Toe 


C-ara ; 
ps-ara 


C-ara ; 
vy-ara 


Ci-kumco 




Cikii-nwe, 
Gu-nwe, 
Mu-nwe 


Mu-nue ; mi- 


To-morrow 


Mawa 


Mawa 


Ma-ilco. 
Mawa 


Ma-ngcoana 


Ma-ngwana 


Ma-ngwana 


Tongue 


Li-lime or 
Li-rume ; 
pi. ma-rume 


Li-rimi 


Lu-limi 


Lu-limi 


Ru-rimi 


Ru-rimi ; ma- 


Tooth 


Dz-inco ; 


Dz-inco ; 


L-inco 


M-enco (//.) 


Z-inco ; 


N-zinco. 




ma-nto 


ma-nw 






m-enco. 
(Zeyco = 

molar) 


Dzeyco 


Town 


Mu-dzi 


Mu-ji 


Mu-nzi ; 
mi-nzi 


M-pa, 
Mto-pa. 
Kanye. 
(' Kw-etu ' = 

our town) 


Mu-pa. 
Dorcopa 

{Dutch) 


Mu-zi ; mi- 


Tree 


M-teng<o. 
N-toyangco ; 
mi- 


M-tenga> 


Ci-muti ; 
vi-muti 


Mco-tondco 


Mu-ti 


Mu-ti. 
Mum-buti; 
mam- 


Twins 


M-pasa 


Ma-pasa 


Ama-pasa 


... 


Ma-wambe. 
Ma-zana 


Zinya-mbire or 
Manya-mbire. 
Ma-patxia 


Urine 


M-kodzto 


M-kwja> 


M-kcozco 




M-tundco 


Mu-tundco. 
Mu-kamco 


Vein 


N-tsempa ; 




... 




Mu-tsinga 


Mu-tsiiiga 


War 


mi- 
N-kondeo 


Kondo) 


N-kondco 


... 


Gugwa. 
Mu-renga 


Fumto. 
Hondco 


Water 


Ma-dzi 


Ma-ji 


Ma-nzi 


>•• 


M-vura. 


Um-vura. 










Dirira 


Ma-ji 


Well, spring 




... 


... 


Ziba 


I-dzime. 
Mu-godi. 
Giwa, 
Kiwa. 


Dziwa 


White man 


M-zungu ; wa- 


M-zungu ; wa- 


M-sweta ; 
a-sweta 


Kiwa ; ma + 


M-rumbi. 

M-zuiigu 


Mu-zuiigep 



GROUPS P, Q: THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC., LANGUAGES 261 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62.^ 


63. 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 
(^una, (s^c.) 


(Va-ndau, 
'Sofala') 


Wife 


M-kazi ; wa- 


M-kazi; wa- 


M-kazi 
{called by 
husband 
' mw-ana ') 


... 


M-kadzi 


M-kazi 


Wind 


M-pepco 


Phepw 


M-pepu. 
Cin-kuka 


..* 


I-mepu. 
Mn-wandu. 
Mn-weya 


M-pepu. 
M-bambara 


Witch 


M-fiti 


Fiti 


N-fwiti 




M-royi 


Mu-rroi 


Witchcraft 


U-fiti 


... 


Ma-luza. 
U-fwiti 


... 


Bu-royi 


Bu-rroi, 
Wu-royi 


Woman ... 


M-kazi; wa- 


M-kazi; wa- 


M-kazi 


Mco-katsi 


M-kadzi 


M-kazi 


Womb ... 


Mimba 


Mimba 


Vumu 


... 


Ci-su. 
I-mimba 


Zwaru 


Wood (fire- 


Ci-dziki ; psi-. 


Kuni 


Saiiga. 


Hunye 


I-huni 


Huni 


wood) 


Ci-kuni. 
N-kuni 




N-kuni 








Yam 


Ci-razi; bzi- 


Ci-nkumba ; vi- 








... 


Year 


C-aka ; 


Ci-rimika 


Ci-limika. 


• ■• 


I-kore or 


Gore, 




bz-aka 




C-aka 




Ri-kore. 

My-aka 


Gule 


Yesterday... 


Dzulco 


. . . 


Ma-ilu 




I-^uru 


Zuru 


Zebra 


M-bidzi 




Ci-mpwete; vi-. 
M-bwete ; 

pi. aci + 




M-bizi 


Buiji 


One 


•niodzi 


-mcdzi 


-mu 


Mutse, 


•nwe 


Pusa. 








(Ka-mu) 


•mutse, 
■mwe ? 


(M-nwe). 
•putsi 


? -mwe 


Two 


-wiri 


•wiri 


•wiri 


-bili, 


•biri. 


Piri, 








(Tu^wiri) 


-will 

(M-bili) 


Piri 


-biri 


Three 


•tatu 


•tatu 


•tatu 


•tatu. 

(N^atu) 


•tatu. 
N.atu. 
N.hatu 


-tatu 


Four 


•nai 


-nai 


•ne 


•na. 

(I-nna) 


•na 


•na, 
-ni 


Five 


•sanu 


•sanu 


•sanu 


Canii, -canu 


•sanu 


-canu, 
-^anu 


Six 


•sanu ndi 


•sanco ni 


•sanu na -mu 


Tanatu 


Tanatu, 


Tantatu 




-modzi or 


-muzi 


(Ka-mu) 




Tanhatu 






N-tanda 












Seven 


•sanu ndi 


•sanco ni 


-sanu na 


pi-nongwe 


Nomnwe or 


Ci-nume or 




•wiri or 


•wiri 


-wiri 




Ci-nomwe 


^i-numwe 




Dzimbi, 




(Tu-wiri) 










Tirimbi, or 














Tsimpi 












Eight 


-sanu ndi 


•sanu ni 


•sanu na 


^(o-sere 


Tsere, 


Sere or 




•tatu or 


•tatu 


•tatu 




Ru-sere, or 


Zere 




Duera, 








Zere 






Dwere 












Nine 


■sanu ndi 


•sanu ni 


•sanu na 


Fubamwe 


Fumbanwe or 


Fumbawe or 




•nai or 


•nai 


•nai 




Pfumbamve. 


Fumbamwe 




Mu^inda 








Femba, 
Pfemba 




Ten 


Kumi 


Kumi 


Kumi 


Kume 


Gumi or 
Kume 


Gumi 



262 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 


(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 


(Va-ndau, 












(Suna, Ss'c^ 


' Sofala') 


Eleven 


Kmni pambu 


Kumi 






Gumi ne 


Gumi na 




(ci)-modzi or 


n-kate 






i-mwe 


pcosa 




Kumi ndi 


(ci)-mcozi 












(ci)-modzi 












Twenty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Kume 


Ma-gumi or 


Ma-gumi 




ya-wiri or 


a-wiri or 


a-wili 


m-bili 


Ma-kumi 


ma-biri 




Ma-kum' 


ya-wiri 






ma-biri or 






a-viri 








Ma-kumi 
ma-yiri 




Thirty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




1 


Ma-gumi 


Ma-gumi 




ya-tatu 


ya-tatu 






ma-tatu 


ma-tatu 


Forty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 






Ma-gumi 


Ma-gumi 




ya-nai 


ya-nai 






ma-nna 


ma-ni 


Fifty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 




... 


Ma-gumi 


Ma-gumi 




ya-sanu 


ya-sanco 






ma-panu 


ma-canco 


Hundred ... 


Dzana or 
Ki-kondye ; 
pi. dzi-kondye 


Zana 


Zana 


I -zana 


Ri-zana; ma- 


Zana or 
Ri-zana 
Gumi 


Thousand... 


Dzi-kondye 
kumi 


Ci-kwi 








re-zana. 
Gumi re 
ma-jana 


I, me, my ... 


I-ne. 


Ine. 


Ne-(o, Ne. 


I-ni. 


I-mi or I-ni. 


I-nini. Di-ni. 




Di-, Ndi-. 


Ndi-. 


Ni-, N-. 


Ndi-. 


Ndi-. 


Ndi-. 




•ndi-. -ne. 


-ne. -ndi-. 


-ni-, -n-. 


-ndi-. 


-ndi-. 


-ndi-. 




-a-nga 


-a-nga 


-a-ngu 


-a-ngu 


-a-ngu 


-a-ngco 


Thou,thee,thy 


I -we. 


I'We. 


We-u, We. 


I-we. 


I-we. 


I -we we. 




U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 




-we. -ku-. 


-we. -ku-. 


-ku-. 


-gu-. 


-gu-, -ku-. 


-ku-. 




-a-ku 


-a-ku 


-a-kco 


-a-kco 


-a-kco 


-a-kco 


He, him, his 


I -ye. Wico. 


I-ye. 


Yco-ve or Iw-co, 


I-ye. 


I-ye. 


I-we. I-ye. 




A-. 


Wa-, A-. 


Ye-. 


00--. 


U-, A-. 


U- 




-ye. -m-. 


-ye. -m-. 


U-, W-, A-. 


-mu-. 


-mu-. 


-mu-. 




-a-ci, -a-ce 


-a-ce 


-mu-, -m-. 
-a-kwe 


-a-ke 


-a-ke 


-ena 


We, us, our 


I-fe. 


I-fe. 


Seco, Se. 


E-seo. Tco-ga. 


I-su. I-si. I-fe. 


I-sisu. Tisu. 




Ti-. 


Ti-. 


Ti-. 


Tco-, Ti-. 


Ti-. 


Ti-. 




-fe. ti-. 


-fe. -ti-. 


-ti-. 


-ti-. ? 


•ti-. 


-ti-. 




-a-tu 


-a-tu 


-a-su 




-i-du 


-e-dco 


Ye, you, your 


I-nu. 


I-nu. 


Mweco, We. 


E-mcoi, 


Lmiiwe, 


I-mwimwi. 




M-, Mu-. 


Mu-. 


Mu-. 


Ni-mwi. 


I-myi. 


Mu-. 




-nu. -ni-, -ku 


. -nu. ? 


-ni. -mu- 


?. ? 


Mu-. 


•mu-. 




-a-nu 


-a-nu 


(also with -ni 

suffix). 

-a-nu 




^mu-. 
-inyu 


•inyu 


They, them, 


A-wa, I-ww, 


Ya-wa. 


tO-ve or A-wco, 


■> 


I-bco or I-wco. 


Ivco. 


their 


A-WM. 


Wa-. 


Wco. 




Ba-, Wa-. 


Ba^. 




Wa-. 


-wa. -wa-. 


A-. 




•ba-, -bco 


•tba^. -bco 




-wa. -wa^. 


-a-wco 


-a-, -wa-. 










-a-o 




-a-o 









All 



•ose-pa 



icose or •ose 



•ese, 

Mu-ese 



' ' Ngu-etsi encu- kara' = the moon sits down j i.e. thirty days are complete. 



GROUPS P, Q: THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC, LANGUAGES 263 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 


(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects 


(Va-ndau, 












(^una, 6-'f.) 


'Sofala') 


This, these 


Uyu ; awa ; 


Uyu ; awa ; 


Firstly, the pre- 




Uyu or I-ye 


Hoy a or hoyu, 




u- ; i ; iri ; 


&^c. {much as 


prefix : as U- 




(1), aba or 


aba or awu ; 




awa ; ici ; 


in Ci-peta) 


in U-mu-, A- 




i-baba (2) ; 


hoy a or hoyu. 




ipsi ; i ; izi ; 




in A-wa 




uyu or i-ye or 


iyco or eyi ; 




ili (ulu) ; iti ; 




(U-muntu = 




i-hoyu (3), 


eri or eji. 




aka ; ubu ; 




The, this man). 




i-yi (4) or 


aya or cow^a ; 




uku; apa; 




Secondly : 




iyoyi; iri or 


eci or ecipu. 




umu. 




Uyu, awa ; 




irire or irori 


edzi or ezwi ; 




Uyco, aco ; uco, 




uu, ii ; ili, 




or iji (5), aya 


eye or eyi, 




ico ; &^c. 




awa ; ici, ivi ; 
iyi, i^i ; ulu ; 
utu ; aka ; 
uwu; uku; 
apa 
-nco (yu-nco, 
wa-nco ; u-nco, 
i-nco ; 6rc.) 




or i-wcowa or 
awco (6) ; ice 
or iccoce or 
iceciya (7), 
izwi or ezwi 
or izwcozwi or 
idzi or edzi or 
idzcodze («) ; 
iye or iyoye 
(9), idzi or 
edzi or 
idzcodze or 
ijcoji (10) ; 
uru or iruri 
or ugu or 
i-guri or 
i-gcogu (11); 
(12 and 13 
apparently 
missing) ; 
hugu or 
i-gcogu (14); 
ugu or i-gcogu 
(15); papa(?) 
(16) 


edzi or eji ; 
egco or hcogco 

(II). (14), (15) 


That, those 


•dya (u-dya, 
wa-dya ; &'c.] 
•mene (a-mene, 




•la (yu-la,wa-la; 
u-la, i-la; &-c.) 

Also the n 
directive (ni-, 
ny-, na-. n-) 
Na-ye, na-wco; 
n-yu (?), n-yi ; 
n-di. ii-ffa : 




Uyco, abco ; 

i-bco ; &'c. 
U-ya, ba-ya ; 

o-ya, i-ya ; 

S^c. 
lyeu-ya, 

ib(uba-ya ; 

&^c. 





n-ci, m-bi ; 
n-yi, ni-2ii ; 
n-du ; n-tu ; 
fi-ka ; m-bu ; 

&fc. 



Bad ... 
Black... 



Female 

Fierce, sharp -kali 



■i-pa ; 

-bi 
Biririri. 

-ku'da, 

•da. 

Biriwiri 
•kazi 



•i-pa 
ya ku'da 

■kazi 



•I'pa ; 
'wi 

•fi'pa 



•kazi 
•kali 



i-dema 



•katsi 



i-pa 


ka-pata. 




•jsata 


duna, 


•swi-pa ; 


•nema, 


•si-pi. 


■dema. 


-si-fu 


•swi-fu 




kadzi ; 


•hadzi 


•hadzi 




ne^hapa 





264 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


/1^9■P^*^^ 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci^ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci^nanswa 


dialects 
(puna, d-'c.) 


(Va^ndau, 
' Sofala 'j 


Good 


•bw-inco 


-ya bu-enco 


•weme ; 
•cowama 




-ru-rama. 
-naka. 
•buya 


•naka. 
•pcone, 
•pswene. 
(Bi-pcone) 


Great 


-kuru 


•kuru 


■kulu 


-.. 


•kuru, 
•huru, 
•guru 


•kurco 


Little 


-ncanco. 
■ce-pa 


-ce-pa 


•tontoj 




•dcokco, 
■diki. 
•dukco^ane 


•dcokco, 
■duku. 
-tsoiiga 


Long 


-tali 




•tali 


... 


•re^fu. 
•re^ba 


-re-fu 


Male 


-mwa-muna. 


-mwa-muna. 


•lume 




■kconco. 


-kconco. 




M pwongco or 


M -pwongco 






•dume. 


-dume 




M-poiigco. 








•rume. 






•ina 








•handira 




Old 


•kale 


-a kaluamba 


•kale, 
-co-kcota, 
•kcota 




■kare. 
•kuru. 
•paru 


•harahwa 


Red 


-flira. 
-psyu 


... 


•sweta 


■tsuku 


-tsuku. 
-^aba. 
-pswuku 


■puka 


Rotten 


-cola, 
•bvunda 


... 


•cola 


... 


-bora 


•wora 


Short 


•fumpa. 

-fupi 
•duara 


... 


•fupi 




-fupi 


•pfupi 


Sick 




•Iwala 




-gwara 


•rwara 


White ... 


-yera, 
•yela 


.•yera 


-tua 


•ebve. 
•pfene 


-cena, 
-jena 


•cena 


Above, up, on 


Pa-mw-amba 




Kum-ulu 


Mco^gcomco 


Pe-;^ugu, 


Ku-msoreo 


top 










Pa-zuru. 

Pa-msorco. 

Gu-denga 




Before 


Pa-tscogorco 


... 


Pa-ntanzi 


Pa-mberi 


Pa-mberi 


Pa-mberi 


Behind 


Pa-m-buyw 




Pa-nseli, 
Pa-vuli 


... 


Pa-pure 


■sure, 

M assure 


Below, down 


Pa-nsi 


... 


Kunya-nsi, 
Pa-nsi 


... 


Pa-si. 
Nya-si 


Pa^si. 
Pa-nyasi 


Far 


Pa-tali 


... 


Ku-tali 


... 


Ku-re. 
Re-fu 


Tambco 


Here 


Apa. 
Paneo. 
Kunco. 
Pompa 




Kunco. 
Apa 




Nco, 
Paneo, 
Panu. 
Pa-. 
Papa- 


Paneo 


In, inside ... 


Mgati. 




Mkati. 


. .. 


Mkati. 


Mu-. 




Umu 




Mu- 




Mu- 


Mu-kati 


Middle ... 


Pa-gati 




Pa^kati 




Mkati 


Pa-kati 


Near 


Pa-fupi. 
Pa-fumpa 




Pa^fupi 


... 


Pe-dyu. 
Pa-fupi 


Pe-dico, 
Pe-dlco, 
Pa-hlco 


Outside . . . 


Pa-nja, 
Ku-nja 


... 


Ku^nja 




Gu-n^e 


Pa-nze 


Plenty, many 


-m-biri 




-ny-inji 


-n-cinci. 


-ij-inzji 


-z-ingi 



Panya 



GROUPS P, Q: THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC., LANGUAGES 26; 





61 b. 


61 c. 


62.^ 


63- 


64.^ 


64 a. 


English 


Ci-peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa 


dialects ^ 


(Va^ndau, 












(^una, &»c.) 


'Sofala') 


There 


Apco. 




Apcd. 


? 


■kco. 


A-pco. 




Ukoj. 




Uku. 




I^kcoku 


l^yco. 




Pompca. 




Ku-la, 






U^kco 




Ku-mene 




Pa-la 








Where? ... 


Ku-ti .? 
Pa-ti ? 


... 


Kuni .? 


Va-pi ? 
•pi.? 


■pi? 


•pi? 


No! 


lai! 




lai ! Na-iia ! 




Gwete ! 
I^nema ! 


Ahina ! 


Tioi('wilhverb, 


Si-; sa-; ii-ka-, 


... 


Nga-. Te-, t-; 




Ha-, A^ ; -sa^, 


A^ (and chang- 


as prefix, in- 


ii-ki-. -je, -be. 




■liye- ; -lico- ; 




-si^', ■tco^ 


ing terminal a 


fix, or suffix) 


-bi 




tosa- ; -sa- ; 
-ye; -ve 
suffixes 




-singa- ; 
A — ti- — , 

A-ka , 

A — iiga- — . 
-rega- {infin.) 


to i) ; -sa- [and 
as in Karana) 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Kco- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


-menya 


-menya 


-nyata 




-rcoba, 
-pfura, 
-pura 


•rtoa 


„ buy, sell 


•gura 


. .. 


■sita 




■teiiga ; 
■pupa, 
-pambadzira 


■tenga 


„ come ... 


•dza 


■za 


•za 




-uya, 
-buya 


■za. 
■via 


„ cut 


-tema 


•tema. 


-tenda. 


... 


■tema. 


■tema. 






-senga 


-tema 




-ceka 


■gura 


„ dance ... 


-bvina 


-vina 


-vina 


-pambira 


-dzana ; 
-tamba 


■zina. 
■tamba 


„ die 


-fa 


-fa 


•fwa 


•fa 


-fa 


■fa 


„ eat 


-dia 


-lia 


-lya 




-dya. 


-rga 


,, give ... 


-ninka ; 
■padza 


... 


-pa; 
-pela 


-pa 


-la. -dhla 
-pa 


(Ku.rga) 
•pa 


>, go 


-yenda, 


-enda 


•ya; 


-venda ; 


-hamba, 


•enda. 




-enda, 




-yenda ; 


-vamba. 


-famba, 


-famba 




-enka 




-pita, 
-luta 


-enda ; 
-pinda 


-enda, 
-inda, 
■wenda 




„ kill ... 


■pa 


... 


-paya 


■baya 


-baya, 
■buraya 


•uraya 


„ know ... 


-dziwa 


•jiwa 


-ziwa 


•ziba 


•dziba 


■ziba, 
■ziwa 


„ laugh ... 


-seka 


... 


-seka 




•sega 


■seka 


„ leave off. 


•leka or 


-leka 


■leka 


... 


•rega 


■rega 


cease 


-reka 












„ love.want 


-konda ; 


... 


-temwa. 


•nuda. 


•da 


■nuda, 




■anja 




-pangwa 


■da 




■da 


„ see 


-una 


... 


•Icola. 
•cana 


... 


■bcona, 
•tarira 


■ona, 
■vuna 


„ sit,reinain. 


-kala. 


• •• 


•kala 


•kara, 


•gara 


•gara 


abide 


-sala 






-gara 
(pret. -kere) 


(p?eL •gere) 




„ sleep ... 


-gtona 


•gcona 


•lala. 
(-kcona = 

snore) 


■bata 


•bata. 
-rara 


•vata. 
•rara 



' -si- in Karana also has the meaning of ' in the habit of as well as a doubtful /neaning approaching the negatiz 



266 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





6 


lb. 


6ic. 


62. 


63- 


64. 


64 a. 


English 


Ci 


■peta 


Ci-cewa 


Ci-nsenga 


Ci-nyai, 


Karana 


Ci-ndau 




(Ma-ravi) 


(West Nyanja) 




Ci-nanswa ' 


dialects 


(Va-ndau, 














(puna, &^ir.) 


' Sofala ') 


To 


Ku- 




Ku- Ku- 


K(o- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


,, stand,stop, 


-ima 




•ima -ima ; 


... 


•mira, 


-sim-uka 


be erect 






-panama 




-miriga. 
■sima ; 
-simba 




„ steal ... 


■ba 




•punpa 


-tonga 


■ba. 
-tapa. 
•tora 


-ba 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN CI-PETA AND CI^CEWA 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M- (yu-, u-, -m-, mu-) ; 2. Wa-, A- (wa) ; 3. Mu-, M^, N- (u, mu-) ; 4. Mi-, Ni- 
(mi-, i) ; 5. — , Di-, Dzi-, Dz-, Zi-, Li- (especially in Ci-cewa) (li, ri) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya-, a, wa) ; 
7. Ki-, Ci-, C- (ci, ki) ; 8. Psi (bzi), Pfi- (old), Vi- (Ci-cewa) (psi-, vi) ; 9. N- (M-), W-, Ny'-, — (i, n-, 
ny-); 10. Zi- (zi) ; 11. (rare) Li., Ri- (li-, ri) ; 12. (rare) Ti- (ti) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; 14. U-, Wu-, Bu- (bu-, 
u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-, -mco). 



PREFIXES, &C., IN CI-NSENGA 
Slight traces of preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, Um-, M-, — , Si-, Asi-, Aci-, A-, Awa-, Wa- (mu-, m, yu-, u-) ; 2. Wa-, A-, Awa-, 
Aci- (wa-, a) ; 3. Mu., Um^, M- (u-, -u-) ; 4. Mi- (i) ; 5. — , Li- (li) ; 6. Ama-, Ma- (a-, wa) ; 7. Ci- 
(ci) ; 8. Vi- (vi) ; 9. N- (M-), Ny-, N-, Nj- (i) ; 10. same as 9 ; also Nz- (concord zi, ^i) ; 11. Ulu., Lu-, 
Du-, Ru^ (lu) ; plur. Ma-lu ; 12. Tu^ (tu) ; 13. Ka- (ka) ; plur. sometimes Vi^, sometimes Tu- ; 14. U- 
(u) ; 15. Ku- (ku) ; 16. Pa-, Apa- (pa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-). 

The honorific prefixes are Si- and Ci- (more often preceded by A-) and also the plurals A- and Awa- 
used in a singular sense. There is much doubling of prefixes, Ci-mu-, Vi-mi-, Ka-mu-, Tu-a-, Vi-u-, Qt'c. 



PREFIXES, &c., IN CI-NYAI (CI-NANSWA)' 

Traces of preprefixes in Classes 9 and 14. 

Class I. Mco-, Mu-, Nu ? (?) ; 2. ? (?) ; 3. M-, Mu-, Wgu-, Gu- (?) ; 4. Me-, Mi- (?) ; J. — , I-, Ji-, 
Le-(?); 6. Ma- (?) ; 7. ? ; 8. ? ; 9. In- (Im-), Iny-, N-, - (.') ; 10. ?; 11. L«-; 12. ?; 13. Ka- ; 14. Ub'-, 
U-, Bco-(?); 15. Ku-; 16. Pa-, Va-; 17. Mco-. 

• Very uncertain. The recorded fragment of Ci-nyai has e^iidently been garbled by a Miticuana. 
interpreter. 



GROUPS P, Q : THE SOUTH NYASALAND, SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ETC., LANGUAGES 267 

PREFIXES, &C., IN KARAWA DIALECTS AND IN CI-NDAU 
Virtually no preprefixes, except in concords and demonstratives. 

Class I. Mu-, Mco-, U- (?), Mnu-, My- (mu, u-, ye-, yu-) ; 2. Ba- ', Wa- (aba, ba) ; 3. Mu-, Mco-, 
M-, Mnu-, My'- (u, yu-, uy'-) ; 4. Mi-, M'- (i, iyi-) ; 5. Ri-, I-, Ji-, or Zi- (Zi- is usually an augmenta- 
tive), — (r'-, ri, ir', ij'-) ; 6. Ma- (a, aw'-, w') ; 7. Ci-, Ji- ? (ci-, ic') ; 8. Zwi-, Dzi- (zwi, dzi-, izw'-) 
8 a(?). Swi- (swi) (//. Bu-, Vu-, No. 14) ^ ; 9. N- (M-), I- (i, iy'-, eyi-) ; 10. same as 9 ; and Dzi-, Zi-, 
Dzin-, Ji-, Jin- (dzi-, ji-, idz'-, ij'-, eji) ; 11. Ru-, Rhu-, Rg- (gu-, ru, uru-, ugu-, ur') ; 12. Tu- (tw-, itco) ; 
13. Ka- (ka-, ikco) ; 14. Bu- ', By-, Bhu-, Wu-, Vu-, U- (bu, by-, ibco, ubu), uhwco) ; 15. Gu-, Ku-, Hu-, 
U- (gu-, ugco) ; 16. Pa- (pa-) ; 17. Mu- (m-, -mu). 

The Nya- prefix is present in ' Sofala ' (Ci-ndau) and so also is Ji- as an honorific prefix : perhaps 
the Nyanja Ci-. Wa- is occasionally an honorific prefix in the plural. The diminutive suffix -ana is 
present. 



61 b. Cipeta is spoken west of the Upper Shir^ river on the south shores of Lake Nyasaas far to the 
north-west as the Lintipe river ; thence southwards to the sources of the Ruofigwe and the Ciritse- 
Luafigwe and westwards over the Undi country almost to the north bank of the Zambezi and the vicinity of 
the great Luangvva confluence. 

61 c. Cicewa is spoken in the south-west coast-lands of Lake Nyasa, south of the Nyasa-Luafigwa 
river, north of the Lintipe and the Upper Bua and east of the great Luafigwa watershed. 

62. Cinsenga is spoken over a wide range of country, chiefly the whole eastern half of the valley of 
the great Luafigwa river from near its sources down to its confluence with the Lunsefwa and to the Undi 
or Maravi country. The ' Unseiiga' region (as it iS called by the Anseiiga) is however invaded on the 
east by colonies of Ba-tumbuka and Angoni-Zulus and on the west by Babisa and Balata. ' 

63. Cinyai is spoken in south central Zambezia, south of the Middle Zambezi between the Hanyani- 
Angwa affluent on the east and the Gwai-^angani river on the west. On the south it grades into the 
Karaiia dialects of Matebele- and Mapunaland ; on the north into Cinsefiga and Maravi. Under the 
name of Cinyau it is spoken at Zumbu. 

64. Karana dialects are spoken south of the Zambezi, from near the Zambezi on the north to the 
Upper Sabi river, Zimbabwe, the borders of the Mapaiigane country and the Matopco hills on the south ; 
east to the Anglo-Portuguese frontier, westward to the range of the Nyai language and the Zambezi plains. 

64 a. Cindau is spoken in the coast country south of the estuarine Zambezi, from about 18° 40' South 
latitude southwards past Beira to the River Gorongcjzi in Sofala Bay. It also extends inland in patches 
to the mountains separating Portuguese South-East Africa from Rhodesia. 

^ There is u. tendency in one or more Karana dialects to pronounce the initial b more dentally, more 
like a V. 

^ This prefix Swi- is a diminutive. 



GROUP Qi 

THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA-PUNGWE-SABI LANGUAGES {continued) 

65. Ci-teve 66. Rongerco (Ba-zarutco I'".) 

65 a. Ci-tombcoji or M-tomb&jji 67. Ci-rue^ (' Vatua ' of Burue or Burue) 

68. Ma-pangana ('Shangaan ', ' Changana ') 



GROUP R> 

THE ^ENGWE-RONGA LANGUAGES 

69. ^engwe or Gi-tonga (Southern 'Vatua' or ' Inhambane") 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67- 


68. 


^ ~^9- 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Rongerco 

(Ba-zarutco) 


Ci-riie 


Ma-pangane 


pengwe 
(Inhambane) 


Adze 






Li-pata. 
N-tsanga 




N-tsanga 


Li-pada 


Animal, wild 


Ny-ama 


Ku-ponza 


Bz-eare (pL). 


Ny-ama-zana 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama. 


beast 






Ny-ama 






Bz-eare (//.). 
Bara. 
Gi-rengco ; fi- 


Ant 


Sundzi 


Sunji 


U-sunzi 


Tu-tuane 


U-sunje 


Scokole. 

U-gugude 


Ant, white 

(termite) 
Arm 






... 




... 


M-uco 


Mu-vukco. 


Bcokco 


Mu-cokco 


M-kconco 


Mw-ukco 


Rambukulco ? 




M-kconoj 










Bcokco, 
Rcokco 


Arrow 


M-senwe, 

M-sewe 


M-paca 


Tare 


M-paca 


M-kondco 


Li-pogco. 
In-sebe. 
Tungi. 
N-gcowe 


Axe 


Sandu 


Buire 


^i-pcoka 


Beura 


Sandco 


Li-ycoga. 
pi-pcoka. 
Li-cadco 


Baboon ... 






... 


In-fene 


In-dede. 
?Kcolco 


Im-fene ; 
jim-fene 


Back 


M-sana 


Sure 


Mi-sana (//.) 


M-sana 


Me-sana (pi.) 


^i-kcose. 
Gi-wunu. 
In-deza 


Banana ... 


Kubco ; ma + 


M-kcobco 


M-kcobco 


Ma-kcobco (//.) 


M-kcobco 


Mu-kcova. 

Mu-abco 


Beard 


M-pungco 


M-pungco 


Devco 


M-pungco 


M-pungco 


Ki-revco. 
Gi-lidco 



1 The reader will notice that the designations of Groups Q and R differ somewhat from those given on page 43, 
and corrected in Addenda et Corrigenda. The later rendering is more in accord with affinities and geogrciphical 
distribution. 

^ The inclusion (j/'Ci-rue in Group Q is rather problematic, as is the language or dialect itself, which may bemore 
nearly related to No. 76 (A-figoni or Gaza). Many 'Vatua' or eastern Zulti words have been incorporated into 
No. 69 f^engwe). Vatua merely means ' Bushmen ', 'pygmies '. It is explained in the Notes. 

' BleeHs ' Inhambane' . We have here no doubt a tningling of distinct dialects, the preponderating type of lan- 
guage being the Gi-tonga of Inhambane. 



GROUPS Q, R: THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ^ENGWE, ETC., LANGUAGES 269 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69- 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombtoji 


Rongereo 

(Ba-zarutco) 


Ci-rue 


Ma-pangane 


pengwe 
(Inhambane) 


Bee 


Ma-ve(//.) 


N-yusi 


N-yuki 


N-yuci 


N-yuci. 
(Ma-ve; pi. 
= wasp) 


N-kabini. 
L-ombe or 
Lombe 


Belly 


Dane 


Dane 


Mimba 


Dane 


Mimba 


Gi-rumbco. 
Mimba. 
Kirre 


Bird 


Ciri 


Ciri 


Dziri 


Ciri. 
Ny-coni 


Ciri. 

Iny-coni 


Nyambane, 
Nyanyane. 
In-yconi ; ji -1- 


Blood 


Ufi-gaze 


Gazi 


M-lojpa 


Mu-rojpa 


M-lcopa 


Ncoba. 
Mu-lcopa. 
Kata 














Body 


M-virco 


M-uiri 


Mu-mire 


M-uiri 


Mu-bire 


Gi-bUi; fi-. 
M-irri, M-irre 


Bone 


Fupa; ma+ 


Pondco 


Fupa 


Fupa ; ma- + 


Fupa ; ma- + 


Ki-rambco; pi-. 
Gi-kcogcolco 


Borassuspalm 


... 


... 




Dekwa; ma-f 


. . . 




Bow 


U-ta 


U-ta 


Hu-ta" 


U-ta 


Hu-ta 


Wu-lavco, 
Vu-lahco. 
Hu-rra, 
Wu-ra 


Bowels 


t • . 


. .. 








Ma-hembe 


Brains 


U-rcobzi 


U-rojbzi 


U-lubzi 


U-rcobzi. 
K'ubco 


U-rubzi 


B-ongco 


Breast (man's) 


• • > 


... 


A-ana 


Ci-fua 


A-ana 


Gi-fuba 


Breast 


Diti 


Diti 




Diti 




Tsombco ; ti + 


(woman's) 














Brother ... 


Bu-rurco 


Hama 


Doani 


M-kcomco 


Mu-kcoma 


Ndi. 
N-duye. 
Mu-longco 


Buffalo ... 


Iny-ati 


Ny-ati 


Ny-ati 


Iny-ati 


Ny-ati 


Nz-arri 


Bull 






... 


... 


... 


Gi-keola gya 
n-ombe 


Buttocks ... 


Ma-takco 


Ma-taku 


Ma-takoj 


Ma-takco 


Ma-takco 


Ma-tagco 


Canoe, boat 


Garaba 


M-kumbe 


Ci-ngalabawa 


M-kumbe 


Galaba 


Wu-arco. 
N-galaba 


Cat 


Paka 


Mangwe 


M-baka 


Mangwe 


M-baka 


Gi-manga 


Charcoal ... 


... 




.4* 






Ma-gale 


Chief 


Mambco 


Mambco 


Hcosi 


M-kcijse 


Mambco 


Hcosi, E-hcosi. 
Pfumu. 

Mu-ni. 
(M-buzco = 
kingdom) 


Child 


Ci-pgere 


Mu-ana 


Mu-ana-na 


Mu-fana 


Ci-pwerere 


Mu-ana-na; ba-. 
Gi-ana-na ; 
pi. p'-ana-na 


Cloth 


Guoa 


Ma-cira {pi.) 


In-dcozo) 


Hia 


Un-gueo. 
Jira 


Ma-kila. 
Tin-guco (pi) 
Mw-enda; my- 


Cold 


... 


... 


... 




• •• 


Gi-rame. Pibco 


Country ... 


Ny-ika 


Ny-ika 


Ny-ika 


I-zue 


Ny-ika 


Li-tigco. 
Li-fuma. 
Wu-langa 














Cow 


M-ombe -kazi 


Gabe -kazi 


Gombe a-kaji 


M-kcomoj 


Gombe a kaji 


Nombe. 
Tere 


Crocodile ... 


Guena. 
Gomombw 


Guena 


Un-gwena 


Gomombco 


Un-gwena 


N-gcona, 
Gwenya, 
In-gweny.-x 


1734 












T 



270 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombeoji 


Rongerco 
(Ba-zarutco) 


Ci-rue 


Ma-pangane 


pengwe 
(Inhambane) 


Day, daylight 


Sikw 


Zua 


Nyama-se 


Tonga 


Zua 


Gambco 
or Dambco. 
Li-cigu; ma- 


Devil, evil 


Pongco 


Mu-zimco 


M-fukwa 


Zi-tuta (?//.) 


Mu-lungco 


Mu-fukwa. 


spirit 












Gi-kuembco 


Doctor (medi- 


... 


... 




... 


... 


In-yanga 


cine man) 














Dog 


Im-bga 


Im-bga 


Im-bwa 


In-dja 


Im-bwa 


Im-bwa ; 
//. ji-mbwa 


Door 


M-suco 


M-su&j 


Tu-vi. 
Mu-sua 


Ci-vae 


Lu-vi. 

Mu-sua 


Lu-bati. 
Ki-kene. 
Li-dimba. 
Ny-angwa 


Dream 


Ku-rcota 


Hcope 


Ku-lcoca 


U-tcomco 


Ku-lcota 


Ku-16ra 

{verb). 
N-dorco ; ji + 


Drum 


Guma 


Gcoma 


In-gcoma 


Zinyu-mbuyco 


Gcoma 


In-gcoma 


Ear 


Zeve 


N-zeve 


Dema 


N-zeve 


lii-gibe 


N-jebe or 
N-zeve; ji + . 
Dema. 
N-dejeli 


Egg 


Ma-zanda (//.] 


Ma-zanda {pi) 


M-anda 


Ma-phanda 


Zanda 


Danza, 
m-andza 


Elephant ... 


Dzuco 


Dzcob) 


Zcoco 


N-jcovco 


Djojco 


Jcovco, 
In-jcovco. 
En-polfco 


Excrement 


Matu-ji 


Matu-bzi 


Matu-bze 


Mtu-bvi 


Mata-bze 


Ma-cimba 


Eye 


J-isco ; 


J-isco ; 


Dz-isco 


J-icco ; 


J-isco 


L-isco or 




ma- + 


ma-sco 




m-ecco 




D-ipco ; pi. 
ma-pco 


Face, forehead M-kcope 


Hcope 


Hcope 


U-sco 


M-esco 


Gcoe 


Fat, oil ... 






Ma-futa 




Ma-futa 


Tsumbco. 
Ma-fura 


Father 


... 






... 


... 


Babe. 

Ny-ehe 


Fear 


Ku-tia 


Ku-tia 


Ku-tia 


Saba 


Ku-tia 


Ku-taba, 
Ku-caba 


Finger 


Bg-in« 


Gu-nue 


Tun-duala(//.) 


Mu-niie 


Ciku-nue 


Lu-tico, Le-tiu. 
Ny-ala 


Fire 


Mu-riroj 


Mu-rirco 


Mu-rirco 


Basco? 


Mu-rirco 


Dzirco, 

In-dzilco. 
Mu-nilco. 
N-delco 


Fish 


Hcoe 


Hcoe 


A-hcobe 


C-andzi ? 


A-hcobe 


ln-janj6. 

'Ei-canve(//.) 
Ki-kaga ; 
pi-kaga 


Foot 


Scoka 


Scoka 


Mu-kondco 


I-nyau 


Lu-scoka 


Ci-pama. 
M-lenge. 
Mufi-gondco. 
Gi-rende 


Forest 


M-sora 


Guaca 


Mi-ti 


Cati 


Mi-ti 


Ti-simbco, 

Ti.sinya(;>/j-.) 
Kwatl. 
Li-kabe. 
Gi-tsinga 


Fowl 


Hukco 


Hukco 


Hukco 


Kukco 


Hukco 


Kugu 



GROUPS Q, R: THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ^ENGWE, ETC., LANGUAGES 271 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Roiigeroj 

(Ba-zarutco) 


Ci-rue 


Ma-pangane 


^engwe 
(Inhambane) 


Frog 














Ghost 


R'-fuba. 


Ku-patika. 


Vuli '" 


Kio-coieo. 


M-vuli 


In-zuti. 




Ce-iigejua. 


Ce-ngwajoo 




Ka-tipinzico 




Gi-kwembco 




U-pinga 












Giraffe 


... 


••• 


... 


... 




... 


Girl 


... 




... 


... 


... 


Gi-ana-na. 
Gy-agaja-na. 
Gia-gadi-ana 


Goat 


Budzi 


Budzi 


M-vuta ? 


Budzi 


Buji 


Psete. 
Buti, 

M-bute. 


„ (he) ... 




... 


.*• 


... 




Pongco; ji + 


„ (she)... 


. .. 


... 


... 


... 




... 


God 


Mto-lungoj 


M(o-lungeo 


I-lumbe 


Pe-zuito 


I-lumbe 


Tilco, 
I-tilco. 

N-tsuma. 


























Nungungulu 


Grandparent 






... 






... 


Grass 


Mu-anje 


Mw-enji 


Ma-tate 


M-cane 


Ma-nsua 


Gi-anye. 
Sinya. 

Ma-kuco. 
Mu-asia-na 


Ground 


Pa-si 


Pa-si 


Ma-vco 


Pa-nzi 


Pa-si 


Ma-fu. 
Sawa 


Ground-nut 


Man-due 


Man-zungco 


Ma-ndcoim 


Man-dungcomani 


Ma-ndcoim 


Ma-nga ; ti + . 
N-ycome; ti-f 


Guinea-fowl 


Hafiga 


Haiiiga 


Mangera 


Pangeya 


Hukco 
i manga 


Maiigera ; ji + 


Gun 


Futi 


Futi 


M-vuti 


Ci-bamco 


M-futi 


M-benye. 
Ki-pisa. 
Gi-bamco 


Hair 


Vuzi 


Vuzi 


Ma-vudzi (//.) 


Zi-nue (//.) 


Ma-vudzi (//.) 


Mi-sise. 
Mu-duju 


Hand 


Ny-ara 


M-anja {pi.) 


Ny-ala 


S-anja 


Ny-ala 


Gi-anja or 
C-anja ; pi. 
ma-nja 


Head 


M-sorco 


M-sorco 


Mu-solco 


Khanda 


Mu-soreo 


^cokco. 
N-sungco; mi-. 
Mu-hungco. 
Mu-hugwco 
Pala. 


Heart 


M-oyoa 


M-oyco 


M-oyco 


Ci-zico or 
■cizico 


M-oyco 


Im-bilco. 

M-onyco ; mi- 


Heel 


Ci-kojkora ga 
n-scoka 


Ci-sisindco 


Ki-rendze 


Ru-nyau 


Si-dimindco 


Gi-renza. 
Gi-cinidco 


Hide 


... 


.*• 


..* 






Li-dcowco 


Hill 




... 


... 


... 




Gi-gonyco, 
Gi-gcomco 


Hippopotamus 


M-vti 


M-vuto 


Vugco 


Bcoma 


M-vuco 


M-vuco. 
Em-bama 


Hoe 






... 


... 


... 


Pata; ma + 


Honey 


Uci 


Uci 


Pudzi 


U-iombe 


Suzi. 
Hu-uce 


Wu-lombe 


Horn 


Ny-anga 


Ny-anga 


Bi-zua 


Pondco 


>Jy-angu 


Lu-nanga. 
Ti-monza(//.). 
Kweco 


House 


Ny-umba 


Pasco, 

M-pasco 


Ny-umba 


In-djco, 
In-ji 


Ny-umba 


Ny-umba, 
Ny-omba 
T 2 



272 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



65. 
Ci-teve 



65 a. 
Ci-tombcijji 



66. 

Rongerco 

(Ba-zarutoj) 



67i 
Ci-rue 



68. 
Ma-sangane 



pengwe 
(Inhambane) 



Hunger 


N-zara 


N-zara 


Zala 


N-jara 


Jala 


In.jala 


Husband ... 




... 








Ncona. 
Muhcoma. 
Mw-ama, 
Mw-ane 


Hyena 


Bongco 


Bongco 


Dukco 


Pisi 


Bongco 


M-isi. 
Dugu ; ma + 


Iron 


Simbi 


Simbi 


Bu-tare 


Simbi 


U-tare 


pi-kedzi or 
Gi-kete ; gi- 


Island 


M-cetco 


C-iwi 


Me-tundco (//.] 


Ci-tsina 


Ci-lundco 


Gi-runzco, 
Gi-rungco 


Ivory 


Maz-inoa a 


Iny-anga a 


Ny-anga a 


Pondco ra 


Ny-anga 


Lu-onzco- 




zcoco 


zcoco 


jcoco 


n-jcoco 




Li-nanga 
la n-jcovco 


Knee 


Ma-ve (//.) 


I-bvi 


Gcogcobvi 


Doyco 


Gcogcobvi 


Dzcolco. 
Pugumudi. 
Dondu ; 
ma-f 


Knife 


Ci-panga 


Ci-panga 


Um-panga 


C-ikco 


Ci-panga 


Mu-gala, 
N-kala. 
Mu-kwa-na 














Lake 


... 






... 




Li-tsivu, 
Li-civa. 
(Bimbi = 

sea) 


Leg 


Mu-renge 


Mu-renge 


Gumbco 


Mu-enze 


Gumbco 


Nengi, 
Nenge ; mi-. 
Ri-tandoo 


Leopard . . 


Kamba 


Kamba 


Kamba 


Ifi-gwe 


Kamba 


Ifi-gwe. 
Kamba 


Lion 


... 




... 






Bondeo, 
Bonda 


Lips 


Mu-rumeo 


Mu-rcomeo 


Mu-lcomco 


Mu-icomco 


Mu-lcomco 


Mi-lcomco or 
I-ncomco (//.) 


Magic 


... 


... 


Mu-lcoi 


... 


Mu-loi 


M-oi or 
Bu-loi. 
Wu-nanga 


Maize 


Ma-bconore 


Ma-bconore 


Ma-fundi 


Mumbco 


Ma-fundi 


Ma-hira. 
Gi-fake 


Man 


Mu-ntu ? 


Mu-ntu ? 




Mu-ntu ; 
a-ntu 


Mu-tu ? 


Mu-tu ; pi. 
ba-tu 


Man, vir. .. 


Mw-anarume 


Jaha. 
M-anarume 


Mw-analume 


Mu-esa 


M-anahume 


Na-nuna. 
Mu-ma ; 
ba-ma 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama-zane 


Ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Medicine . . 


... 




••• 


... 




Mu-rende ; 
mi-rende. 
Ma-kani 


Milk 




. . . 


... 


... 




Ma-pisa 


Monkey .. 


Ma-tede {pi.) 


Tede 


Samba 


... 


Kcolco 


In-^cogco 


Moon 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-edzi 


Mw-eje 


Iny-anga 


Mw-eje 


Mw-ete. 
N-gima, 
Mu-gima 


Mother 






? A-mai 


... 


>** 


Maiji 


Mountain .. 


Ma-tundco {pi.) Duntco 


Duntco 


Tawa 


Duntco 


Gi-gcomco ; fi- 


Mouth 


... 


... 








Gi-hcofu. 
Li-kana. 
Ci-pcofu 



GROUPS Q, R : THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ^ENGWE, ETC., LANGUAGES 273 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Rongerco 

(Ba-zarutco) 


Cirue 


Ma-pangane 


peiiigwe 
(Inhambane) 


Nail (of finger 


Du-ara 


Dzipu 


Indu-ala-na 


Dzipco 


Du-ala 


Ki-kata. 


or toe) 












I-nunala. 
Gi-ala; pi- 


Name 


Z-ina 


Z-ina 


Z-ina 


B-izco 


Z-ina 


L-ina 


Navel 


... 


... 




... 


... 


Mu-rugco. 
N-dende 


Neck 


M-sipa 


M-sipa 


Hulu 


M-sipa 


Hulto 


N-tamco, 
N-amco. 
N-kcolco ; 
//. mi- 


Night 


Sikco 


M-sikto 


Bu-sikci3 


Sukco 


U-sikco 


Bu-sikco. 
(Gi-dema = 

darkness) 


Nose 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Tomfu ; 

J>L ti + 


Ox 


M-ombe 


Gabe rume 


Gombe 
mw-ana hume 


Kcomco 


Kumdzi 


Bcoa. 
Kuze. 
Hcobe; ti + 


Paddle 


... 


... 


. .. 




. . . 




Palm wine, 


U-cema 


Ci-sura, 


Bu-tsema 


Ku-kaya 


U-cema 


Wu-cema. 


beer 




U-cema 








Anga 


Parrot 


Guanga 


Dzapazapa 


... 


Guanga 


... 


... 


Penis 


Borco 


Borco 


M-bcolco 


M-tondco 


M-bcdlco 


Lu- or 
Li-bcolcd 


Pig 


Kumba 


Gurue 


Kumba 


Gurue 


Kumba 


Kumba ; ji-f. 
In-guluwe 


Pigeon 


Jiwa 


Jiwa 


Dziba 


Jiwa 


Jiba 


Li-tuba 


Place 




Pa-m-tundco 


Mu-tundco 


I-zue 


Mu-tundoj 


Gi-ta. 
Mu-to, 
Mu-te. 
Dafiga 


Rain 


M-vura 


M-vm-a 


Vula 


Ma-ndzi 


Vula 


Im-vula. 
N-tsuma. 
N-jaji 


Rat 


Konzco 


Kundana ; 

ma + 


Gusco 


Kundana 


Gonjoj 


Konjua, 
Konjco 


Rhinoceros 


... 


... 


... 




-.. 


Bembere 


River 


Mu-rambco 


M-fuia ? 


Me-lambca(//.) M-fuia 


Me-lambco (//.) 


Nambco. 














Mu-ccogco 


Road 


M-seu. 
Jira 


Patco 


Zira 


Jeia 


Jira 


Jera, 
In-jela, 
N-jila ; ji- 


Salt 


... 


... 


... 


... 




Mu-nyu 


Shame 


... 


... 






... 




Sheep 


Puizi 


Puizi 


Vuta" 


Im-vu 


Vuta 


M-vuta. 
W-iveo ; 
ti-ivco 


Shield 




... 




.(• 


... 


Dcdbco 


Shoulder . . . 


... 


... 


... 






Kata 


Sister 


Hama 


Andi-atsi 




Datu-etoo 


Teta-je 


Ma-kwerco (//.). 
N-dconi 


Skin 


Jcobco 


Dcoco 


Songe 


Ci-kumba 


Dcdbco 


ponge. 
Di-zcobeo, 
Li-dcowco. 
Ccogi 


Sky 


Gure 


Ma-kore 


Kco-hombe 


Pe-zulco 


Gcole 


Ba-cani. 
N-jaji 


Slave 


... 




... 


... 




Pumbi 



274 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


. 69- 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombuji 


Rongerco 

(Ba-zarutoo) 


Ci-rue 


Ma-pangane 


pengwe 
(Inhambane) 


Sleep 


Heope 


Hoope 


Hupe 


Tongco 


Hcope 


Bu-rongco, 
Wu-rongco 


Smoke 


Use 


Ji-utsi 


Mu-isi 


Mu-si 


Hu-isi 


Mu-si, 
Wu-ci, 
Wco-zi 


Snake 


Ny-coka 


Iny-coka 


Ny-coka 


In-hcoka 


Ny-coka 


Iny-coka or 
Ny-coga 


Son, boy ... 


Mw-ana 


Ci-pgere. 
Mw-ana 


Mw-ana 


Mu-fana 


Mw-ana. 
Ci-pwerere 


Mw-ama-na 


Song 


Ku-imba 


Runy-imboj 


Ku-emba 


Ku-cabeia 


Gcoma. 
Humbco 


Lu-simco. 
Ku-imbelela 


Spear 


M-kondto 


M.kondto 


Mu-kondco 


Ci-t'ibco 


Mu-kondco 


Mu-kondco. 
Tari. 
Li.fumco. 
Klare ; 
ma-klare 


Spirit, soul 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Ci-kwembco. 
Li-pubco 


Star 


Ny-erezi 


Ny-erezi 


Ny-areje 


Zinya-ezi (//.) 


Tondco 


Jiny-eleji {pi.) ? 
Ny-uladi 


Stick 


Donga 


Donga 


Gori 


M-teoma 


Gcori 


Nonga 


Stone 


Pue 


Ma-pue {pi.) 


Bwe 


I-ce 


Bwe 


Ri-kwe or 
Ri-bwe. 
Gi-windi; gi- 


Stool 

Sun 


Zua 


Zua 


Zuba 


Tanga 


Zuba 


Li-dambco. 
Li-ani. 
In-sani 


Tail 






... 






M-rcotco 


Tear 


M-sunzi 


Ma-stozi ( pi.) 


Me-sdji (//.) 


Zinyam-bezi 
{pi.) 


Me-seoji (//.) 


Mi-pcoti. 
Ronge ; 

ma-(- 


Testicles . . . 


Ma-cende 


Ma-cende 


Ma-kendi 


Ma-sende 


Ma-cende 


Ma-kenzi 


Thief 


Kuba 


Bava 


Bava 


W-iaba 


Bava 


U-kamba. 
M-bafa; ji-l- 


Thigh 


... 


... 


... 




... 


Tombi ; 

ma-l- 


Thing 


Ci.rco 


Ji-rco 


Ci-rco 


U-teo 


Ci-rco 


Gi-lco; fi-. 
Ko-kare 


Thorn 


Mi-zco (//.) 


Mi-zua {pi) 


Mu-ziia 


Ema-hiva(.?//.) 


Mu-sua 


Mw-iba. 
Mu.zua 
or -tua ; mi- 


Tobacco ... 


Forga 


Forga 


Forga, 
Folya 


Gwai 


Folya 

{Portuguese 
'Folha') 


Fcole, 
I-fcole 


To-day 


Inyama-se 


Inyama-se 


Nyama-si 


Inyamu.ce 


Nyama-si 


Mu-hunco. 
Nyamu-ci, 
Nyamu-ca. 
Nyau-se 


Toe 


Ji.nco re scoka 


Ji-nco 


Gume 


Ji-nco-ja ra 
u-nyau 


Ci-kume 


Lu-tihco, 
Li-tiu 


To-morrow 




... 






... 


Ma-nguane. 
Ji-mindu 


Tongue 


Uru-rimi 


Ru-rumi 


Lime 


U-imi 


U-Ume 


Lu-rime 


Tooth 


Z-inu 


Z-inoD 


M-enco (//.) 


Z-ico, 
Z-inco 


M.enco {pi.) 


D-inco ; 
ma-nco. 
Li-kwaha ; 
ma-kwaha 



GROUPS Q, R: THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ^ENGWE, ETC., LANGUAGES 275 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombeoji 


Rongerco 
(Ba-zarutco) 


Ci-rjie 


Ma-pangane 


^engwe 
(Inhambane) 


Town, village 


M-tercopa 


Dircopa. 


Ny-ika 


Dirupa. 


Ny-ika ya 


N-te; 




(DuUh). 


Mu-pa 


ba-zungeo ^ 


I-kaya 


ba-zungu 


mi-te. 




Mu-zi 










N-danga 


Tree 


Mu-ti 


Mbu-ti. 
Mu-ti 


Mu-ti 


M-ti 


Mu-ti 


Mu-pimbu. 
Mu-ri. 
N-tanda; me- 


Twins 


Manyam-biri 


Manyam-biri 


Ma-ba 


Ma-pacco 


Manya-bire 


Ma-hapa, 
Ma-pasa 


Urine 


Tundco 


Tunda 


Ma-tundco 


Mi-tundeo 


Ma-tundoa 


Mu-runzco. 
Ku-rundza 

(verb) 


War 


Fumu 


Hojondoo 


Imbi 


U-imbi 


Imbi 


Li-tunga. 
Tsunga. 
Ny-umpi. 
Ny-imbi. 
Iny-epe 


Water 


Kuma 


M-vura 


Vula 


Ma-ndzi 


Kuma 


Ma-ti 


Well, spring. 


... 










Nambu 


source 














White man 


Mu-zungto 


Mu-zungco 


Mu-zungM ; ba- 


Mu-iungco ; 
a-iungco 


Mu-zungco ; ba- 


Mu-lungto ; ba 


Wife 


Mu-kazi 


Mu-kadzi 




M-fazi 


.. . 


Mu-kate or 
G-ade. 
Ng-aja 


Wind 


Dutco 


Dutoo 


M-pepco 


M-vya 


M-pepco 


N-kayi. 
Li-puboj 


Witch 


M-roi 


U-takati 


Mu-loi 


Ku-nkui 


Mu-loi 


Noi, 
I-noai, 
Doi 


Witchcraft 




... 


... 






Wu-nanga. 
Bu-roi (?) 


Woman ... 


Mwana-kazi 


Mw-adzi mai 


Mwana-kaji 


M-fazi 


Mwana-kaji 


Mwafi-gaji. 
Nyamayi. 
Mu-gade ? 



Womb 


■ • • 










• • . 


Wood (fire- 


*•• 




... 




... 


Tin-geoni 


wood) 














Yam 


M-fisore 


M-fisore 


.. 


Mu-karara 


... 


... 


Year 


Kore 


Kore 


Gole '" 


Zuia ra 
pe-zuioo 


Gore 


Mw-aga ; mi- 
Lembe. 
Mu-gua 


Yesterday... 


... 






... 


'* ' 


Nya-noya. 
Bu-ntova. 
Nya-tulco 


Zebra 


... 




... 




... 


Mangiia 


One 


Pcasi. 


Pojsi. 


Pcosa. 


Mu-nyi, 


Pcosa. 


-mue. 




-mwe 


-mwe 


-mwe 


-nye 


-mwe 


Moyco. 

Mwedco, 

Moidco 


Two 


Piri, 


Piri, 


Pire, 


-bihi 


■wire 


-m-bire, 




-wiri 


•wiri 


-wire 






-bill, 
-vili. 
-bere, 
-bede 



' Lit : ' country of the white man ' 



276 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



65. 

Ci-teve 


65 a. 
Ci-tombcoji 


66. 
Rongerto 

(Ba-zarutco) 


67. 
Ci-rue 



Ma. 



pangi 



ane 



Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 



■tatco 



■tatco 



Tandatco 



■sanco 



Tandatco 



Seven... 
Eight... 
Nine ... 

Ten ... 
Eleven 

Twenty 

Thirty 
Forty... 
Fifty ... 



Ci-ncome 



Sere 



Ci-ncome 



Sere 



■tatco 



Mu-na, 
•na 



-sanco. 
Hu-bande or 
Lu-bande 

Tandatco. 
Mamu-mwe 



Ci-nomwe. 
Nami-vire 

Sere. 

Name-tatco 



■tatu 



■ne 



-panco na 
me-tu 
(or mu-ntu) 
mu-nye 



sanco na 



■tatco 



Mu-na, 

■na. 

Mu-longa 

mu^na 
-panco 



Tandatco. 
Mamu^mwe 



Ncomwe 



Femba-mwe Femba-mwe Fumba-mwe 



a-nto) 

a-bihi 

■panco na Sere, 

a-ntco I ■sere. 

a-tatco Name-tatco 
■sanco na a^ntco Fumba-mwe 

wa^ne 



Gume 

Gume na 
i-mwe 



Ma-kum' 
a-biri 



Ma^kum' 
a^ tatco 



Gume 

Gume na 
i-mwe 



Ma-kum' 
a-biri 



Ma-kum' 
a-tatco 



Kue-gume Sume 

Sume-mu-mwe Sume na 
mu-ntu 
mu-nyc 



Ma-kum' 
a-wire 



Ma-kum' 
a-tatco 



Ma-pum' 
a-bihi 



Ma-pum' 
a-tatco 



Ma-kum' Ma-kum' Ma-kum-a-na Ma-pum' 

arangcomu-na arangcomu-na wa-ne 



Ma-kum' 
a-sanco 



Ma-kum' 
a-sanco 



Ma-kum' 
a-sanco 



Ma-pume 
a-sanco 



Gume 

Sume ina 
mu-mwe 



Ma-kum' 
a-wire 



Ma-kum' 
a-tatco 



Ma-kum-a- 
longco-mu-na 

Ma-kum' 
a-panco 



$9- 

pengwe 

(Inhambane) 



-raru. 

-tarrco, 

-rarco 
-ne, 

-ni, 

-na 

Li-bande or 

Ru-bande. 

■tanco, 

-panco 
Tandarcd 

(old). 

Li-bande na 

li-mwedco. 

-panco-a- 

li-mwe. 

Ni-ji-mwe 
Li-bande na 

-bili. 

Ni-ji-m-bili 
Li-bande na 

tatu. 

Ni-ji-n-arco 
Li-bande 

na-na. 

Numu-ne. 

-panco 

a-mu-ne 
Kume or 

Li-kumi 
Kumi ni 

i-mwe. 

Kumi na 

mwedco 
Ma-kum' 

bari ' or 

Ma-kum' 

a-birre or 

Ma-kumi 

ma-bili 
Ma-kumi 

ma-raru. 

Ma-kum' 

an-arrco 
Ma-kumi 

ma-na. 

Mu-na-ma-na- 

kume 
Ru-bande 

la ma-kumi. 

Tana-mana- 

kume 

Ma-kumi 

li-bande " 



Note the West African -bari (' two ') 



Sixty = Ru-bande (Ru-pande) na ma-kumi na kumi mwedco (Bleek). 



GROUPS Q,R: THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA, f^ENGWE, ETC., LANGUAGES 277 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Rongerco 

(Ba-zarutco) 


Ci-rue 


Ma-pangane 


^engwe 
(Inhambane) 


Hundred ... 


Zana 


Zana 


Zana 


Zana. 

(ri-nye = one) 


Zana 


Li-zane 


Thousand . . . 


Zana gume 


Zana gume 


? Lu-bande 


Za.na. jsume or 


Gumi 


Kume 








ma-zana 


^ume na 
ma-zana 


na-ma-zana 


gama-zana. 








(? 500) 




Ma-zana kumi 


I, me, my ... 


I-ninco. 


I-nini. 


Ki-ne. I-ne. 


Mi-na. 


Mi-na, I-ne. 


Eni. 




-a-ngco 


-a-ngeo 


Di-, D'-, Ni-. 

-di-. 

-a-ngti> 


-ha-me 


Mi-. 
-ni-, -n-. 
-a-ne 


Nyi-. 
-nyi. 
-a-ngu, -a-ne 


Thou, thee, thy 


I-wewe. 


I ■ wewe. 


K-ena. 


Ue-na. 


We-na. I-we 


Uwe, Iwe. 




-a-keo 


-a-koa 


-a-kto 


-a-kco 




U-. 

-uwe. -a-geo 


He, him, his 


I-ena. 


I-ena. 


Ki-na. 


I-ena-io). 




Uye. Oyu. 




U-. 


-a-kwe 


-a-pe 


Yu-. 




U-, A-. 




-a-ke 




-a-kwe 




-mu-. 














-a-ye, -a-ge 


"We, us, our 


Tisco, 


Isco. 


Tisco. 


Tico-kco. 


Ti-na. Itu 


Hihi. 




I-susu. 


-e-dco 


-e-dco 


Si-. 




Hi-. 




-a-dco 






■iti; -ki-ti 




-hi-, -a-tu 


Ye, you, your 


... 


Mu-ese. 


... 


longwe. 


... 


Enu. 




-e-nyoo 


-e-nyco 




a-nu 




Mu-. 

-mu-, -mi-, 
-a-nu 


They, them. 




• ■■ 






We-na 


Aba. 


their 












Ba-. 

-y-awe, -a-we 


All 


J-ese, 
■ese 


-ese 


-ose 


-onge 


-onke 


-ope? 
N-tsabeo, 
Cabco 


This, these 


U 


Uco 




Yco 




Uyu, awa ; 
uwu, ii ; 
ili, aya ; 
egi, epi; 

dr'c. 
-yco (u-yco, 
ki-yco, d^c.) 


That, those 




-onduo) 




■ya 




-le (u-le, 6^c.) 


Bad 


Ka-pata 


Ka-^ata 




-ka-bie 




Kco-i-pa. 












Ka-ndigwadi. 














I-bi-hele 


Black 


•pipa 


■sifco 


-sipa 


■nyama 


-nyame, 


-ntima. 










-niinyame 


-nlima. 














Ny-ipula 


Female 


■kazi 


-kadzi 


-a sate 


-faza-na 


-a-sate 


-a-sate 


Fierce, sharp. 


... 




... 




... 




bitter 














Good 


Ka-naka 


-dizi. 

Ka-naka 


-yana 


-ce 


-selya 


-cambe, 
-camba. 
-i-nene 



.78 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



.65- 
Ci-teve 



65 a. 
Ci-tombojji 



66. 
Rongerco 

(Ba-zarutco) 



67. 
Ci-rue 



68. 
Ma-sangane 



Great .. 



Little .. 



Long ... 
Male ... 

Old ... 



Red ... 

Rotten 

Short... 

Sick ... 
White 



•kurco 



■dcokb 



-rume 



-hurco 



■dcokc 



■reba 



■dcokw-ane 



-ana rume 
-hume 



-kuiu 



-te 
-diina 



■cena 



■pena, 
-cena 



•ccope 



•Scope 



^9- 

^engwe 

(Inhambane) 



da 


■lera. 




-de. 




■kongoilu 


muny-ane 


■scogcony-ane, 




-muny-ane. 
-dcokw-ana. 




In-dutco 




-la-pile 


ndcoda 


-nuna. 




-nduda 




-kalekale ; 




-kuramba. 




■cikwa. 




0-kumbele 




-a-favi-Ia 




-wenila 




•fupi, 
-fubi 




-dwale 



-^cope ; 



Above, up, on 

top 
Before 

Behind 

Below, down 

Far 

Here 

In, inside ... 
Middle 
Near 

Outside 

Plenty, many, -bea 

much 
There Apco 

Where? ... 



No! 

Not (with verb, A- 
as prefix, in- 
fix, or suffix) 



Pondcopca 



lapa 



-gcona, 

-bea 
Ico 



Ahina ! 
A- 



Anda 
Genu 



•bea 
le 



-inge 

Na-paia 



Bindi. 

Ba-cani 
I-mbele or 

Mbeli 
Tagoj ku-. 

Hw-ane 
Baba-ci. 

Ba-si 
Mw-ingco 
Kwaba. 

Kunaba 
I-ndani 
Ba-kori 
Va-fupi or 

Ba-fubi 
Baba-nje 
•zitere.' 

-ingi 
Abu. 

Aba 
Iti-pi? 

Ba-pe? 

B-ebi ? 
Ne! 

Karii! 
•ka- ; -si- ; 

-iiga-. 

-mwalco 

[with nouns). 

Gima = 

never. Ter- 
minal -a 

changes to -i 



' Compare Swahili Tele. 



GROUPS Q, R : THE SOUTHERN RHODESIA, ^ENGWE, ETC., LANGUAGES 279 





65. 


65 a. 


66. 


67. 


68. 


69. 


English 


Ci-teve 


Ci-tombcoji 


Rongerco 

(Ba^zarutco) 


Ci^iue 


Ma-pangane 


^engwe 
(Inhambane) 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


... 


... 






• . . 


•beta 


„ buy, sell 






-tanga .' 




•tanya 


•tenga, 
•renga, or 
•pawa 


„ come ... 


-via 


•via 


•uya 


•buya 


•buya 


•ta. 
•bua, 
•buya 


„ cut 






... 






-kuka. 
-pila 


„ dance ... 


■tamba 


•tamba 


•lamba 


•ajaia 


•sina 


•hana. 
-kina, 
•gina 


„ die 


•fa 


•fa 


•fa 


•fa 


•fa 


•fa 


„ eat 


•rga 


• •> 


•dia 


•r^a? 


•lya 


•la or •ga 


„ give ... 


•pa 


•pa 


-pa 


•nika 


•nika 


•ninga. 
•ba 


-. go 


•nenda, 
•enda 


•enda 


•pinda 


•hamba 


■ambia ? 


•ya. 
•inda or 
•enda 


„ kill ... 


-orai 


■oraya 


-gula 


•buiaya 


•gumia 


•gubia. 
•ja:^a. 
•songa 


„ know ... 


•gisiva 


•zuia 


•ziziwa 


•wiaazi ? 


ea^gu^aze 


-ti, 
•tiba 


„ laugh ... 


-seka 


•seka 


•seka 


•peka 


■seka 


•hega, 

•peka 


„ leave off, 






... 




... 


•disa, 
•dica. 


cease 
























•ciya 


„ love, want 




... 


•funa. 
•bzinga 




•funa 


•funa ? 
•halaja 


„ see 


•wna 


una 




•buna 


•ona 


•wona. 
(•keja = 

look) 


„ sit,remain, 




... 






••• 


•kala 


abide 














„ sleep ... 


... 




... 






•lala, 
■ilala. 
•ruama 


„ stand, stop. 




... 


. . . 






•emila, 


be erect 












-ema 


„ steal ... 


■ba 




•ba 


... 


-ba 


■ba 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN CI-TEVE, CI-TOMB(jOJI, CI-RUE, ROffGEROO 

AND MA-^ANGANE 

Preprefixes are present in Classes 9 and 11. 
Class I. Mu., M^, A^i (concord, ?) ; 3. Ba-, A- (Ci-rue) (ba-, a) ; 3. Mu-, M-, ? Gu^ (?) ; 4. Mi-, 
Me^ (?) ; S. Ji^, Dzi^, — (ri) ; 6. Ma^ (a) ; 7. Ci-, Ji-, Ki- (ci) ; 8. ?Bzi- (?) ; 9. In- (Im-), Iny-, Un-, N-, 
Ny-, — (?) ; 10. same as 9?, Zi- (Ci-rue) (zi) ; 11. Uru-, Ulu-, Ru- (ru, lu) ; 12. ? missing ; 13. Ka ? 
(Ci-riie) (?) ; 14. U-, Hu-, By^, Bg^, Bu^ (concord probably same as prefix); 15. Ku. ; i6. Pa-, Pe- 
(pa) ; 17. ? (-ni, -ne) ; ? 18. Gu-. 

The Nya- (Inya-) prefix is present. 

' ? A- honorific. 



28o ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES, &C., IN pENGWE (INHAMBANE) 
Traces of preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu-, M-, Wa-' (mu-, yu, u ?) ; 2. Ba-, Wa- (ba) ; 3. Mu-, M-, N- (wu ?) ; 4. Mi- (i) ; 5. Li-, 
Di-, D', — (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, ya) : 7. Gi-, Ki- (gi, ki) ; 8. ^i-, p'- (in dialects, Zi-, Bzi-) (pi-) ; 9. In- 
(Im-), N-, Ny-, — (i, n-) ; 10. Jin-, Ji-'' (ji) ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; 12. ?missing; 13. .'missing; 14. Wu-, Vu- 
Bu- (u-, bu) ; 15. Ku-, Hu- (Ku-) (ku) ; 16. Ba-, Va- (pa-, ba, va-) ; 17. ?Im- (-ni, -ne). 

The Nya- prefix is present and the -ana dimin. suffix. 



65. Citeve is spoken behind the Sofala coast of Portuguese South-east Africa, east of the Rhodesian 
frontier, between the Upper Pungwe river and the Buzico. 

65 a. Citombcoji is spoken in the region behind Sofala, about the upper waters of the Buzio and as 
far south as the Sabi. 

66. Rongeroj is spoken on the Bazaruto) coast and islands south of the Lower Sabi river. 

67. Ciriie is spoken in the Bcorue country and Gorongcoza, between the Rhodesian frontier on the 
west and the Sofala-Zambezi coast belt. 

68. Ma^angane is spoken between the Middle Sabi river and the Limpcopco, east of the Rhodesian 
frontier ; also in southernmost Rhodesia. 

69. ^eng'we is spoken in the coast district of Inhambane from Cape Sao Sebastiao to Cape Corrientes. 
' Wa- (l.f/ Class), perhaps, is honorific. ^ Perhaps in some dialects Tin-, Ti-. 



GROUP R 

THE ^SENGWE-RONGA LANGUAGES (continued) 



70. Ctopi or ^i-tswa (pi-lenge, Hlengwe) 

71. Thonga (?r Ronga ' 



71 e. pi-loi (Nwa-lungw) 
7 1 f. pi-gwamba 



GROUP S 

THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 
72. Ci-venda 73. Se-suthw 73 a. Se-pedi (Peli) 





70. 


71- 


71 e. 


71 f. 


72 


73- 


English 


Ccopi or 

pi-tswa 

(Pi-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 


Ronga 


pi-loi or 
Nwa-lungco 


pi-gwamba 


Ci-venda 


Se-suthco 
73 a. Se-pedi 


Adze 


N-zanga 


pi-kcomu 






Lu-kwea 


Petlco 


Animal, wild 


Ci-hari 


^i-hari 


... 


pi-hari. 


Ci-puka. 


Se-cedi. 


beast 








^i-vanja-na 


Ci-dtodco. 
Ci-vanda 


Se-ojka. 
Se-bata-na 


Ant 


Vu-stokcoti 

(ants in 
swarms) 


N-sukuti, 
Bu-sukojti 


N-sukcoti 


Vu-sukcoti 


Lu-sunzi 


Phcophcolto 


Ant, white 


Mu-swa. 




.. • 


Mu-hlwa 


Mu-cenze. 


Mto-swa, 


(termite) 


Vu-scohaha 








Mu-tywa 


Vu)-swa 


Arm 


Pojkco 


Bukw ; ma + 


Bojkco ; ma + 


Vcokco ; ma + 


Vcohco ; ma -(- . 
C-anda 


Le-tscoxcj ; 
ma-vcoxw. 

Mco-x&>nco;me 


Arrow 


N-gojve, 
N-tsiri. 
N-seve 




Cem-beti 


N-seve ; 
mi-seve 


Mu-sevhe 


Mco-kcovo; me- 
Mco-seme; me- 

Mojsevco. 
Mco-tswe. 
Mco-tsu 


Axe 


N-gwangwa ; 
ci- 


Kaula ; ma + 


... 


pi-hlcoka 


M-badco 


Lco-mela. 
Se-lepe 


Baboon 


Fene; 

i>l. tsi + . 
Psene or 
Pryene 






M-fene; ti + 


Tyhco^co, 
Thcohco 


Mco-kconi. 
Cwene 


Back 


N-sana 


N-hlana 


Mco-hlana; me- 


N-hlana 


Mu-tana 


Mco-tlhana, 
Mcohlana. 
Mco-kcotco. 
Se-hcolcohco!co 


Banana ... 


N-komva. 
N-cenge; 
n-tsenge 


N-senge 




N-kombva 


Mu-omva 


... 


Beard 


Ci-letsu 


Ma-lepfu (//.). 
In-defco 


Ma-lebvu 


Ma-lebvu 


N-debvu. 
Lu-lebvu, 
Ku-debvu 


Ma-lelu ; -telu 


Bee 


Nombe ; tsi- 


Ny-topi 


Ny-copi 


Ny-cosi ; ti + 


N-coci 


N-cose. 




(//.) 






Le-pcokane 


Belly 


Mimba. 
Siisu 


Khuri 




Khwiri 


Thumbu 


Mco-rcopa. 
Loj-vala ; 
pi. li-pala. 
Se-nana 

(abdomen) 



' According to H. Jtmod, Thonga or Ronga divides into the following dialects : 71 a Bila (north-east) j 71 b 
Hlanganu (west) ; 71 c Jonga.(west central) ; 71 d pi-konde (south, on Afaputa river), pi-loi 71 e, of the North-east 
Transvaal, is probably only a dialect (jfThonga ; and the same must be said about ^i-gwamba. 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



70. 

Ccopi or 

pi-tswa 

(^Menge, 

Hlengwe ?) 



71- 
Ronga 



7ie. 

gi-loi or 

Nwa-lungco 



71 f. 
pi-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



7.3- 
Se-suthca 

73 a. Se-pedi 



Bird Ci-nyana Nyanya-na 

Blood Ncoha N-gati 

Body M-idi ; //. mi + M-iri 



pi-nyanya-na; Ci-nconi ; zwi- 
swi- 

N-gati Ma-lofha 

Mm-eri ; mi + Mu-vili 



Bone Rambco; ma+ Rambu; ma+ Rambco; ma+ Rambco ; ma+ Samboi 



Borassus palm N-lala ; mi- 
Bow Vu-lasu 



Bowels 



Brains 



W-onga 



Ci-tamulco 



Ndeu ; 

ti-ndeu. 

Rumbu ; ma + 
B-ongwe;ma + 



Breast (man's) N-g:anga ; 
itsi + . 
Ci-fuba 



pi-fiiba 



Breast Cumbu ; Bele ; ma + 

(woman's) tsi + , ti + 

Brother ... Makwa. Makwa.^ 
Nongoj N-disa-na 



Buffalo 
Bull ... 

Buttocks 



Ny-ahi 

M-bcowa. 
Duna 



Ny-ari 
N-kuzi ; ti + 



Ma-taku (//.). N-caku, 
Ny-onga; tsi- N-thaku 



Canoe 


Gw-aru. 


By-atu. 




Tarco 


In-cene 


Cat 


W-onga. 
(Tsinjba = 

a zvild cat or 


^i-paka-na 


Charcoal .. 


leopard) 
Khala 


Khala ; mj 



Vu-ra 

Ma-rumbu 

By-ongco 
pi-fuva 



Makwa 



Vu-ra 

Ma-rumbu. 
Vhu-la 

Vhu-luvhi 

Damu 



Mu-kcoma-na. 
Mu-rathu 



Ny-ari 



N-jakco ; ti -I- 



N-ari 

M-btoho3 
(cf. root words 
for' Buffalo') 

Ma-rah&j or 
Mu-rahu 



By-acco ; ma + . Gungwa 
pi-kaka-fu 
Si-manga Ci-mange. 

Phaha 



Non', 

Nonya-na 
Ma-li. 

Le-teli 
Mm-ele, 

Se-vele, 

Mco-vele 
Le-xwele. 

Le-papco ; fl. 

ma-rapu. 

Vo-ra. 

N-kcope. 

Se-phetha 
Vco-la. 

Ma-umeo. 

Se-b« 
Vco-tokco, 

Vco-bcoku 
Se-fexa or 

-phexa. 

ge-xuba. 

Se-fura ; le-. 

Peta 
Le-tsele ; 

ma-vele 
N-naka. 

Nw-ana 

(with pass. 

pronoun). 

Wa-mine. 

Mco-ena. 

Mco-xcolto. 

Mco-nya-ne 
N-are. 

KxcSlumco 
Pcoco, 

PcohoD, 

Phcolco. 

Kxutcoku 
Se-bono, 

Se-vunu. 

Mco-raxco; 

me ; 

Se-rupa. 

Le-raco 
M(o-koro3 

Phaxa. 
Se-maka. 
Tlcoli 



' Makw'eru = tny, lit. 'our' brother. 
Makw-enu = thy (your) brother. 
Makw-abu = his (their) brother. 



GROUPS R, S: THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 283 



English 



70. 

Ccopi or 

^i-tswa 

(pi-lenge 

Hlengwe ?) 



71. 
Ronga 



71 e. 

pi-loi or 

Nwa-lungco 



Chief 


Li-busco 


^i-fuyco. Hojsi 




(-busa = to 


Hcos-ana. 




govern). 


Mu-fumoj. 




In-kuma 


(Ku-fuma = 
to rule) 


Child 


Mu-ana-na 


Nw-ana 


Cloth 


Mu-enda ? 


Ma-rcotco. 
Kapura-na 


Cold 


M-behco, 
Pehco 


^i-rami 


Country .. 


Ikco ; 
ma-iko3. 
T-ikco ; ma + 


T-ikco 


Cow ... . 


Nombe. 


Hcomu ya 




Hcomu 


n-tsele. 
gi-fuyco ? 

(= chief) 



Crocodile ... N-gcona; tsi-f 

Day, daylight Di-siku. Siku or 

(Tsikari = Di-siku; ma + 

day-time) 



Devil, evil 
spirit 

Doctor (medi- 
cine man) 


N-diki. 
N-guluvi 
Nanga 


Nanga ; ti -t- 


Dog 


Im-bywa 


M-bya-na. 
Yira-bya 


Donkey 
Door, door- 


M-bongcolco 
Timba 


M-boiigcolco 
Ci-falco 


way 
Dream 


Ci-lcohco 


Nofco; 
mi-lofco 


Drum 

Ear 

Egg 


N-gcoma 

N-dzeve, 
N-zeve 

D-anda ; 
m-anda 


Mun-tinti. 
Danda-ne 
N-dhlebe 

T-andya ; 
m-andya 


Elephant ... 


N-zcofu; tsi- 


N-dlcopfu N- 
' Mto-fum' a-hali 



71 f. 

^i-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



71- 
Se-suthcib 

73 a. Se-pedi 



Hcosi 


Khcosi. 


Kxcopi. 




N-duna 


Ma-pale. 
Ma>-rena. 
(Le-fumco^ = 

riches) 


Nw-ana ; 


Nw-ana 


Nw-ana, 


va-ana 




Mw-ana ; 
v-ana 


N-guvu ; ti + 


Nw-enda. 


Kxai. 




Sila 


Kcovco 


^i-rami 


Ci-fefco or 


Phefco. 


Phephco 


Vco-ruru. 






(Ma-riha, 






Ma-rexa = 






cold season) 


T-ikco; ma + 


pangco 


Le-fatse. 




Naha 


Hcomco ya 


Khulukadzi. 


Kxcomco. 


n-tswele. 


Khcolcomco 


(Kxanwa = 


(Hcomco = 




milch cow. 


cattle ; pi. 




Kxcomco, 


ti -hcomco) 




'L\-w'k. = cattle) 


N-gwenya 


Ng-wena 


Kwena 


Siku 


Mu-si. 


Mco-se. 




Dyuvha 


Mco-hla. 
Le-tsatsi. 
Ny-ene. 
Nakco 

(time, season) 


Jfanga 


Nanga 


Naka. 

Mco-vei. 
Mw-alafi ; 
va-alafi 


M-bya-na 


M-bya. 


M-p2ia, 




M-bya, 


M-pya. 




M-bwa 


Mo3-tlape. 
Pheke 


Nn-anzwa 


Vco-thi'; pi. 
ma-h(o-thi 


Mco-liakco 


Norco ; 


Mu-lorco ; mi- 


Li-loro, 


mi-lorco 




H CO -lor a. 

Toroo. 

Bco-rcokco 


N-gcoma 


N-gcoma 


Kcoma 


N-dleve 


N-deve 


Tseve 


T-andya 


Gumba. 


Le-he. 




(egg-shell is 


Le-kxcopa. 




Ganda ; 


Le-nata. 




ma-kanda) 


Le-cae,Le-tsae 


N-dlcopfu 


N-dcou 


Tlcou 



Queen, lit. ' chief— female! 



284 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


70. 

Ccopi or 

gi-tswa 

($i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 


71- 
Ronga 


71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-lungeo 


71 f. 
pi-gwamba 


72. 
Ci-venda 


7.3- 
Se-stithci 

73 a. Se-pedi 


Excrement 


Mi-cimba {pL). 
N-dcove 




Ma-cimba 


Ma-cimba 


Le-sepa. 
Le-thete 


Eye 


D-isco ; 


T-ihlco; 


T-ihlco; ma + 


Itco, 


Le-isco ; 




ma-sco 


ma-hlu 




D-itco, 
D-isco ; 
m-esco, 
ma-tco 


ma-sco 


Face.forehead Kcohe ; tsi + . 


Bu-sco. R-isco 


M-ombco 


Khcofe, 


Mco-xcofe. 




Ma-sco-ni. 


L-isu. 




Khcofe-ni. 


Phatco. 




M-ombco 


M-ombco 




Ci-fatuwco 


Se-fata. 
Le-bala 


Fat 


Ma-fura or 
Ma-fuha 


Ma-fura 


Ma-fura 


Ma-pfura 


Ma-xura, 
Ma-fura. 
Vco-ncona 


Father ... 


Tati 


Tata-na. 
Rorw'- 

(Roi'w'anga = 
my father, 
cr-c.) 


Tati-ana 


Khcotsi 


Rara, 
Hara. 

N-tata. 
Papa 


Fear 


Ci-tavu. 


Bu-toya. N-cabu 


N-cavco 


Ny-cofhco 


Ma)-voifco. 




Ku-tava 


N-cabu, 






Tsabco 




[verb) 


Ku-caba 








Finger 


Li-tsiheo 


Li-tihco; tin- 


Ri-tihfo ; //. 


Mu-nwe. 


Mco-nco ; 




(//. tsi-) 




tin-tihco 


Gu-nwe 

(bigfinger, 
thumb') 


me-nco 

McL)-nw-ana 


Fire, heat... 


N-dilco, 


N-dyilco ; mi-. 


N-jilco ; 


Mu-lilco. 


M<o-lelco, 




N-dilu. 


(M-otye = 


mi-rilco 


M-otco 


V(o-lilco. 




(Ku-coka = to 


tight of fire) 




{poetical) 


M-oUco (73 a) 




warm oneself. 












■coka = roast. 












•cota, root 












word) 










Fish 


Tsanzi ; tsi + 


N.hlampfi;ti + 


N-hlampfi 


Khcovhe 


Xlapi 


Foot 


N-kondco 


N-kondyco ; mi- 


Nenge ; 
mi-lenge 


Mu-lenze 


Le- or 
Lco-naco. 
Le-cotco, 
Le-kcotco 


Forest 




Mu-chu, 
Mu-thu. 
N-timu 


^i-hlahla 


Daka 


Se-kxwa. 
Mo-rii (73 a) 


Fowl 


N-guku 


N-kuku, 
Huku 


Huku 


Khuhu 


Kxcoxco, 

M(o-kcokco 


Frog 








Ci-runzi 


Se-hcohco. 
N-ketu. 
N-kcolane 


Ghost 


N-guluvi. 

M-oya 


M-oya 


M-oya 




Mco-limco ; me- 


Giraffe 




N-hutlwa or 
Huhlu 


... 


... 


Thuhlco, 
Thutwa, 
Thutco 


Girl 


Li-kenji. 


N-hwa-na ; 


N-hwa-na ; 


Mu-sidz-ana 


Mon-tsana. 




Ci-kunzu. 


wan-hwa-na 


ba-hwa-na 




Mm-nyana. 




Mu-hora-na. 








Mw-Ale, 




Nya-mayi. 








Nw-ale ; 




M-biri 








v-ale. 














Moj-thepa 



GROUPS R, S : THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 285 



English 



70. 

Ccopi or 

^i-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hleiigwe ?) 




71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nvva-lungco 



Goat 



Pongd 



(he) . 
(she) 



God 



Grandparent 



Grass... 



Ma-bofigwe 

M-beha 

In-kulukumba. 
(N-guluvi = 
a departed 
spirit) 

Kcakvir-ani 



M-buti. 
Sim-but-ana 
= kid ; pi. 
ppi- 



Kcokw-ana 



Vu-asi 



By-anyi 



Ground 


Ma.fu 


Mi-saba {pi.) 


Ground-nut 


Tsi-numi or 
Ti-numi 


... 


Guinea-fowl 
Gun 


M-hangela 
Ci-bamu 


^i-balesa 


Hair 


N-sisi 


N-sisi 


Hand 


D-anza; 
m-anza 


pi-papa 



Head ... 

Heart... 
Heel ... 
Hide ... 


I-pungji, 
In-|sungu 
.. M-bilu 
Ci-hende 


N-hlcokto; mi + 

M-bilu 
pi-renje 
Si-khumba. 
N-tehe 


Hill ... . 


Ci-dyuri 


N-tyunga 


Hippopotai 
Hoe ... 


mus M-vulwa 
N-suka 


M-pfubu. 
(Jfwa-m-pfubu, 

honorific) 


Honey 


Vu-lombe 


Bu-lombe 


Horn ... . 


.. Kehco 


Li-hondcoj pi. 
tim-hondw 



71 f. 

pi-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



73 a. 



73^ 
Se-suthc& 
Se-pedi 



M-buti 



M-budzi 



pi-kwembu Mu-dzimu 



Kcokw-ana Ma-khulu ( pi) 



Puli 



Thcokco, 
Phukco 

Mco-ribi 
Mco-limco 



M 0) - xcol coxcolco. 
N-kxconco o. 
Kcokco, 
Kuku. 

Rra-kxtolo) o 



By-anye 


H-atsi. 


Vco-yan, 




Fundwi ; 


V^-an. 




ma-hundwi 


Mco-nyane 




{thick grass) 




Mi-saba {pi) 


Ma-vu 


Vco-theco. 
Lefa-ce. 
Mco-bii 


Ma-nza (//.) 


N-duhu 


T-luii, 
Tuii, 

li+ orx\ + 


Mangelu 


Khanga 


Kxaka 


pi-bamto 


Ci-bamu 


Tlhcobolco. 
Mco-pcopco 


N-sisi 


Ma-vudzi. 

Mam-wele 


Mco-riri 


p-andla 


C-anda 


Le-bcohco. 
Se-atla, 
Se-ata ; 
pi. ti- or ri- 
Mco-xconco ; 
me- 


N-hlcokco 


Thohco 


Hlcohco. 
Xlcokco 


M-bilu 


M-bilu 


Pelco 


pi-renje ; swi- 


Ci-rethe 


Se-rithe 


N-hlonge 


Mu-kumba 


Mco-kxcopa. 
Le-papa. 
Se-tlalco 


Ganza 


Ku-tava. 
Mu-vhundu 


Thava-na 


M-pfuvu 


M-vuvu 


Kuvu ; ti-. 
Ma-rcota-ne 


Si-kcomu; swi- 


Dzembe ; 


Se-xcoma. 




ma-lembe 


M(o-hcoma 


Vu-lombe 


Vu-ci. 


V-cose, 




Mu-toli 


N-cose. 
Le-tlcoli 


Rim-honjco 


Lu-naiaga 


Naka 

(Se-, Lw-). 
Le-phcotco 

u 



286 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



70. 

Ccdpi or 

pi-tswa 

(pi-lenge, 

Hleng'we?) 



71- 
Ronga 



71 e. 
gi-loi or 
Nwa-lungco 



71 f. 
^i-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



73^ 
Se-suthco 
73 a. Se-pedi 



House. 



Hunger 
Husband 
Hyena 
Iron ... 



Island 
Ivory... 

Knee ... 



Knife ... 

Lake ... 

Leg ... 

Leopard 

Lion ... 
Lips ... 
Magic... 

Maize... 



Ny-umba. 
Kay a {ho7ne). 
Vw-akori 



Yin-dlu ; 
Kaya 



ti + . 



N-zala 



N-dlala 



Mw-aha-na ; va- Nuna. 

N-kata ; ba- 
M-hisi 



Ci-kete 



Ci-rungu 



Dundu, 
Lundu ; 

pi. tsi + 
Mu-k'wa 



N-simbi 



Nenge 



N-gala, 

Nala 
N-lebete ; 

mi-lebete 
Vu-nanga. 

Vu-loyi 



Ma-faki 



Tsulco 

Mu-kwa ; mi- 



Tiba ; ma + . 

(Lw-andle ' = 

sea) 
Nenge ; 

mi-lenge 

Yin-gTve 



N-dyau ; ti + . 

N-gala 
Numco; 

mi-lcomca 
Vu-roi 



pi-tamu 



N-dyangco 


Yin-dhlu 


N-du, 


N-tlu; X\-. 






Ku-du, 


N-t<o ; //. 






Li-du. 


ma-tco. 






(Vumba = 


(Le-tscopa, 






clay walls of 


M<M-vcopa = 






house) 


clay walls 
of a house) 
(-umba). 
Mw-ako) ; pi. 
ni-akco. 
(Hae = home) 


N-dlala 


N-dlala. 


N-dala 


Tlala. 

Le-phafu 


... 


Nuna; va-f 


Mu-nna 


Tcota. 

Bco-hali 


M-hisi 


M-hisi 


Phele 


Phiri. 

Le-firi-tscoane 


N-simbi 


N-simbi 


Tsimbi. 


Vcj-rale, 






Lu-rale 


Vco-rala 






(metal). 








N-gwedi 








{iron ore) 






Si-hlala 


Ci-tanga-dzime 


Se-keli 




... 


Lu-nanga 


Se-lcopa 






Iwa n-dcou 




... 


Ccolu 


Gcona. 


Khuru. 






N-dolco 


Le-nole. 
Le-tcoloj 




Mu-kwana 


Lu-fanga ; pi. 


Mco-faka, 






phanga. 


Mco-phaka. 






(Ku-panga = 


Se-thipa 






small knife. 








Banga = 








large knife) 






Tiva 


Dzivha 


Le-wata. 
Le-tsa 
Le-watle'^ 




Nenge 


Gw-end&3, 


Le-kcotto. 






Mw-endco 


Le-cotco. 
Mco-Gjmoj 


Yifi-gwe 


Yifi-gwe 


N-gwe 


N-kwe. 
Le-naoj. 
Le-ptoxoj 






N-dau 


Tau. 
Le-kakuba 




Ncomco ; 


Mi-lum&j (//.) 


Pcounama. 




mi-leomoj 




Ma)-ltomoj;me- 




Swa vun-gcoma Ma-dambi. 


V(o-fephe. 






Ma-lingco. 


Vco-loi. 






Vu-iianga 


(Xco-loya = 

to bewitch) ' 




Ma-vele 


Ci-ktoli 


Se-fela. Chake 



' Evidently borrowed from Zulu. ^ Le-coatle is the Posa Ulw-andhle (-anja) = sea^ 

^ Additional words for magic and magician, soothsayer, diviner, cs^c, in Se-suthco : — Mu-kcome, Vco-loi, Mco-loi, 



I\I(u-lekco, -leka, -Icoa, -Icoea. 



GROUPS R, S : THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 287 



English 



70. 

Ccapi or 

pi-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 



Ronga 



71 e. 

gi-loi or 

Nwa-lungoa 



71 f. 
^i-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



73- 

Se-suthcia 

73 a. Se-pedi 



Man 

Man, vir. .. 


Mu-ndu ; 
va-ndu 


Mhu-nu ; 
bha-nu. Also 
Mu-nhu 
{Jonga) and 
Mto-hu. 
(Dyaha = 
young man) 
Tsuna 


Meat 

Medicine .. 


Ny-ama 
Vu-nanga. 
Mu-rende 


Ny-ama 


Milk 


Ma-hwa. 

Ma-si 


N-tywamba 


Monkey ... 
Moon 


Kavu ; tsi + 
N-cima 


Hw-eti' 


Mother ... 
Mountain ... 


Mamani. 

(Nyeo = 
vagina) 

Dyuri 


Mama-na. 
Nwa- 

(with posses- 
sive particle) 
N-haba 


Mouth 


Ci-pcofu 


Ncomco ; mi + 



Nhw-eti 



Mana 



Nail (of finger C-ala ; pi. 

or toe) s-ala 

Name T-ina;ma + 

Navel 



Neck ... 
Night... 

Nose ... 
Ox ... 



Tamu or 
N-dhamu 



Bitco ; ma + 
In-kava 



En-kolco. 

^i-kcosi. 

Namu 
Bu-siku 



Vu-siku. 

N-tema. 

(Ptiu = 

darkness) 
Tomvu ; ma + Nhompfu, 

A-nonfco ; ti + 
N-ombe Hcomu ; ti + 



N-koomu 



Mo-nhu ; //. 
ba-nhu 



Nuna 



Ny-ama 

Mi-vu 



Mu-thu ; va- 



Ma-fi, 
Ma-si 



N-kabco 

Nhw-eti 



Manana 

N-cava 

Ncomco ; 
mi-lcomcii 

N-hwala 

Vitco ; ma + 

N-hlana 
Vu-siku 

Ti-nhumpfu 
Havi 



' The sound of thick milk falling in clots. 



Mu-nna 



N-ama 

Mu-re ? 
Mu-songa 

Mu-khaha. 
Ma-fhi. 

(verb= -hama, 
-Yama) 

Nw-edzi, 
M-edzi. 
(C-edza = 
' moonlight ') 

Mme 



Thava, 
-tava 

Mu-lcomco 



Lun-ala ; pi. 
n-ala 
Dz-ina 

Lu-khcovco ? 

Mu-tsinga 

Vu-siku 

Ningca 

Kholcomco 

(with various 

prefixes 

-gcolcomcd, 

-kolcomco). 

Phulu 



MoD-thu ; 
va-thu 



Mto-ncona. 

Mo-nna;//.va-. 

V(o-t(ona. 

Teota 

N-ama 

Vu-re. 

Mco-lema. 

Bco-laco 
Ma-fi, Ma-fsi. 

Le-bese. 

Bele.' 

(-xama verb) 
Kxavo) 
Nw-eli, 

Kxw-eli. 

(Se-etsa = 

' moonlight ') 
Mme. 

Mama 



Thava. 

Mco-kcolco. 

Le-lcoti 
Ma)-lcomco. 

Mcoma. 

Le-hanu 
Len-ala, Lco- 

Le-ina. 

Le-bitsto 
Mco-hiivii, 

Mco-khubu. 

Le-khuthu 
Thamco. 

Mco-lala 

V(o-sixo3, 

Vco-pixco. 

(Le-fifi = 

darkness) 
N-kco ; lifi-kco. 

M-mcopto 
Kxcomw. 

Li-ve. 

Phcolco 



U 2 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


70. 

Ccopi or 

pi-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 


7i- 
Ronga 


71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-lungto 


71 f. 
pi-gwamba 


72. 
Ci-venda 


73- 

Se-suthei 

73 a. Se-pedi 



Paddle 

Palm wine, Vu-adwa. 
beer Vu-cema 



Wombe; ma + 
By-ala 

[beer). 
Bu-sura 



Parrot 




... 


Penis 


Peke? 


piru? 


Pig 


Kumba. 
(N-guluvi = 

a departed 
spirit .') 


N-gulube 


Pigeon 


Ci-duva-ne 


Tuba; ma+ 


Place 


M-bangu. 


M-bangu. 




N-daco. 


^i-bati 




N-yumco,-imu 


{^.sleeping-) 




Helca( 'mahali 






Swak.) 




Rain 


N-zuma 




Rat 


M-beva. 


M-beva. 




Konzco 


Khondlu) 


Rhinoceros 


Ci-dawane ; 
mu-komba> 


Me-lembe 


River 


Nambco 


Nambu. 
N-fula 


Road 


N-zila 


N-dlela 


Salt 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nyu 


Shame 


W-gana 




Sheep 


M-vuta. 


Im-pfu 




Hamba 


Hamba ; ti + 


Shield 


I-cangu or 
Tlangu 


^i-tlhangu 


Shotdder ... 


Kata 


Katla; ma + 


Sister 


Nongco 


Makwa 


Skin 


... 


N-hlonge. 
N-thee 


Sky 


N-zuma-ni 


TUo) 


Slave 


Mu-kumbi 


Si-kirawa. 
N-hlcokw. 
Nanda 


Sleep 


(Ma-lalu = 
place) 


... 


Smoke 


Mb-utsi. 
M-usi 


M-usi 



Vco-cema 


Mu-thcobi. 


Vco-yalwa 




Halwa 


(beer) 


Hcokwe. 


Khwamba 




Ny-enga 






M-bolco 


N-nyco ? 


N-tcotco. 
N-cucu. 
Ptolto. 

Mco-sukco 


N-guluve 


N-guluve 


Kcolcove. 
Fariki 


Tuva 


Li-ivha 


Le-eva, 
Le-eba 


N-jau 


Fhe-thu 


Fe-lco. 
Ng-alu 


M-pfula 


M-vula 


Pula 


M-beva 


Buku 


Le-phcohco 

Peva ; li + 
Phera. 

Tsukulu. 

Tsere. 

Le-xcofco 


Nambco 


Mu-lambco 


Ncoka. 
M(o-lapco 


N-dlela 


N-dila 


Tsela 


Mu-nyu 


Mu-nco 


Le-tswai. 

(Mco-nyco = 
a relish to 
food) 


Ti-ngana 


Thconi 


Xlon, 
i,i-xlon 


Nyim-pfu 


N-gu 


N-ku ; li", ma- 


^i-tlangu 


Ci-tangu 


Se-phemelco. 




Thebe 


Katla; m-1- 


^ada 


Le-ruli. 
Le-xetla. 
Le-xcope 


Makwa 


Khala'dzi 


Mco-xcolco. 
Mco-rathco 


N-jcovco 


Lu-kanda 


Le-thalco. 
Kcobco 


Tiloj 


Lu-tombco 


Le-xcoli-mco 


Khumbi 


Phuli 


Mo-ruwa ; va- 
Le-kape, 
Le-kapa ; ma 


Vu-rongco 


Khcofhe 


Le-ithco. 
Bco-rcokco 


M-usi 


M-utsi, 
V-utsi 


M-copi 



GROUPS R, S: THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA.-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 289 



English 



70. 

Ccopi or 

pi-tsTva 

(pi-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 




71 e. 

gi-loi or 

Nwa-lungto 



71 f. 
^i-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



73- 

Se-suthc3 

73 a. Se-pedi 



Snake 


Mamba 


Ny-coka 




Son, boy, 


Nw-ana, 


Mu-fana ; ba-. 




youth 


Mu-fana, 


Nw-ana ; 






N-sata-na. 


ba-ana. 






N-jambi. 


Dyaha 






Jaha. 








Jambi-ana. 








Nuna-na 






Song 


N-embtij. 
N-dhandu 


Li-simu ; pi. ti- 




Spear 


Di-cari 


Tlhari ; ma + . 
Fumu 




Spirit, soul 


Dhlcozi 


M-oya 


.. 


Star 


Ny-eleti ; 
tsiny-eleti 


Ny-eleti 




Stick 


N-cisco- 


Ny-onga ; ti + . 


,. 




Kcotongelco. 


N-khabi 






N -donga 






Stone 


Diri-gwe; ma- 


Ri-bwe, 


Ri-bye 




' Ci-windi 


Dyi-bye; ma + 





OlOOl 

Sun 

TaU 


D-ambu or 

Gambco, 

T-ambu ; //. 

mad-ambu 
N-cila, 

N-kila 


D-ambu 
N-kila 


Dy-am 


Tear 


N-rongoj ; 


Ny-embeti ; mi- 




Testicles .. 


mi-rongco. 
N-scotsi ; mi- 
Ma-kende 


... 




Thief 


M-bafa; tsi + . 
(Vu-kamba = 

robbery) 


^i-yibi; pfi-. 
Kamba 




Thigh 


M-lenge 


Tombi, 

An-cumbi 




Thing 

Thorn 


Ci-lcj ; zi-. 
(C-uma = 

things, 
property) 
Mu-pa 


N-cumu ; mi- 
Mu-twa 


gi-l« ; 
pgi-lto 


Tobacco .. 


Fojla, 

Fcowa 


Fcola 


•• 



Ny-coka 


N-cowa 


N-coxa 


Nw-ana 


Mu-rwa 


Mo-rwa. 
Mco-fana 



Ri-simco 
Thlari 



M-oya 
Ny-eleti 

N-honga 



Lu-imbco 

Pfumco. 
N-nthi 

M-uya 
Na-ledzi 

Thanda 



Ri-bye ; ma+ T-ombco 



Ci-dzulco 
Dy-ambco ; Duva, 

m-ambco Duvha 



N-cila 



N-hlcoti 



Mu-cila 



Mu-tcodzi ; mi- 

or ma- pi. 



Ma-kende. Ma-cende 

Vu-djcoconyco 



Kbamba 



Ci-lco ; 

pfi-lco or 

pi-lco. 

Swi-lco 
Mu-kwa 



Fcole 



M-bava. 
Fobvu. 
Dz-iva, 
T-iva 



Ci-thu, 
Di-thu 



Mu-pfa 
Fcola 



Kcopa 

Le-rumco ; 

Ccoza. 

Le-tlele 
Mco-limco ; 
Na-leli 



va- 



Le-re ; 

ma-re. 

Mo3-sema 
Le-swika, 

Le-itswe, 

Le-ntswe. 

Le-ywe, 

Le-ye. 

Le-v^e 
Se-tulco 
Le-laka. 

Le-tsatsi, 

Le-caci. 

Le-vakco 
Mo-sela. 

Le-ccova. 

Mro-hatla 
Keleli. 

Mco-xcokxco 

Le-kata ; ma-. 

Le-scothco ; 

ma-. 

Le-rete 
Se-liva. 

Le-fcotha. 

Mco-iits'wa, 

Mco-utswi 
Le-sufu. 

Se-rope. 

Le-vale ; 

li-pale 
Se-lco. 

Nthco ;//.« + . 

Taba 

Le-eva. 

Ma-eva, 
M(D-tlwa; me- 
Mco-ccokco 



pi. 



290 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



70. 

Ccopi or 

pi-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 



71- 
Ronga 



71 e. 

gi-loi or 

Nwa-lungeo 



71 f. 
^i-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



73- 

Se-suthta 

73 a. Se-pedi 



To-day- 



Toe 

To-morrow 
Tongue 

Tooth 



Town, village 
Tree 



Ny-ansi 



Li'dimi 

D-inco ; 
ma-nco 

N-ti; 

mi-ti 
N-dongco, 

N -donga. 

Mu-pi 



Namu-nhla 



Mun-duku 
Li-dyimi 

T-inyo) ; 
m-enycij 

Mu-ti. 
N-tsindya 

Mu-fi 



Ri-rimi 



Twins 


Ma-hasa 




Urine 

Vein 


Ma-rundco ? 
(Ku-runda 

verb) 


Mu-ronda 


War 

Water 


Ny-imbi 
Ma-ti 


Fumu. 
Mu-bangu. 
Y-impi 

Ma-ti 


Well, spring, 
source 


Ci-sima 




White man 
Wife 


Mu-tloaka. 

N-dima 
Nsi-kati. 

N-katsi. 

N-hrima. 

(Vu-katsi = 

marriage) 


Mu-lungu ; ba- 

N-sati or 
Wan-sati, 
Ababa-sati, or 
Baba-sati 


Wind 

Witch 


Puhu 

(Li-puhco ; 

tsi-puhco) 
Noyi ; va-i- 


M-hehoo, 
M-oya 

Noi. 

Mun-gcoma 



MtD-bangu 
Ma-ti 



Namu-nhla 


Namu-si. 


Ka-lienco. 




Naa-si 


Ka-jenco. 

Na-se. 

Namco-se. 

Le-iconco 


gi-kujw-ana 


Ci-ku-nwe. 


McD-nw-ana. 




Gu-nwe 


Mco-nco 


Mun-juku 


Ma-celto 


Mco-s5 


Ri-rimi ; 


Lu-limi ; //. 


Le-leme, 


tin-jimi 


n-dimi 


Lco-leme 


T-inco ; 


L-ineo, 


Le-inco ; 


m-inco 


Inco; 


ma-inoo, 




ma-nco 


me-enco 


Mu-ti 


Mu-di 


Mo>tse 


Mu-ri 


Mu-ri 


Ma>-ilare ; 
me-. 
Le-fate, 
Se-fate. 

(Mco-re, 
Vo-re = 
drug, poison) 


Ma-hahla 


Li-fata ; ma- 


Ma-faxla 
(sing. 
Le-faxla) 


Mu-runja 


Mu-rundco 


Mto-rotco. 
Mcj-tlhapoo 


N-siya ; mi- 


Lu-tsinga 


Le-sika. 
Moo-thapco 


M-bangco 


N-ndwa 


t,i-ra. 
Le-pheke. 
Xco-lwa 


Ma-ti 


Ma-di 


Ma-etse. 
(Bco-liba = 

deep water) 


gi-dziba 


Ci-sima 


Se-liba. 


(also ocean. 




Mco-pima. 


abyss) ; pi. 




Mco-tsweli 


pfi-dziba 






Mu-lungu ; va- 


Mu-lungu. 
Mu-khuwa 


Le-kxcoa; ma- 


N-sati. 


Mu-sadzi 


Mco-xaca, 


N-kata 




Mco-xali. 
(Se-antoj = 

a woman who 
succeeds her 
sister as 
wife) 


M-oya 


M-uya. 


Phefco. 




Phephco 


Le-limco ; 
ti-timco 


Noyi; 


Mu-loi 


Mco-flfa, 


va-loyi 




Mco.fifi. 
Mco-leki, 
Mco-lekto. 
Mco-loi 



GROUPS R. S: THE fjENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 291 



English 



70. 

Ccopi or 

pi-tswa 

(^Menge, 

Hlengwe ?) 



^l■ 

Roiiga 



71 e 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-lungco 



71 f. 
pi-gwamba 



72. 
Ci-venda 



73- 

Se-suthco 

73 a. Se-pedi 



Witchcraft 


Vu-loyi. 
Ku-loya {verb\ 






Woman ... 


N-katsi 


Wan-sati. 






{bride). 


Em-psele 






N-satsi 






Womb 


Susu. 
Mimba 


Khuri 




Wood (fire- 


Kuni; tsi-t- 


Li-kunyi ; 




wood) 




ti-hunyi 




Yam 


N-silu 






Year 


Lembe ; ma + 


Nw-aka. 
Lembe; ma+. 
M-ak'cono) = 
this year 
(M-aka) 




Yesterday 


Nya-ncova, 
Nya-tulco 


Tcolcd 




Zebra 


Mangwa. 


M-hangwa ; 






Duva 


ti + 




One 


■mweyco, 
-mwecco 


•nwe 


-nwe 


Two 


-m-bidi 


-bifi, 
-bidi 


■beri 


Three 


•raru 


-raru or 
N-haru 


•raru 


Four 


-ne 


Mu-ne 


•ne 


Five 


Li-handi 


N-tlhanu 


•thlanu 



Six 

Seven. 

Eight . 
Nine . 

Ten .. 



[Combinations (Combinations •thlanu 
of Li-handi of N-tlhanu na nwe 

and the first and the first 
four numerals, four numerals) 
Vide gi-lenge 
Grammar) 



■kumi 



Khume 



Khume 





Vhu-loi. 


Voj-loi. 




Vu-iianga 


Tcou. 

Ma-lcowa. 
Hio-reba. 
Hto-neha 


N-sati 


Mu-sadzi, 
Ci^sadzi 

(dimin.) 


M(o-sali 
Popeleo 


Ri-kunyi 


Lu-huni ; pi. 


Kxon, 




khuni. 


Li-kxon, 




(Guni = 


Le-xon 




a big piece) 




N^hlata 


Mu^ramboj 


■ .* 


Lembe 


Nw^aha, 


Nw-axa (73 a). 




M-aha ; 


Ny-axa, 




min-waha 


Ny-aha 


Tulco 


Mu-ltovha 


Ma-ltova, 
Ma-lcova-ne 


Mangwa 


M^bidi 


Pitse. 
Qwaha 


-nwe 


-thihi 


•nye. 
•nwe 


-beri, 


-vili, 


-veli 


JVI-biri 


•vhili, 


(•peli. 




M^bili 


•beli) 


■naru, 


•raru. 


•rarco, 


•raru, 


•tharu 


•tharco 


N^haru 






Mu^ne 


-na, 
■nna 


-ne 


N-thlanu 


-tanu, 
-thanu 


-xlanco 


(Combinations 


-tanu 


•ratarco, 


0/ N-thlanu 


na thihi. 


•thatarco. 


and the first 


-tandnthihi 


Mco-tave 


four numerals] 




{i.e. thumb). 
Tselela 


>j 


Tungula. 


Li •pupa (or 




Thanu 


Moo-pupa ; 




na m-bili 


i.e. the index 
finger on the 
hand) 




Thanu 


Vo)-fera 




na tharu 


me-nco e 
me -veli 


j> 


Thanu 


Se-nyane 




na-nna 


V(o-fera 

ma)-nco 

o-te 


Khume 


Fumi, •humi 


Le-scome 



292 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



Eleven 

Twenty 

Thirty 
Forty... 
Fifty ... 
Hundred 
Thousand 

I, me, my 



70. 

Ccopi or 

pi-tswa 

(^i4enge, 

Hlengwe ?) 



71- 
Ronga 



71 e. 

^i-loi or 

Nwa-lungco 



71 f. 

pi-gwamba 


72. 
Ci-venda 


73- 

Se-suthu 

73 a. Se-pedi 



Kumi ni 
•mweyco 

Ma-kumi 
mam-bidi 

Ma>kumi 

ma-raru 
Mu-ne 

wa ma-kumi 
Li-handi la 

ma-kumi 



Khume 
na -n'we 

Ma-kume 
ma-biri 

Ma-kume 

ma-raru 
Mu-ne wa 

ma-kume 
N-tlhanu wa 

ma-kume 



Ma-khume 
ma-beri 



Tsana ; wa -f Dzana 



Dzana 



Kumi da 
ma-tsana 

A-ni. Mi-na. 
N-, Ni-. 
-ui-. -a-ngu 



Thou, thee, thy A-we. We-na, 
U-. 
-ku-. -a-ku 



He, him, his 



Yu. Ye-na. 
Ya-, A-, 00-. 
-mu-. -a-kwe 



We, 



us, our 



A-tu. 
H'-, 
-hi-. 



Hi-na. 
Hi- 
-a-tu 



Khume da 
ma-dzana 

Mi. Mi-ne. 
Ndyi- Ndi-, 
Nd'.,Ndzi-,Ni-. 
-ndi-. -ene, 
-a-nga 
We. We-ne. 

U-, Ku-, W'-. 

-nhu. -ku-. 

-a-ku 
Ye-ne. Ye. 

A-, 0-, I-, 

A-wa-, I-wa-. 

-mu-. -a-k'we 

or -a-ke 
Hi-ne. Hi. 

Hi-. 

-hi-, -h'-. 

-iru, -eru 



Khume na 
fi-nwe 

Ma-khume 
ma-beri or 
mam-biri 

Ma-kume 
ma-raru 

Mu-ne wa 
ma-kume 

N-thlanu wa 
ma-kume 

Dzana 

Khume ra 
ma-dzana 



Fumi na 
n-thihi 

Ma-humi 
ma-vili 

Ma-humi 

ma-raru 
Ma-humi 

ma-na 
Ma-humi 

ma-tanu 
Dana; 

ma-dana 
Ma-dana 

a-fumi 



Mi-na. 
Nri-. 
■nri-. 



Me-e. 
-a-nga 

We-e. 
-ku.. 

Ye-e. 
-a-ke 

Hi-na. He-e. 
Hi-, H'-. 

•hi-, -e-ru 



Me-na. N-ne. 

Nji-, Ndi-, N-, ? Ndi-. 

Nda-. -n-. -ndi, 

-ndi-. -a-nga -a-nga 



We-na. 

U-. 

-nhu. 

-a-ku 
Ye-na. 

A-. 

-mu-. 



We-na, Vto-na. 

U-. 

-U-, -ku-. 

■voj-na? -a-ku? 
Ye-na. 

CO-. 

-mu- .' 

-nwe, 



•nco, 
■kwe 



I -we, Vhco-ne. 

U-. 

-U-. -vhco-ne, 

-a-u 
E-ne. 

U-, A-. 

-mu-. 



-a-we 



Hi-na. 
Hi-, 
-he-, -eru 



Ri-ne. 
Ri-. 

-ri-. -a-s 



Ye, you, your A-nu. Mwi-na. Nwi-ne. Nwi. Nwe-na. 



Mu-, 
•mi-. 



M'- 



Tbey, them, 
their 



AU 



A-va. 
Na-. 
■va-. 



Vco-na. 



Mi-, M-, Nw-, 
-m-, -mco-. 
-nwco, -inu, 
-enu 
Bco-ne. Bco. 
Ba-, B'-. 
-ba-. -a-bu 



Wwe-e 



Bco-na. Buco. 
Ba-, Va-. 
-ba-. -bu 



Nwe-na, Mi-na, 
M-. 

-mi-, -mu-. 
-enu 

Bu-na. 
Ba-, Va-, Be-. 
-ba-. -bu, 
-vu 



Inwi. 
Ni-. 
-ni-. -a-nu 



Va, Vha 
Vhu-ne. 
Va-. 
-va-. -a-vu 



use. 


Hikwa- 


Hikwe- 


(Hikw-eru = 




all we ; 




Hikwe-nu = 




all ye ; 




Hikwa-bu = 




all they ; 




Hikwa-wu, 




Hikwa-yu, 




&-€.) 



Hikwa- 

-epe {in the 
sense of ' that 
is all') 



Hikwa- 



-othe 



Le-pume cwa 
xa-nwe or 
xa-nye 

Ma-pume ale 
ma-veli 

Ma-pume ale 
ma-tharu 

Ma-pume ale 
ma-ne 

Ma-pume ale 
ma-xlanu 

Le-kxulo 

Se-kete; li- 



Me-na, N-na, 

Ke-. 

•m-, -n-. 
ka, -esu, 

-a-me 
We-na. 

00-. 

•XU-. 

-xuxu 
Ye-na. 
A-, 00. 
-mu-. 



eno, 
■xu 



xwe, 
-xaxwe 

Re-na. 

Re-. 

•re^. •re^na, 

-ru-na, -ecu, 

-esu 
Lu-na, Le-na. 

Nye-na. 

Le-. 

-le-. -le-na, 

-lu-na, -enu 
u-na. Bu-na. 

Va-, Ba-. 

■va-, -ba-. 

-vu-na, -bu-na, 

-a-vu, -a-bu 

-oxle 



GROUPS R, S : THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 293 





70. 


^l• 


71 e. 


71 f. 


. 72- 


73- 


English 


Cupi or 

^i-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 


Ronga 


^i-loi or 
Nwa-lungw 


pi-gwamba 


Ci-venda 


Se-suthco 
73 a. Se-pedi 


This, these 


Yu-, va- ; wu-, 


Lw-e-, Iw-eyi, 


Leo, Ico-yi, 


Leo, ba- ; la-, 


Uyu, ava ; 


Eco, va-<o; co-co 




yi-, 6^1:. 


la-ba ; Ico or 


la-ba ; Ico-wu, 


le-; le-pi. 


uyu, -iyi ; 


e-co; le-a),a-co 




A-yu-wa, a-yu ; 


Iw-wu, le, 


le-yi ; le-ri, 


le-swi ; (s^c. 


ili, aya; ici. 


se-co,,ce-co ; 




a-va-wa, a-va; 


le-yi; le-dyi, 


la-ya; le-ci, 




izwi ; dr'c. 


Ico-co ; v^^co-co. 




a-wu, a-wu-wa; 


la-wa ; le-fi. 


le-pci ; le-yi, 




Ho-yu, ha-va; 


E-nco, va-nco ; 




a-yi, a-yi-ya ; 


le-pfi ; le-yi ; 


le-ti ; rco-lo) ; 




ho-yu, he-i ; 


le-neo, Ss'c. 




a-di, a-di-ya ; 


le-ti ; Ico-lu ; 


lye-byi; Ico-ku; 




Ss'c. 






a-wa ; a-ci-ya, 


le-byi ; Ico-ku ; 


la-ha 




Ho-yco, ha-vco ; 






a-ci ; a-si, 


la-ha 






he-yco ; Ss^c. 






a-si-ya; a-yi, 














a-yi-ya ; a-tsi. 














a-tsi-ya ; a-li. 














a-li-ya ; a-vu. 














a-vu-ya ; a-ku. 














a-ku-wa 












That, those 


Ayco, avco; 


Lw-eyo3 (i). 


Lo-ye ; &'c. 


Lu-ya,le-ya(l); 


(jQ-neo-yu (i). 


Eco-la, va-la ; 




is'c. 


la-bco (2) ; (S-'c. 


Lu-ya, lu-yan, 


le-giya (7), 


v-ene-va (2) ; 


6-la, e-la ; 




Ayu-lee (i) ; 


Lwa-ya, 


yco-lco. 


le-swiya (8) 


y-ene-i (9) ; 


le-la, a-la ; 




ava-lee (2) ; 


Iwa-ya-n, 


yco-lo-yi(l); 




&-C. 


se-la, ce-la ; 




S^c. 


ye-lw-e (l), 


ba-la-ba ; &'c. 




OO-nco-yco (l), 


e-la, ce-la ; 




Ayu-leyaa (l); 


la-ba-ya, 






v-ene-vo) (2) ; 


Ico-la ; v^co-la 




h^c. 


la-ba-ya-n(2), 
bco-la-ba, 
ba)-la-bco(2) ; 
Ico, Ico-wu, 

1(0-W(0, 

Ico-wu-ya, 
Ico-wu-ya-n, 

wco-lco-wu (3), 






y-ene-yco (9) ; 

00-nco-hco-yu, 
cd-nco-ho-yco 

(I); 

v-ene-ha-va, 
v-ene-ha-vco 
(2) ; 6-^. 
U-la, va-la ; 
u-la, i-la ; 

Hco-u-la, 
ha-va-la ; 
he-i-la (9) ;6^f. 


(14) or 
Eco-na, va-na ; 

■ne (Eco-ne ; 


Bad 


-walu. 


Ku-bi-ha. 


-bi-ha 


•bi-ha {verb). 


-vi, 


-ve. 




Ku-bi-ha 


-fani 




{pret., 
■be-hile) 


-vhi 


-mpe 


Black 


■nzi. -ntima 


-ntima 


-ntima 


-ntima 


-tsvyu. -rema 


-ntsco, -tsoj 


Female 


-satsi. 


•sati. 


-sati 


-sati 


-kadzi, 


-xali. 




-katsi. 


-kati, 






-hadzi. 


-tse-hali. 




-m-baha. 


-ati. 






-sadzi 


-sali. 




-psele 


Mi-, -ntpele 








-tsali 


Fierce, sharp 


... 






-wco leva 


-hali 


-xale, -xala. 
-lila {bitter) 


Good 


■nene. 
-ti or 
-ati 


■nene 




-nene. 
-co saseka 


-vhuya 


-tie 


Great 


-kulu. 


-kulu. 


-kulu 


-kulu. 


-hulu 


xcolco. 




-hombe 


■hulu. 
-kulumba 




kulukumba 




-nene 

{quantity). 
-ii-gata 


Little 


N-dtotco, 


-tongoj. 


-tongco 


-thoiigco. 


-tuku 


-nyane. 




N-dcotw-anani 


-tyana-na 




-ncongco. 
-thanana 




-nyenge. 
-nana 



294 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



70. 

Cupl or 

^i-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 



7 I; 

Ronga 



71 e. 

pi-loi or 

Nwa-lungto 



7r.f. 

pi-gwamba 



Long,high,tall 


-la-pa. 


•lan-fco. -wa kco le-ha 




•le-ha 


-0 le-ha 


Male 


Nuna, 


-tune, 




-duna 


-nuna 


Old 


-kcopa 


•khale 


Red 


N-dcow, 
N-zcoco. 
Psuu, 
-psu-ka 


-a li-bungu 


Rotten 


-bco, 
-mbco 


-bcola 


Short 


•fuhi. 


-waku-gcoma. 




■kcoma 


-fuefui ? 
-suhi? 


Sick 


■Iwala, 
-Iwali, 
-Iwatsi 


-babya 


White 


-djaa. 
Ku-basa 





Above,up,on 
top 


Ci-tsimwi ka 


A henhla 


Before 
Behind 
Below, down 


Ma-sco-ni ka 
N-sana ka 
Ha-nsi ka 


Ma-hlwe-n 
N-thaku ka 
A ha-nsi ka- 


Far 


Ku-le 


Ku-le-ni 


Here 


Aha-wa 


Hale-n. 
La. 
Leomu^ 


In, inside ... 
Middle 


Ndani ka. 
-a-kahi ka. 
Mu- 


Nden — ka. 
Ma-kafi — ka 

Ma-kari, 
pi-kafi 


Near 

Outside 


Ku-fuhi ka 
Ha-nze ka 


Ku-suhi — ni 
Ha-ndle — ka 



Ha-ndle 



-nuna 



-a khale 



-bcola 



72. 
Ci-venda 



7J- 

Se-suthcia 

73 a. Se-pedi 



-la-pfu. 


-lele, 


-la-fu 


-tupco 


■lume 


■ncona. 




•tcona. 




-pheke. 




•keke. 




-lume 


•lala 


-kekcolco, 




•xcolco. 




-tala 


■tswuku 


■hivilu 



-bcolu 



-a> kcoma. 


-pfufi 


-khuts-ane, 


•suhe 




-khcofe. 
-khup-ana 


-a vabya-ka 


-Iwala 


-IWala. 
-kcola 


-co basa 


■cena 


■eu, 

-phepa. 
-co, 
-tcoa. 
-seco, 
-tsweco 


Henhla ka-, 


Nthla ha. 


Nthla. 


Henhla, 


N-ntha. 


Xco-limeo 


le henhla 


Dulu 




Ma-hlwe-n 


Phanda 


Pele 


N-jakoj 


Mu-rahu 


Mco-raxco 


Ha-nsi ka 


Fa-si-ha-, 


Fa-se. 




Da-si-ha- 


Tla-se, 
Vatla-se 


Ku-le 


Ku-le 


Xco-le, 
Hco-le 


Hale-nu 


Hafa. 


Fa, 




Fanco. 


Va. 




Henefa. 


Mcona.^ 




Afa 


Kamco.' 
Mcoklui 


Njen. 


Ngenco. 


Mco. 


^i-kari ka 


Wgei. 


Vco-te. 


Wgeomu ' 


-ii. Katen 


pi-kari 


Fari. 


Xare, 


Vu-kati ha 


Le-kxate. 






Mco-kxala 


Kco-suhe 


Tsini^ 




Ha-ndle 


Nda 


Ntle, nte. 
Ka-nte, 
Kwa-nte 



' A trace here of Class 17 ; likewise in the -n and -ni suffixes. 



GROUPS R, S : THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECU ANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 295 





70. 


71. 


71 e. 


71 f. 


72. 


73- 


Pnglish 


Ccapi or 

pi-tswa 

f^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 


Ronga 


gi-loi or 
Nwa-lungoD 


^Ugwamba 


Ci-venda 


Se-suthti 
73 a. Se-pedi 


Plenty, many 


-ngi. 
Anda 


-nyingi 


... 


N-jalco. 
•nyingi 


-nzi 


Nee. 
Bo-ngata 


There 


Ahale, 


Lahaya. 


Kuna 


Lahaya 


Fala, 


Mcola, Mconca, 




Ahawa. 


Kcolahco 






Hafala. 


Mcolaa 




Ahi 








Henefco. 
Hafco, Afco, 
Henefala 


{see note, 
./. 294). 
Vale. Kuco 


Where? ... 


Ha-hi? 


Kw-ini ? 


Kw-ihi ? 


Kw-ihi ? 


Nga-fhi ? 


Kae?, 
-fe .? 1 

Nya! 


No! 


Ge! 


I-hi! 




Ehe! 


Aiwa ! 














Ce! 


Not (with verb. 


A-hihi. 


A-, Aka-, 


... 


A-, -nga- 


-si- 


Ha-, Ha-a-. 


as prefix, in- 


A-yi-wa. 


Aku-, -nga-, 








•sa-, -sa-ka-, 


fix, or suffix) 


Hinga. 
A-, Aka-, 
Ak'-, -nga-, 
-si-, -sanga- 
{and change of 
terminal a 
into i) ; 
-ngambi-, 
-ambi- 


-liki-, -hingi- 

{and alteration 
of terminal a 
of verb-root 
to i) ; -nga-bi-, 
■nga-cuke-. 
Si- not yet), 
Sanga- 








-ka-ke-, 
-ke-ke-, -se- ; 
■e-sco- {notyet)j 
{and aorist 
terminal -a 
changes to -e) 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Kto- 


Ku-, Kco- 


U- 


Xco- 


„ beat ... 


-hima. 
-peka 


-ba. 
■da 


... 


... 




-tea. 
■khcoba. 
-upa. 
-cotla 


„ buy, sell 


•renga 






•pava, 
-savisa 


-renga 


-reka 


„ come ... 


•vuya. 
-ngcona ! 
-ta 


-ta. 
-buya. 
-pfa 




-ta 


-da 


-tla. 
-tluxA 


„ cut 


-tema 


-cema, 
-tyema 




-peka 


■cea 


-tsela 


„ dance ... 


■kina, 
-sinya 


■kina 




-cina 


-cina 


■vina, 
-bina 


„ die 


■fa 


■fa 


... 


-fa 


-fa 


■swa 


„ eat 


■gya 


■da 


... 


■dya 


-la 


-lya 


„ give ... 


-nika. 


-nyika. 




-nyeka 


•nea. 


■fa. 




-ha (-pa) 


■hwa 






-fa 


•nea. 
-kata 


» go 


-enda. 


•ya. 


-ya. 


■ya 


-ya. 


•ya. 




-tsula. 


•famba, 


-famba 




(Venda 


-ea. 




-famba. 


-hamba 






possesses 


■eta. 




-ya 








•■enda, in 

derivatives) 


-feta. 
-kita 


„ kill ... 


-baya {old), 


-dlaya 


... 


■dlaya 


-vhulaha 


■vcolaea 


„ know ... 


-paya 
•dziva 


-tiba 


-tiba 


■tiva 


■diva 


■tseva. 
-itse 


„ laugh ... 


•seka 


-hleka 


•■ 


•hleka 


-sea 


-sexa, 
■tseha 


„ leave off, 


•leka 


•tika 




-tyika, 


-litpa or 


■lesa 


cease 








•tyikila 


■lica 





' In sense of ' which place ? '. 



296 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





70. 


71- 


71 e. 


71 f. 


72. 


li- 


English 


Ccopi or 

^i-tswa 

(^i-lenge, 

Hlengwe ?) 


Ronga 


^i-loi or 
Nwa-lungco 


^i-gwamba 


Ci-venda 


Se-suthco 
73 a. Se-pedi 


To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Kco- 


Ku-, Kco- 


U- 


Xco- 


„ love, want 


-randa 


■dyula. 
•randa 




■ randa, 
•randya. 
•lava 


-funa 


-rata 


„ see 


-vuna 


-buna, 
-laba, 
-labisa 


•buna 


•vuna. 
(•laba = 
search) 


■vona 


-vona, 
•vuna 


„ sit, remain, 


■kala 


-chamisa. 


•tchama 


■sala. 


■dzula 


-^ala or 


abide 




•thama, 
-tama. 
-sama. 
•sala 




-tyhama 




■xlala or 

-sala, 

-lula 


„ sleep ... 


•ruama. 


•tlela, 


■tlela 


•elela 


■lala. 


-lala. 




■lala 


■yetlela 






-edela 


-rubala 


„ stand,stop. 


■ema. 


-yima 




-yima 


•ima 


■yema. 


be erect 


-emela 










-ema, 
■emela 


„ steal ... 


•pa. 
-kamba ? 


■yiba 




■yiva 


-tsa, 
■tswa 


■utswa. 
■uba 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN CtOPI, RONGA, AND DIALECTS, INCLUDING 

pi^GWAMBA 

Few traces of preprefixes, except in southern dialects of pi-ronga and pi-konde. 
Class I. Mu-, Mhu-, Mu^, Amu (^i^konde), Wa- (honorific) (mu, yu-, u-) ; 2. Ba-, Bha-, Va-, 
Baba- (honorific), Aba- (^i^konde) (ba, va-) ; 3. Mu^, M-, Mco-, Wco-, N-, Amu^ (^i^konde) (wu, u-) ; 
4. Mi. (mi-, i, yi-, j'-) ; 5. Dyi-, Ji-, G\- (in Cupi), D'^, Di^, Ti-, T-, Ri-, — (dyi-, ri, gi-) ; 6. Ma-, 
Ama- (ma-, ya-, a) ; 7. gi-, Ci- (fi, ci) ; 8. P2ji.,Bzi^, Swi-, Zwi^,Si^ (psi-, pci-,bzi-,swi-, zwi-,si) ; 9. In^ 
(Im^), Yin, N^, Ny, N^, — (n-, i, yi-); 10. Tin^, Ti^, Tsin^, Tsi^ (ti, tsi) ; 11. Li^, Ri- (li, ri) ; 
12. missing; 13. missing; 14. Bu-, By-, B'-, W'-, Wu-, Vu^ (Cupi) (vu-, bu, by-); 15. Ku^, Ku-, 
Khu^ (ku) ; 16. Ha^ (? Pa- in some Ronga prepositions). Aha- (ha-, pa) ; 17. Mu^, M^ (scarce) (-mu, 

-ni, -n). 

Si^ is a masculine and honorific prefix in Ronga. Nwa- is an honorific and qualitative prefix often 
masculine in sense, with concords of Nos. i and 2 ; Mi- is a feminine prefix ; the Nya- or Na^ prefixes are 
present (usually masculine). Rara^ is a ' father ' prefix, sometimes complementary to Mi^, the ' mother ' 
prefix, •nyana and -ana are diminutive suffixes. The preprefix vowel is either a, e, or i, where present. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN CI^VENDA 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu^ (mu,u-, yu-,a)-) ; 2. Va^, Vha^ (va) ; 3. Mu-, N^ (mu-, u, yu-, co-) ; 4. 
ye-) ; 5. Li^, Di^, !• (li) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a) ; 7- Ci- (ci) ; 8. Zwi-, BzL 
10. — , N- (often only represented by an aspiration of initial consonant of root-word) ; 11. Lu- (lu) ; 
12. missing; 13. missing (unless 'Ku- takes its place); 14. Vhu^, Vu^ (vu) ; 15. U^, Hu^, *Ku^ (u-, 
hu, 'ku); 16. Fa^, Fha^ Pha- (fa) ; 17. missing ? (-mu, -ni) ; 18. Gu-, &• (?gu). 



Mi^ (mi-, i, yi-, 
(zwi-, bzi) ; 9. — , N- (i, ? n-) ; 



GROUPS R, S: THE ^ENGWE-RONGA AND BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES 297 

In addition there are two prefixes not easy to classify. Ku- (spelt by Meinhof and some missionary 
authorities 'Ku, and described as * semi-nasal ', but by other informants rendered simply Ku-) is a prefix 
in the singular number, used very decidedly as a diminutive, with prefixes 8, 10, and 14 as plurals. It 
replaces No. 13 (Ka-) ; and, but that the change from Ku- to Ka- is unprecedented in Bantu, might be 
taken for a modified form of 13. No. 8 is also diminutive in application. Di- (a variant of No. 5) and 
Gu- (?No. 18) are markedly augmentative. There is not only the diminutive suffix -ana; but this is 
often doubled -anana. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN SE-SUTHOO AND SE-PEDI 
No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mco-, Wto- (mco, eeo-, e-, to) ; 2. Va- (va-) ; 3. Mco- (mco-, oj, 6-) ; 4. Me-, Ni- {rare) (me-, e) ; 
5. Le-(le, y'-); 6. Ma- (ma-, a) ; 7. Se- (se) ; 8. Ri-, ti- (ri, ce-) ; 9. — , N-, N- (— , n-, e); 10. ti^Ri- 
(? Di- in Se-pedi) (ri-, tse, ce-) ; 11. Le- (rarely Leo-) (Ico-, le); 12. missing; 13. Xa-^, Ha- (almost 
extinct, rare in a prepositional or adverbial form); 14. Vco- (vco, v^to-) ; 15. Xco-, Hco- (xco, hco) ; 16. 
Fa-, Va- (fa, va-) ; 17. Mco- (-n). 

The Na- or feminine prefix is present ; also the -ana diminutive suffix. 

Note that in the Se-suthco of the French missionaries a more ' Seciiana' complexion is given to the 
prefixes and concords j therefore Xa- takes the place of Ha.-, Xco- of Ha-, Va- becomes Ba-, Vco- becomes 
Bco-, and Fa-, Ha-. 



70. Ccopi is spoken on the coast of Portuguese South-east Africa between Cape Correntes and the 
mouth of the Limpcopco. 

71. Ronga is spoken in Toiigaland (Delagoa Bay district), between the mouth of the Limpcopco river 
and Lake St. Lucia — inland to the Lcobombco mountains and the Komati river. 

7 1 e. ^iloi is spoken in the Eastern Transvaal and Portuguese East Africa, between the Lipalule and 
Umk(omati rivers. 

71 f. Sigwamba is spoken in Portuguese South-east Africa and the North-east Transvaal between 
the Limpoipco and Lipalule rivers and as far north as the south-east flanks of the Zoutspansberg. 

72. Civenda is spoken in the North and North-west Transvaal, and perhaps also immediately north 
of the Limpcopco river in Southern Rhodesia. 

73. Sesuthco is spoken in Basutoland and the eastern part of Orange Free State ; Sepedi in the west 
and south-west of the Transvaal. 

^ The initial consonant of the %th and loth prefixes in Sesiithco is often spelt L where it is not heard 
as R ; but most authorities seem to be agreed that this alveolar consonant approxi7nates more to the 
Polish i,, which is therefore used in this book. In any case the prefixed X. or'R. is derived fro7n an earlier 
D and that from a still earlier Z. ^ 

^ The form Ka- which appears so commonly in Se-suthc6 and in cognate tongues is really a con- 
traction o/Kwa- (Ku-l-a). 



GROUP S 

THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL LANGUAGES (^^^/zW^^a^) 
74. Se-cuana Dialects ' 74 a. Se-mangwatco 74 b. Si-kcol«l« 74 c. Njenji or Zinzi 



GROUP T 

THE ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 

•jz,. ■pb%?L{^Ka.fir' dialects) 75 a. Zulu 75 b. Swazi 75 c. Tebele (Sin-debele) ' 

76. Gaza-A-ngojni [N.E. Zulu) 





74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75 b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


p5sa 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatca 


[Kafir dialectsY 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-nguni) 




74 b. Si-kcolcolco 














74 c. Njenji 












Adze 


Petlco or 


Isi-penpe. 


Isam-potu 


Sa-ndele 


Isa-ndeli. 


Kin-jenje. 




Petlu. 












Palco (74 b) 












AnimaljWild 


Se-cedi. 


Isi-lu. 


Isi-lu. 


Si-lu ; zi-lu 


Iny-amaza-ne 


Iny-amaza-na 


beast 


Se-coka. 

Se-batana. 

Fcolufulco 

(74 b) 


I-bubesi. 
Im-bulu 


Iny-amaza-ne 








Ant 


Cuswa-ne, 


Isa-pompulu. 


Pompolu. 


In-tfutfwane. 


Izim-pulumpulu. 


M-bamba. 




Cupwa-ni. 


Im-buva-ne 


Im-buva-ne. 


Itin-danguse 


Ubu-nyongu 


In-tuta-na ; 




Si-rui (74 b) 




In-tutw-ane 






izi- 


Ant, white 


Mu-tlwa, 


In-tlwa 


-hlwa. 


Umu-hlwa 


Umu-hlwa 


Mu-swa 


(termite) 


Mco-tlhwa ; 
pt. me-. 
N-thlwa. 
Bu-twa (74 b) 




Mu-hlwa or 
Umu-hlwa 








Arm 


Le-cohu ; pi. 


Um-konu. 


Um-kunu. 


Umu-khunu. 


In-galu, 


C-anja ; 




ma-buxu. 


Isi-konu. 


lii-galu ' 


In-galu 


U-galu 


ny-anja. 




Li-zuhu. 


In-galu 








In-galu 




Li-sufu (74b) 












Arrow 


Mcj-cwi, 
Moa-cu, 
Mco-ci. 
Li-pu (74 b) 


U-tulu, 
I-t51u. 
U-dalu 


Um-dibijselu 


Ubu-cuki 


Um-cuku 


M-cuhi. 
Um-dibiculw 


Axe 


Se-lepe. 
Se-kxubu. 
Chaka (74 b) 


I-zembe 


I-zembe. 
Im-bazu. 
I-gaulu 


Li-zembe or 
I-zembe. 
Im-bazu 


I-hluga 


Li-zembe ; ama- 


Baboon 


Cwene. 


Im-fene. 


Im-fene. 


Im-fene; iti + . 


In-dwanu 


Li-ani 




Kxatla(74a). 


In-golu 


In-zinga. 


Ifi-gubiyane 








Pombwi(74b) 




Ili-konde 









^ 74 represents the speech of the Ba-tlaru, Ba-tlapin {or -xlapin), Ba-rulon, Ba-hurutse, Ba-waSketsi, and 
Ba-kwena. 74 a stands for the Se-maiig'watu of Khama's country and the i^gami basin (Se-twana) ; 74 b is 
Si-kululu, the ^ Makcalodlod' trade language of the Upper Zambezi valley j and ']i,c^ Njenji or Zinzi, wo2ild seem to 
be the northernmost vestige of Cn&na. influence in N. Barodtseland. The many Si-luyi (Si-rutse) words in Si-kululw 
are not given ■ 

^ The word Le-tevele in Se-suthco = ' Red Kafir '. 

^ The dialects include Fengu, Bada, and Pondu words, and the woman's speech, Hlunipa. HI- after a word is 
an abbreviation for Hlunipa. ( F.) stands for Fengu. 

^ The Old Bantu root -buku for ' arm ' probably exists in Zulu in the -words Um-buku {elephant's trunk) and 
Ulu-buku {a long staff for old men, a ' long arm '). 



GROUPS S, T : THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 299 



English 



74- 

Se-cuana 

74 a. 

Se-mangwateo 

74 b. Si-kcolulcD 

74 c. Njenji 



75- 
Posa 

{Kafir dialects) 



Back 



Banana 
Beard... 
Bee ... 



Belly, abdo- 
men 



Mu-tlhana. Um-hlana. 

Mu-kotla. Um-va. 

Mu-kcokcdtco I-q51u 

(74 b) 
Li-kondi (74 b) 



Bird 

Blood 

Body 

Bone 

Borassus palm 
Bow 

Bowels 
Brains 

Breast (man's) 

Breast 

(woman's) 

Brother . . . 



Tedu; 

di-tedii 
N-cose, 

N-eotshe ; 

//. di- + . 

N-tsi-ya- 

n-utsi 
M-pa 

Lco-bala. 

M-ba (74 b). 

Mu-hcolu 

(74 b) 
N-cony-ane 

Ma-di, 
Ma-li. 
Le-tsadi 

[wound ) 

Mm-ele ; 
pi. me-ijele. 
Mu-bili (74 b) 

Le-sapeo ; pi. 
ma-rapco 



Mu-kulwani, 
Mu-lala (74 b) 

Boj-ra ; pi. 
ma-ra. 

Le-kampha-ne, 
Bu-ta (74 b) 

Le-la ; 
ma-la 

Bco-bcokco 

Se-huba. 

Si.fuba(74b) 

Le-tsele ; 

ma-bele. 

Li-sweli (74b) 
N-kxconco-ne. 

Mco-xcolcoli. 

Mo-nna'-, 

'Nna-ke, &=€. 

Mw-ana-hesco. 

Ka-iseli. 

Mu-hulw-ani 

(74 b) 



In-cebe. 

In-devu ; 
Iny-osi 



Isi-su. 
Isi-nene 



In-taka, 

I-daka 
I-gazi. 

I-bende. 

Ubu-bende 

(blood of 

cattle) 
Um-zimba. 

Isi-bili 

(the trunk, 

torso) 
I-tambco 



Is-apeta, 
Isi-peta. 
In-pumbu 

Ama-tumbu 

Ubu-dcopto, 
•qcopu 
Isi-fuba. 




Um-hlana 



U-kcova 

I-levu; ama-. 
Isi-levu 
Iny-cosi 



Isi-su. 
Um-bili-ni 



Iny-oni. 
In-taka 
I-gazi 



Um-zimba. 

Isi-bili, 

Um-bili 

(trunk) 
I-tambu. 

Isi-tupa 

{small bone, 

finger bone) 
I-laka 

Um-dibityelcj 



Ama-tumbu 

Ubu-dcopco 

Isi-fuba 



U-ganga, 
U-kaka (F.) 
I-bele; pLaxna.- I-bele; ama- 



Um-na- 
(U-nina-we). 
(Um-na kwetu 
= our brother) . 
Um-zalw-ana 



Um-ne. 
Um-kulu-we 



75 c. 

Tebele 

(Sin-debele) 



Um-hlana. Um-hlandhla 

Um-hlubulto 



U-kcova. 

lii-kamangco 
Isi-levu ; iti- In-devu, 
Isi-devu 
Iny-5si ; iti- Iny-cosi 



Isi-su ; iti- 

Iny-5ni 
lii-gati 



Um-timba. 
Isi-bili 



Li-tsamb&j 



I-lala 

Ili-gubu. 
Bu-tycoki 



Isi-sii 



Iny-oni 

I-gazi or 
In-gazi 



Um-zimba. 
Isi-bili 



I-tambco 



I-lala 

Um-dibityelco. 
In-gcobelco 



Ema-tfumbu Ama-tumbu 

Ubu-dopco. Ubu-dcopco 

Bu-qopco 

Isi-fuba Isi-fuba 



Li-bele or I-bele ; ama- 

I-fele ; ama- 



Um-na ; pi. 
bom-na. 
Um-zalw-ane. 
Um-fco ; 
bom-fco, 
-aba-fco. 
Um-na-ketfu 



Um-na, 
Um-ne. 
Um-zalw-ane 



76. 
Gaza 

(A-ngconi) 



M-sana. 
Ki-nutu 



Li-hcova 

Ki-refu 

Luny-cosi 

Lu-su 

Ny-coni 

N-gazi, 
I-gazi 



M-zimba. 
M-biri 



Li-tambu 



Li-lala. 
M-kcoma 
M-ccohi 



Lu-tumbeo. 

M-biri-ni 
U-dopco or 

U-qopco 
Ki-fu'wa. 

N-ganga 

Li-wele ; ma- 



M-fco. 
M-tana-. 
M-kuru. 
Ki-nini 



300 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 
posa 


75 a. 
Ztilu 


75 b. 
Swazi 


75 c. 
Tebele 


76. 
Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatco 


{Kafir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kcolcolco 














74 c. Njenji 












Buffalo 


N-at', 


Iny-ati 


Iny-ati 


Iny-atsi 


Iny-ati 


Ny-ati 




N-are. 














N.ali(74b) 












Bull 


Po5.i 
Puhci) (74 b) 


lii-kunzi 


In-kunzi 


In-kunt'i 


Ifi-kunzi 




Buttocks ... 


Le-paxco : //. 


Izi-biinco ; um-. 


Izi-tibili. 


Iti-bunia. 


Izi-bunu 


Li-takco; ma- 




ma-raxco. 


Iny-onga. 


I-tyweba 


In-tsula 








(Lto-raxco = 


I-kafu. 












large but- 


Im-pundu. 












tocks) 


Izi-bini 










Canoe 


Mco-korco 


Um-kombe 


Kepe (Isi-). 
Um-kumbi 


Um-khumbi 


Um-kcolco. 
I si -kepe 


M-kumbi. 
Li-gwamba 


Cat 


Phaxe 


Im-paka 


Im-paka. 


Madu, 


Un-kazi ; 


M-paka. 








Im-bcodhla. 


Matu; 


oii-kazi 


M-lamu. 








In-dlcozi 


(o-mat'u 




N-wawi 


Cattle 


Ma-tlhape. 
Li-kumco 

(74 b) 
Le-xala ; ma-. 


In-kcomco. 
I-nomb'e^ 


Izin-kcomco 


Itin-kcomco. 
In-ombe ? 


lil-kcomco 


N-kcomco 


Charcoal ... 


Mahle 


Ama-lahle 


Ema-lahle 


Ama-lahle 






Ma-pala (74 b) 












Chief 


Kxusi. 


In-keosi, 


lii-kcozi, 


In-gcosi ; ama-. 


In-kcozi 


Li-kcozi. 




(Bco-xcosi = 


liikcos', 


In-kcos'. 


Si-kulu 




Li-duna. 




chieftainship) . 


lii-gcos'. 


In-duna 






M-lum-zana 




Mu-rena(74b) 


Uku-mkani 










Child 


Nw-ana ; 


Um-ntw-ana ; 


Um-ntw-ana 


Umn-tfw-ana. 


Um-ntw-ana. 


M-tw-ana 




b-ana 


aba-ntw-ana. 
U-sana ; 
in-tsana. 
U-sapu ; 
in-tsapco 




lii-gan' 


In-gane 




Cloth 


Kxai. 
Kubo. 

Si-apalco{74b) 


lii-gubco 

(blanket). 
Um-nyobe 


Ifi-gubco 


lii-gubco. 
Li-hiya 


In-gubco 


Ny-ura 


Cold 


Tsi-didi. 


■gcodcola. 


Ma-kaza. 


Ema-kata. 


Ma-kaza 


Li-qwa 




Se-rami 


■banda. 
I-pepco. 

Ubu-sika 


Ma-kazi 


Ama-kati 






Country ... 


Le-hatshe. 
Naha (74 b) 


Ili-zwe 


Ili-zwe 


Ili-ve 


Ili-zwe 


Li-zwe 


Cow 


Kxcomco e 


In-komco. 


Iii-k5mo3 


In-komco. 


In-keomco-kazi. 


N-kcomco-kazi 




nama-xadi. 


Imazi 




Iri-kom-ati 


In-sikazi 






Kumco e 


yeii-kcomco 












sihali (74 b) 












Crocodile ... 


Kwena 


lii-gwenya 


In-gwenya 


In-gwenya 


Iri-gwenya 


N-gwenya. 
lii-gwa ny-ama 


Day 


Le-tsatsi. 


U-suku; 


U(lu)-suku. 


Ulu-suku. 


U-suku. 


Lu-siku. 


J 


Mu-tsi 


in-tsukco. 


Umu-hla 


Umu-hla 


I-laiia 


M -plana 




M«-tlha. 


I -mini. 












Li-zazi (74 b) 


Um-hla. 
Uku-sa. 
Um-sco. -sa 










Devil, evil 


... 


I-zabula-ne. 










spirit 




Um-pcolcogu 











' Cf. M-bcogco, ' buffalo '. 

2 This word is only used in the Hlconipa or womati's dialect. 
• cattle ', preserved in the Hlconipa dialect. 



An interesting survival of the -ombe for ' cow ' 



GROUPS S, T: THE 


BECU ANA-TRANSVAAL 


AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 301 




74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


pSsa 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mafigwatco 


{Kafir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kcoIci>lu 














74 c. Njenji 












Doctor (medi- 


Naka, 


Iny-angi or 


Iny-anga, 


Iny-anga. 


Iny-ana. 


Ny-anga 


cine man) 


Naki. 
Mw-alahi 

(74 b) 


Urn-. 
Is-anu-se. 
Um-nisi. 
U-gcixa 


Um-elapi 


Iny-angi 


Is-anu-se 




Dog 


N-ca ; 
din-ca. 
M-psa. 
Se-heke S 


In-ja. 
I -beta {HI) 


In-ja 


In-ja 


In-ja 


Yin-ja. 
Kayin-ja 


Donkey . . . 


Phike 


Ira-bongoloj 


Im-bong51a> 






Li-duwe 


Door, door- 


Se-cwalco. 


Um-nyangw, 


Isi-valco. 


Isi-valco. 


Isi-valco. 


Ki-varco. 


way 


Si-kwalco. 

Mco-yako 

(74 b) 


U-hlangca. 

Isi-valca. 

I-sang&3 


Um-nyangco 


Um-nyangco 


Um-nyangco 


Mi-angco, 
Li-sangco. 
M-samco 


Dream 


Torco 


I -pupa 


I-pupa. 


Uku-budza. 




Li-pupa. 




{see ' sleep '). 




Ili-pupco 


Li-budvco. 




U-tongco 




(Lora = 






Uku-b'coda 








to dream. 














Mco-lori = 














dreamer) 












Drum 


Mco-rcopa. 


I-gubu. 


Isi-gubu. 


Ifi-gungu. 


In-kunu 


Numburu 




Mu-lupa(74b) 


(Ifi-gcoma = 

a song or 
dance sung to 
drum accom- 
paniment) 


(In-gcoma = 

a dance to the 
drum) 


In-tumbula. 
Isi-gube 






Ear 


Tsebe. 


In-dlebe, 


In-dlebe. 


In-dhlebe 


In-dlebe 


N-plewe, 




Zebe (74 b) 


In-jlebe 


Uku-tu 
{behind the 






N-jewe 


Egg 


Le-e; 
ma-e. 
Li-yi (74 b) 


I-canda. 
I-tyanda(i//.) 


ear) 

I-danda or 
I-cjanda 


I-dandz'a 


I-qanda 


Li-qanda 


Elephant ... 


TIcou. 

TMu(74b,c). 


In-dlcavu, 
In-jlcovu 


In-dlcovu 


In-dhlcovu 


In-kubu 


N-plcofu 


Excrement 


Bu-bi : 


U(lu)tu-vi, 


Utu-vi (Ulu-). 


Ubutu-vi. 


Ubutu-vi 


Ma-simba {pi) 




ma-bi. 


-tu-we. 


Ma-simba(//.) 


Ama-simba, 








Se-bi. 


Uku-nya 




Ema-simba 








Ma-sepa {pi.) 






{pi.) 






Eye 


Le-itlhco ; 


Il-isco ; 


Il-is« ; 


Il-isco ; 


Il-ihlco ; 


L-isco ; 




ma-itlhco. 


ama-seo. 


am-ehlto. 


ara-ehlco 


am-ehlco 


m-esco 




L-itco (74 b) 


Il-ihlco ; 
ara-ehlco 


(Um-bojnco = 

•vision) 








Face, fore- 


Se-ha-tlhoxco. 


Ubu-sco. 


Ubu-sco 


Ubu-sco. 


Ubu-sco 


U-sco 


head 


Pata (74 b) 


I-bunzi 




I-bunti 






Fat, oil ... 


Ma-hura. 
Ma-fula(74b). 
Ma-fura (75 c) 


Ama-futa. 
-nonco 


Ama-futa. 
-nona 


Ama-futs'a 


Ama-dcobco 


Ma-futa 


Father 


Hara, 


U-Sco, 


U-baba. 


U-baba, 


U-baba. 


Bawa. 




Rara ; 


U-yise = 


U-yihlco. 


Babe. 


U-yihlco. 


Isco, 




pi. ba-ra. 


father. 


U-yise 


U-yihlco. 


U-yise 


Ise 




Ha-re. 


U-bawco = 




U-yise 








Rra. 


my father. 












N-date(74b) 


U-yihlco = 

thy father 










Fear 


Poiho. 
Boiha 


Uk'-oyika 


Ukw-esaba 


Ukw-esaba 


U-valco. 
Ku-saba 


N-gwara. 
Ku-sawa 


ITS! 












X 



302 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


74. 
Se-cuana 


75- 
Oosa 

{Ka/ir dialects) 


75 a. 
Zulu 


75 b. 
Swazi 


75 c. 
Tebele 


76. 
Gaza 




ae-mangwatw 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ingconi) 




74 b. Si-kcolcolco 














74 c. Njenji 












Finger 


Mo-nw-ana ; 
//. me- 


Um-nwe ; 
imi-nwe. 
(U-bonzi, 
Isi-tupa = 

thtcmb) 


Umii-nwe 


Umu-nwe. 
(Isi-tupa = 
thu?nb) 


Umu-nwe 


Mu-nwe 


Fire 


Mco-lelco 


Um-lil&j. 
Um-basci>. 
(Uku-ota = 
to warm. 
Is'-ota = 
heat) 


Um-lilco. 

(Uku-ota = 
to warm one- 
self at fire) 


Um-lilco 


Um-lilco 


M-basco 


Fish 


Tlhapi. 

Tapi(74b) 


In-hlanzi, 
In-tlanzi 


In-hlanzi 


In-hlanti 


In-hlanzi 


panzi ; pi. 
zi-|sanzi 


Foot 


Lco-nato ; di-. 
Li-utu (74 b) 


U-nyawco 


U-nyawco. 
Um-lenze 


Ulu-nyawoo 


Ulu-nyawco 


Lu-nyaoj 


Forest 


Se-kxwa. 

Mu-situ (74 b) 


I-hlati 


I-hlati 


I-hlats'i 


I-hlati 


Li-plati. 
M-dondco. 
Li-pcogoroj 


Fowl 


Kuku. 
Ktohco (74 b) 


In-kuku 


In-kuku 


In-ktiku 


In-kuku 


N-kuku 


Frog 


Se-xwaxwa. 


I -sale. 


I-selesele. 


I-sele 


I-pcopco 


Cule. 




Sim-beotwi 


I-pcopco 


In-dhlandhla 






Li-curuwe 




(74 b) 












Ghost 


Se-dimoj, 


Um-londe, 


Isi-tunzi. 


Si-yiya-ne. 


Isi-tuhw-ane. 


Li-^lcozi 




Dimco ; 


Um-nyanya 


Ili-dhlcozi 


Um-kcobco. 


Um-kcobco 






b(o-dimo3. 






Isi-tunti 








Bu-lombcij 
(74 b) 
Thutlwa. 












Giraffe 


I-dcowa. 


In-dhlu-la-mi-ti 




In-tudhla 


... 




Tutwa 

(74 b) 
Ma)-setsa-na. 


U-ncohuda 










Girl 


In-tombi. 


In-tombi. 


In-tfombi. 


In-tombi 


N-tombe, 




Mco-rcoba. 


In-domba-zan' 


qikiza 


I-cici. 




N-tomba-zana 




Mu-sisa-na 
(74 b) 
Pudi. 






In-t'ombi 






Goat 


Im-b'uzi. 


Im-buzi. 


Im-buti 


Im-buzi 


M-buzi 




Puli(74b) 


I-bokwe 


Isi-buzi-kazi 5 








„ (he) ... 


PhokS 


Im-pongco 


Im-pongeo. 
Isi-beva 


... 




Li-pong<o 


God 


Mco-dimco 


U-hlangd ; //. 
in-tlangA 
(' sun '). 
U-thipco 


U-tipco 


Un-kulu-fi-kulu, 
Mu-kulu 
mu-ndanti, 
Um-kulule 


Um-limco 


Mu-lungu 


Grandparent 


Hara-moo-xcolcii. 
Rra-m'mco-xtolco. 
Kuku ; boj + 

(74 b) 
Bco-yanu, 


U-bau-m-kulu. 
U -ma-kale 5 


U-kau. 
U-keokto 


Gcogco 


... 


Gcogco 


Grass 


U-tyani. 


U-tyani 


Ubu-tyani 


Ubu-tyani 


U-cani 




Bu-dyanu. 


In-kuta. 












Bu-jwangi 

(74 b) 
Le-hatshe. 


In-da 










Ground 


Um-hlaba. 


Um-daka. 


Um-hlaba 


Um-hlaba 


... 




M-bu. 


U-daka 


Um-hlabati 










Li-fasi 


{soil) 










Ground-nut 


(74 b) 


In-dhlubu 


In-dhlubu 


Aman-tongama 
ne 


- 


Li-tabele 



GROUPS S, T: THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 303 



English 



74- 

Se-cuana 

74 a. 

Se-mafigwato3 

74 b. Si-kcdlcolco 

74 c. Njenji 



75- 
posa 

{Kafir dialects] 



75 a. 
Zulu 



75 b. 
Swazi 



75 c. 

Tebele 

(Sin-debele) 



76. 
Gaza 

(A-ngtoni) 



Guinea-fowl 

Gun 

Hair 

Hand 

Head 

Heart 

Heel 

Hide 

Hill 



Hippopotamus 
Hoe 



Honey 

Horn 

House 



Kxaka 



TlhcobculB. 

Tcobci3lu(74b). 

Teob5rca (74 c) 
Mo-riri ; me-. 

Mu-lili (74 b) 
Se-atla. 

(Lco-xcohe = 

palm). 

Li-zcohco (74 b) 
Tlhoxo. 

Tuhco (74 b) 

Peleo. 

Pilu(74b) 

pe-rete, 

Se-rete. 

Li-zutco (74 b) 
Le-tlalco 



Thcota. 

T'aba. 

Li-lundu (74 b) 
Kubu 

Mco-xcoma. 

Mu-huma 

{74 b) 
Din-case. 

Lin-cozi (74 b) 



Lco-naka 



Im-pangele 

(' he runs 
before ') 
Um-pu. 
Um-bcobco 

U-nwele, 
I-nwele 

Is-anthla, 
Is-andla 



In-tlukco. 

In-kluku. 

In-kanda 
I-papu. 

In-tliziyco. 

Um-pelto 
Isi-tende 



Isi-kumba. 

U-gogco. 

In-hlonze 
Isi-duli, 

In-duli 

Im-vubu 
I-kuba. 
I-kaba 

Ub-usi. 
Ug-uzi 
(Pondai). 
In-dindi 

U(lu)-pondco 



Im-pangele 

Isi-bamu 

U-nwele 
Is-andhla 



I-kanda. 
In-hlukoi 

In-hliziyco. 
Um-damangu 

Isi-tende 



Isi-kumba 



Um-mangoo. 

I -dull. 

In-taba 
Im-vubu 
I-kuba 



Ub-usi. 
Ul-uju. 
Iziny-cosi 

U(lu)-pondci>. 



Hunger 

Husband 

Hyena 

Iron ... 



Im-pangele I-tendele 

Isi-bamu Um-pcobu 

Lu-nwele ; ti- U-nwele 

I-hlanza, Is-andhla 
Is-anza, 
Is-andhla 



I-kanda. 
In-hl<okca 



I-kanda. 
In-hlcakco 



In-hlitiyco In-hliziyco 

Isi-tsendse Isi-tende 



Isi-kumba. 
Ulu-gogco 

In-tsaba. 
In-t'aba 

Im-vubu 
I-kuba 



Itiny-usi. 
Ulu-ju 



Isi-kukco 
In-taba 



Im-vubu 
I-kuba 



Iny-cosi 



N-tlco; 


In-thlu, 


In-dhlu. 


In-dhlu 


ma-tloo. 


In-dlu. 


I-kaya 




Gae, 


U-pande ; 






Le-gae. 


ifi-pande, 






N-du (74 b) 


ulu-pande. 
fl-kaya = 

ho7ne ') 






Tlala, 


In-dlala 


In-dlala 


In-dlala 


Tala(74b) 








Mu)-ncona. 


Um-yeni. 


In-doda 


In-dvcodsa 


Mu-nna (74 b) 


In-doda 






Phiri. 


Im-pisi. 


Im-pisi. 


Im-pisi 


Thukwi. 


In-diika 


I-dela-bu-tongeo 




Si-tun gwani 








(74 b) 








Cipi, 


In-tsimbi. 


In-simbi 


In-simbi 


Ts'ipi. 


Isi-nyiti, 






Sipi (74 b) 


Izi-nciti 







Ulu-pondveo ; Ulu-pondto 
itim-pondvoj 

In-dhlu. 
I-kaya 



In-dlala 



Im-pisi 



In-simbi 



Paingea. 
Ngera-n-gera-ne 

Ki-bamu 



Lu-nwele 
C-anja 

Li-kanda. 
Sukco 

Sizico 

Ki-tende ; vi- 
Ki-kumba 



Ka-ntawa. 
Ki-duli 

Ki-bcoko> 
Li-quwa. 
Li-kwece 

Uci 



Lu-pondco 

I-plu. ^ 
N-gongwe. 
Ku-kaya 



Li-pangu 

N-dwela. 
Lin-dcada 



Simbi. 
U-tali 



• Ubu-mci> = dwelling. Ubu-me = condition. 1-mca = abode. Um-mi = inhabitant. 



X 2 



304 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 
posa 

(Kafir dialects) 


75 a. 
Zulu 


75 b- 
Swazi 


75 c- 
Tebele 


76. 
Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatca 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kululco 














74 c. Njenji 












Island 


^e-tlake. 
Si-toli (74 b) 


Isi-qiti 


Isi-qingi 


Isi-hlenga 


Isi-hleni 


Ki-rumba 


Ivory 


Lco-naka 


Ama-bamba 


U-pondco 


Ulu-pondvco 


U-pondco 


Li-zinyco lya 








Iwe n-dhlojvu 


Iwe n-dhlcovu 


Iwe n-kubu 


n-|slcofu 


Knee 


Le-nole. 
Li-iigwele 

(74 b) 


I-dulca 


I-dcolco 


Li-dv'eolco, 
Li-d'colco 


I-dcolco 


Li-dorco 


Knife 


Thipa. 


Isi-cece. 


U-mese 


Uran-kwa. 


In-qamu 


Mu-kwa. 




Tipa (74 b) 


I-mela 




I-gcodywa 




M-kondco 


Lake, sea . . . 


Le-ts'a. 


I-d'ibi. 


I-dangu. 


Li-dibi. 


I-dibi 


Ki-siwa. 




Li-sa {74 b) 


I-dike. 
I-dweba. 
Isi-ziba. 
Ulw-andle ; 
pl.\- 


Ulw-andhle 


I-dami 




Lu-anpe 


Leg 


Le-kutu ; ma-. 
Le-utu (74 a), 
Ki-utu (74 b) 


Um-lenze. 
In-tungco 

(shin) 


Um-lenzi 


Um-lent'e 


Um-lenzi 


M-lenze 


Leopard ... 


Le-nau. 
N-gwi (74 b) 


In-gwe. 
I-hltozi, 
In-dlcozi 


In-gwe. 
In-gwavu 


lii-gwe 


In-gwe 


In-gwe 


Lion 


Tau 


In-damse. 


I-bubesi. 


I-bubesi, 


Isi-lwana 


M-pondorco. 






Ifi-gtonyama. 


Im-bube. 


Im-bube. 




Ki-rwani. 






I-bubesi 


In-gconyama 


lii-gconyama 




M-pcozongco. 
N-gwenyama 


Lips 


Pcounama. 


Um-lebe ; imi- 


U(Iu)-debe ; 


U-debe. 


In-debe 


M-lcomco ; mi- 




Mu-lcomco 


Isi-lebe ; izi-. 


izin-debe. 


Bebebe 








(74 b) 


Im-bcovu 


Imi-lcomco 








Magic 


Bco-loi. 


Ubu-ti. 


In-takatco. 


Uku-loya. 


Ubu-tagati. 


U-takati. 




Tmco (74 b) 


(The root 
-luza 

connected wit} 
ventriloquial 
whistling). 
Isiny-angco 


(Ubu-lcozi = 

magical 
I whistling, 
ventriloquism 


Um-lingco 


(Loya = 
to bewitch) 


U-lcowi 


Maize 


Mm-idi. 


Um-bcona. 


Um-bila 


Um-bila. 


Umu-mbu 


Mu-mbu. 




Mco-vojpu. 


Um-bilco. 




Um-lungu 




Ki-manga 




Se-maka 


U-tiya 












(74 a).^ 














M-bconyi 

(74 b) 
Mu-thu ; 












Man 


Um-ntu ; 


Umu-ntu ; 


Umu-ntfu;aba 


- Umu-ntu ; aba 


Mu-ntu ; 




ba-thii 


aba-ntu. 
M-fco 

(a mortal) ; 
aba-fco ■^ 


aba-ntu 






wa-ntu 


Male 


Mco-ncona, 
Mo-nna. 
(Bco-thco = 
manhood) 


In-dcoda. 
In-duna 


In-dcoda. 
-silisa. 
In-duna 


Um-duna 


In-dcoda 




Meat 


N-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Iny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Medicine . . . 


Mo-re. 
Moj-lemco. 
Se-tl'are. 


I-yeza. 
Ubu-ti. ^ 
Isi-ny-angco 


Umu-ti. 
I-kubalco 


Umu-tsi 


Umu-ti 


Mu-ti 




Mu-li-ana(74b) 











Cf. Ci-manga (j/Yaco. 



From Um-fco (mortal), comes fern. Um-fazi (-f azi). 



GROUPS 


S, T : THE 


BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 305 


English 


74- 
Se-cuana 


75. 
posa 


75 a. 
Zulu 


75 b. 
Swazi 


75 c. 
Tebele 


76. 
Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatco 


(Kafir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kcolcolu 














74 c. Njenji 












Milk 


Ma-pi, 


Ama-si. 


Ama-si. 


Ema-si. 


Ama-si. 


Lu-isi. 




Ma-p'. 


U-bisi. 


U-bisi 


Lu-bisi 


Lu-dagco 


Ma-si 




(-xama = 


(-senga = 












to milk). 


to milk. 












Mu-silili, 


-kama = 












Li-bisi (74 b) 


to squeeze 
teat) 










Monkey ... 


Kxatla. 
Kxabco. 

N-jcokco (74 b). 
Bonji (74 b) 


Ifi-kau 


In-kau 


In-kau 


In-kau 


Li-gcoca-ne 


Moon, moon- 


Kxw-edi. 


I-nyanga. 


I-nyanga. 


Uluny-ezi. 


I-nyana 


Nyanga 


light 


Nw-edi (74 a). 
Kweli (74 b) 


Uny-ezi. 
(Ikw-ezi = 
planet) 


Uny-ezi 


I-nyanga 






Mother ... 


Mma. 


U-ma. 


U-mame. 


Make. 


U-mame. 


Mama. 




Me (74 b) 


Nyco-kco 


U-nyco-kco. 


U-mame. 


U-nyco-kco. 


Nyco-kco. 






(thy). 


U-nina 


U-nyco-kc0. 


U-nina 


Nina 






U-nina 




U-nina 










(his, mother 














in general). 














(I-nyco = 














vagina) 










Mountain ... 


Le-ncwe. 
Thaba 


In-taba 


In-taba 


In-tsaba 


In-taba 


N-tawa 


Mouth 


Mm-lcomto 


Um-lcomeo 


Um-lcomco 


Um-lcomco 


Um-lcomco 


M-ltomeo 


Nail (of finger 


Lcon-ala 


U-zipco 


U-zipco 


Lu-galco 


Ulu-zipco 


Lu-zipco 


or toe) . . . 














Name 


Li-ina. 
Le-bitsco. 
Li-bizco (74 b) 


I-gama. 
I-bizu (HI) 


I-bizco 


Ili-bitco 


I-bizco 


Li-bizco 


Navel 


Khubu. 


In-kaba. 


In-kaba 


In-kaba. 


lii-kaba 


N-c]awa 




Mu-kubu(74b) 


Isi-bon&j 




Isi-bonco 




Neck 


Thamco. 


In-tamw 


In-tamco. 


In-tsamco. 


In-tamco 


N-tamu. 




Mu-lala (74 b) 




Isi-jingco. 
Um-qala 


Um-pimbco 




M-sunduru. 
Ki-natco 


Night 


Bco-sixco. 
Bco-siu (74 b). 
Li-fifi (74 b) 


Ubu-suku. 
(Ubu-fifi = 
darkness) 


Ubu-suku 


Ubu-suku 


Ubu-suku 


U-siku 


Nose 


N-ko. 

N-ku(74b) 


I-pumlos, 
Um-pumlco. 
Um-bomb(o 

(the bridge) 


Im-piimulco. 
Um-bombco 


Im-p'umulco 


Im-pumulco 


M-pumulco 


Ox 


Kxcomco. 


In-kcomco. 


In-kabi. 


In-kabi. 


In-kabi 


N-kcomco. 




Kumco (74 b). 


In-gcomco. 


Im-bapco. 


I-nombe 




Li-boya. 




Pulu (74 b) 


Ifi-kabi 


In-kcomco 






Kawi 


Paddle ... 


Si-labco (74 b) 


U-pini 


I-pini 


Ulu-gwehla 




. . . 


Palm wine, 


Boo-yalwa, 


Ubu-tyalwa, 


Ubu-tyala 


Ubu-tywala. 


Ubu-tyala 


U-cwala. 


beer 


Bu-jalwa 


U-tyala 




Bu-fyema-ne 




U-gai 


Parrot 




Isi-kwenene 




Isi-kwe 




... 


Penis 


Pol5."" 


U(lu)-bolco. 


U(lu)-b51co. 


Ulu-bolco. 


Ulu-bolco. 






N-cuku 


Um-tondco 


Um-tondco 


Um-tcotco 


Um-tondco 




Pig 


Kulube. 


In-gulube. 


In-gulube. 


In-gulube. 


In-gulube 


N-guruwe 




Kulubi(74b) 


I-hangu 


In-kcotcotco 


I-unji 






Pigeon 


Le-eba. 
Le-ptoi. 
Liba (74 b) 


I-zuba. 
I-hcobe 


I-juba 


Li-tuba 


In-kwilimbi 


Li-jiwa 



3o6 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


74. 
Se.cuana 


75. 
pSsa 
(Kafir dialects) 


75 a. 
Zulu 


75 b. 
Swazi 


75 c. 
Tebele 


76. 
Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatto 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kcolooloj 














74 c. Njenji 












Place 


Helco; 
ma-heleo. 
Xcolo. 
Lcu-baka. 
Ha- {i>refix) 


In-dawo3 


In.dawco 


In-dzawco 


In-dawco 


N-dawco. 
Ki-kunga 


Rain ... ... 


Pula 


Im-vula 


Im.vula 


Im-vula 


I-zulu 


M-vula 


Rat (sometimes 


3 Le-budi. 


Im-puk«. 


I-buzi. 


I-gundw-ane 


I-gundw-ane 


Li-gundw-ane. 


large mouse) 


Le-ktote. Peba 


I-buzi 


Im-puku 






M-bewa 


Rhinoceros 


Chukudu. 
Keninyani. 
Kobaoba. 
Kxetlua 


Um-kombe 


U.peja-ne 


Um-kombco 


I-beja-ne. 
Um.komboj. 
Um-hcofu 




River 


N-toka. 


Um-lambco. 


Ura-lambtij. 


Um-fula. 


Um-lambco. 


M-fula 




Mco-lapcij 


Um-fula 


Um-fula 


Um-lambto 


Um-fula 




Road 


Tsela. 
Zila (74 b). 
Mu-kwakwa 

(74 b) 


In-dlela. 
Um-b'udu 
(HI). 
Um-endco. 
In-tlele. 
Um-zila 
(cattle or 
•waggon track) 


In-dlela 


Um-kangto. 
Um-gwancco. 
In-dhlela 


In-dlela 


N-jira 


Salt 


Le-cwai. 


I-tyuwa. 


Urau-nyu-sa. 


Lu-tswayi. 


I-cwai 


Mu-nyu 




Li-swai (7 b) 


I-tyiwa. 

(Mu.fidu = 
sotcr, brackish. 
■munya = 
sucking ; 
■munyu = 
• sizieets ') 


Mu-nyu 
(also ' acid') 


Umu-nyu 






Shame 


Di.tlhon ; ma-. 


In.tluni. 


Izin-hlconi, 


Ema-hlconi- 


In-hlconi 


pconi ; 




Bu-swaba 


(■hlcona = 


Ama-hlconi. 


In-hlconi. 




zi-pconi 




(74 b) 


to be afraid). 
I^hlazu 


I-hlazco 


I-hlazto 






Sheep 


N-kii. 
N-gu (74 b) 


Im^vu. 


Im-vu 


Im-vu 


Im-vu 


Yim-vu ; 
zim-vu 


Shield 


Thebe 


Isi-hlangu. 


Isi-kapu, 


... 


... 






I^kawu. 


I-rau or 


Ili-hawu. 










Lhau 


I-vau 


Si-hlanga 






Shoulder ... 


Le-rudi. 
Le-xetla. 


I-gdalaba 


I-hlombe. 
I-deba 


Li-hlombe. 
Li-debe 


I-hlombe 


Li-pombe 


Sister 


Li-heta (74 b) 
Kxan-tsadi, 
Kxai-tsadi. 


U^dade ; 
co^dade 


U-dade 


U-dzadze 


U-dade 


U-dade; 
co-dade 


Skin 


Kai.seli (74 b) 
Le-tlalo. 
Li-talco (74 b) 


Ulu-su 


Isi-kumba 


Lu-gogco 


Isi-kcokco 


Ki-kumba 


Sky 


Le-xco-dimoo. 
Li-hu-limco 


Lzulu. 
Isi-bagabaga 


I-zulu 


Li-tulu 


I-zulu 


Li-zuru 


Slave 


(74 b) 
Mco-lala: ba-. 


I^kcobcoka 


In-ccobcoka. 


Si-gdili 


Um-sutu. 


Mu-fu. 




Le-xoba. 




Isi-cjili 




I-cina. 


M-cawa 




Le-lata ; ma- 5. 
(Mo-tl'anka 








Li-hcoli 


















= servant).^ 














Mu-tanga 














(74 b) 













GROUPS S, T: THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 307 





74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75 b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


Posa 

(Kap dialects) 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwata> 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kcolwlu 














74 c. Njenji 












Sleep 


Bto-rokS. 
Bu-lcdkco 

(74 b) 


Ubu-tongco. 
Ubu-tuya 


Ubu-tongco 


Ubu-t'ongto, 
Ubu-tfongto. 
Zela. 
U-lele 


Ubu-tonco 


U-tongco 


Smoke 


Mco-si, 


Um-si. 


Umii-si. 


In-tfutfu. 


In-tutu 


Mu-si 




M-usi 


Ulu-si 


I si-si 


In-tut'u 






Snake 


N-oxa, 
N-oaha. 
(Si-bidi = 

viper) 
(74 b) 


Iny-oka. 
(I-mamba = 
python). 
I-ftoli. 
I-nunu 


Iny-oka. 
(In-hlwatu = 
python). 
I-mamba. 
(I-pimbi = 
piiff-adder) 


Iny-5ka 


Iny-oga 


Ny-oka 


Son, boy ... 


Mo-rw'-. 


Um-ana, 


tJny-ana. 


Um-sawa. 


In-dcoda-na. 


M-tw-ana. 




(Mo-rw-ake = 


Uny-ana, 


In-dcoda-na 


In-dvtodza-na. 


Um-fa-na 


M-ta'. 




my son. 


Um-fa-na. 




In-dcoda-na 




M-fa-na 




Mo-rw-aco = 


In-kwenkwe 












thy son) 












Song 


Pina 


I-(iul«. 


I-gama. 


In-gcoma. 


Isi-hlabeli. 


U-yimbeo 




(dance, also). 
Koma 


In-g<ama 


I-hubo. 


Isi-hlabelelco 


lii-gcoma 








Isi-hlabelelto 










(drum) . 














Binco (74 b) 












Spear 


Le-rumco 


Um-kont&>. 
Isi-kali, 
Isi-Yele 


Um-kontco. 
Isi-velevele. 
I-qaqa 


Isi-kali 


Um-kontco 


M-kondco 


Spirit, soul 


M-wa. 


Um-oya. 


Um-oya- 


Um-kcob(o. 


Um-oya. 


... 




Mw-eya, 


Um-pcalcogu 


Um-lcozi. 


M-pefumlo3 


Um-pefumulco 






Mw-ea. 




I-dhlcozi. 










Mcj-dimco 




I-tongco 








Star 


Na-ledi 


Ikw-ezi. 

Ifi-kwe-nkw-ezi 
liikany-esi 


Inkany-ezi. 
Ikw-ezi 


liikany-eti 


Inkany-ezi, 
In-kwe-kw-izi 


Lukany-ezi 


Stick 


Tsamma. 


Ulu-ti. 


Ulu-ti 


Ulu-ti. 


Ulu-ti. 


N-duku. 




Thupa. 


In-t'onga. 




In-dvuku. 


In-tona 


N-tonga. 




Ttoba-ni 


Ulu-swazi ; 
in-tswazi 




In-dugu 




Lu-swazi 


Stone, bare 


Le-ncwe ; 


Ili-tye, 


Ili-tye 


I-gbwe. 


Ili-tye 


Li-ce 


rock 


ma-ye, 
ma-dye. 
Li-jwe (74 b) 


Ili-ce. 

Ili-wa. 

I-tala 




I-je, 
I-j'e. 
Ili-tye 






Stool 


Si-pula (74 b) 


• . . 


Isi-hlalco 


Si-hlaleo 


Isi-hlalco 




Sun 


Le-tsatsi. 
Li-zazi (74 b) 


Manga. 
I-gala. 
Is- Ota (Hl>i 


I-langa 


I-langa. 
I-cisa 


I-lana 


Li-ranga 


Tail (of an 


Moj-xatla. 


Um-sila 


Um-sila. 


Ili-^coba 


Um-sila 


Li-ccowa. 


animal) 


Mu-hata 
(74 b) 
Keledi. 




I-ccoba 






M-sira 


Tear, tears 


Inye-mbezi 


Unye-mbezi ; 


Inye-mbeti 


Inye-mbezi 


Nye-mbezi 




Mw-tokco(74b) 




pi. i- 








Testicles ... 


Ma-rete 
(sing, le-rete). 
Li-leta (74 b) 


Ama-sende, 
I-sende 


Ama-sende 


I-sendze ; ama- 


... 


... 


Thief 


Le-xtodu. 
Li-pcoli (74 b) 


I-sela. 
Ny-ongcoza 


I-sela 


Li-sela 


I-sela 


M-bafa 


Thigh 


Se-rtope. 
Si-lupi 

(74 b) 


I-tanga 


I-tanga 


I-tanga, 
I-tsaiiga 







3o8 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 
p5sa 


75 a. 
Zidu 


75 b. 
Swazi 


75 c. 
Tebele 


76. 
Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatco 


{Kafir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74b. Si-kcolcola> 














74 c. Njenji 












Thing, things, 


Se-15, Se-o. 


I-ntco ; 


I-ntco ; 


I-ntfco ; 


1-ntco 


I-ntco; 


property 


Di-15, Di-o. 


izi-ntco. 


izi-ntco. 


iti-ntfco. 




zi-ntco 




Si-ka (74 b). 


I-ni. 


Ulu-tco 


I-nt'co 








N-tco; tu-tu 


U-t'co 












(74 b) 












Thorn 


Mu-tlwa ; mi-. 


I(l-i)va ; 


Ili-iva ; 


Iliny-eva. 


Il-iva ; 


L-ifa ; 




Mii-klwa. 


am-eva. 


am-eva 


Emany-eva 


am-eva 


m-efa 




Mw-utwa 


Ukw-eva. 












(74 b) 


Ura-nga ; 

imi-nga. 

Um-kiwa-ni 










Tobacco ... 


Mco-ccokco. 
Gwai (74 b) 


I-duba 


U-gwai 


Ili-gwayi. 
I-kwai 


U-gwai 


Li-gwayi. 
Li-fcoli 


To-day ... 


Xo-mpi yenco. 
Ka-yencj. 
Ka-cekco(74b) 


Nam-hla. 

Nam-hla-nje 


Namu-hla 


Lcomu-hla 


Lamu-hia 


Namu-pla 
Lu-zipco Iwa 


Toe 


Mo-nw-ana 


U-zw-ane ; 


U-zw^-ane 


Ulu-zw-ane. 


U-zw-ane 






in-zw-ane. 




Lu-tw-ane 




lu-nyaco 






(Ulu-zw-ane ; 














Izin-zw-ane) 










To-morrow 


Kamco-po. 
Kamu-s<o(74b 


Ngom-sco 


Ngcomu-sco 


Nge-mu-sco. 
Ku-sasa 


Umu-sco 


Ku-sasa 


Tongue 


Lco-leme ; //. 
di-teme. 
Li-limi (74 b) 


Ulw-imi 


U(lu)-limi. 
(Ili-laka = 

uvula, soft 
palate, root 
of tongue) 


Ulu-lwimi 


U-limi 


Lu-limi 


Tooth 


Le-ino ; 
m-enu 


I(li)z-inya) ; 
am-enyco, 
ama-zinyco 


Ili-zinyco; ama- 


Li-tinyco ; ama- 


I-zinyco ; ama- 


Li-zinyco ; ma- 


Town 


Moj-tse. 
Mu-zi (74 b) 


Um-zi 


Umu-zi 


Umu-ti. 
Weba-lumbi 

(i. e. the place 
of white men) 


Umu-zi 


Mu-zi 


Tree 


Se-tl'are. 

Kcota (74 b, c) 

Mo-re (as a 

source of 

medicine) 
Ma-hatla 


Um-ti ; imi-ti 


Umu-ti 


Umu-tsi. 
Isi-hlahla, 
Si-hlcohla 


Isi-hlahla 


Kimu-ti 


Twins 


I-wele ; 


Ama-pahla. 


Ema-pahla. 


Ama-pahla 


Li-papa; ma- 






ama-wele 


Ama-wele 


Ema-wele 






Urine 


Moi-trapw. 


Um-dama>. 


Um-tycobingco. 


Um-tfondvco. 


Um-tondco 


M-tundco 




Mu-lutu(74b) Um-kamoj. 


Um-tondco 


Um-tundco 










Um-tondco. 














Ubu-tundco 










Vein 


Lu-sika ; 
di-tsika. 
Mu-thapto 


Um-tambw? 
(Um-sip'a = 

sinew, nerve, 
vein) 


Um-tambco 


Um-tsambco 


Um-tambco 




War 


Di-ra.' 


Uku-lwa, 


Izi-ta, 


Im-pi. 


Ugu-lwa 


Yim-pi. 




Xco-lwa.^ 


Uku-lw-ana. 


Uku-lwa. 


Uku-lwa 




Ku-lwa 




N-twa (74 b) 


U-tabi. 


Im-fazwe. 










Tl'abanco 


Im-fazwe. 


Im-pi 










(74 a) 


Ubu-t'a 
(violence) 












1 The classical ' Vi-ta '- 




2 The classical ' 


Ku-rwa '. 





GROUPS S, T : THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 309 





74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75 b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


Posa 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatco 


{Kajir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-kulcolu 














74 c. Njenji 












Water 


M-etse. 
M-ezi (74 b) 


Ama-nzi 


Ama-nzi 


Ema-nti. 
Ama-nti 


Ama-nzi 


Ma-nzi. 
Lw-anpe 


Well, source 


Se-diba 


Um-tombco. 

Ama-ze 


Um-tombto 


Um-jelco 




Li-puputco 


White man 


Se-khcoa ; //. 


Um-lungu ; 


Um-luiigu ; 


Um-lumbi ; 


Ili-kiwa 






di-khcoa. 


abe-lungu 


abe-lungu 


aba-, abe- 








Le-khcoa ; ma-. 














Mu-kuwa 














(74 b) 












Wife 


Mco-sadi. 


Um-ka. 


Um-ka ; pi. 


Um-ka. 


Um-fazi. 


M-fazi, 




Mu-ta-wa-ka 


Um-fazi 


om-ka. 


Um-fati. 


Um-ka 


M-fasi 




(74 b) 




Um-fazi; pi. 
aba-fazi 


Ura-sikati 






Wind 


Pheho. 


I-pepco. 


Isi-pepco 


Um-oya 


Isi-pepco. 


M-oya ; 




Mo-iya (74 b) 


Im-bepto. 
Um-oya ; 
imim-oya 






Um-oya 


mi-oya 


Witch, sor- 


Mco-loi. 


I-gqwiya. 


Um-takati. 


Um-loyi. 


Um-tagati 


M-tagati. 


cerer 


Se-hep'e(74a). 


Um-takati. 


Um-lcozi. 


Um-tsakats'i. 




Ny-anga. 




Se-tr&jdi. 


Um-lcozi. 


Um-gcoma. 


Iny-anga. 




M-lcowi 




Mco-takhati. 


Isa-nuse 


Um-lcozi-kazana 


Um-gcoma 








Mu-loyi (74 b) 


(/if-tfOT-nnka).' 
I-pinganisa 










Witchcraft 


Tcoco. Bco-loi. 


Ubu-takatco. 


Ubu-takatco 


Ubu-tsakatsco. 


Ubu-tagatco. 


U-takati. 




B(o-tubi, 


Isi-pinganisco 




Uku-loya 


Ubu-loyco 


U-lcowi 




Bu-loyi (74 b) 












Woman . . . 


Mu-sali, 


Um-fazi 


Um-fazi. 


Um-sikati 


Isi-faza-na. 


M-fazi 




Mco-sadi. 


(z. e. 'female 


-kazi. 




Um-fazi 






Mco-rtoba. 


mortal ' ^). 


I-nina 










Tsali, 


•kazi. 












Cadi = 


lii-kaza-na. 












■wojnen in 


I-nina 












general 












Womb 


Pcopelo). 


Isi-zalco. 


Isi-su. 


Ifi-gcobcoti. 


Um-hali-kazi 






Se-boapeloj 


(Enya == 

vagina) 


Isi-zalco 


In-hlapco 






Wood (fire- 


Lco-xon ; 


U(iu)-k'uni ; 


Ifi-kuni 


Ulu-khuni ; 


In-kuni 


Lu-kuni ; 


wood) 


di-kxon 


Iii-k'uni. 
I-hlati 




tin- 




ziii-kuni 


Year 


Nw-axa ; 
liny-axa. 
Ny-axa. 
Mw-aha (74 b) 


Umny-aka 


Umny-aka 


Uny-aka ; 
iminy-aka 


Umny-aga 


Mny-aka 


Yesterday... 


Ma-abane 


I-zcolco 


I-zcolco 


I-tcolco 


I-zcolco 


I-zcolco. 
Pe-zorco 


Zebra 


Pitse. 


I-dawu, 


I-dube, 


I-dfuba, 


I-dube 


Li-duwe 




Pizi(74b). 


I-dauwa. 


I -tube 


I-duba 








Kululu (74 a) 


I-dube. 
I-kwaxa. 










One 


-iiwe. 


I-(^wa-ya 
I-nye, 


I-nye, 


I-nye, 


•nye 


-nye. 




-mwe (74 c). 


-nye 


-nye 


-nye 




-mcozi 




N-tlha. 














-ngwe (74 b) 













^ To smell out. lii-ganga = a man of high position. 
Uku-leoza = to -whistle, bewitch. Um-lcozi = a ventriloquist. 



-ganga = bold, exalted. Ukuny-anga = to bewitch. 
''■ From Um-fco (a person, a mortal) + -azi. 



310 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


74- 
Se-cuana 


75- 
Dosa 

[Kafir dialects) 


75 a. 
Zulu 


75 b. 
Swazi 


75 c. 
Tebele 


76. 
Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatoj 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74b. Si-kcolcoleo 














74 c. Njenji 












Two 


Peli. 
■beli. 
-bele (74 c) 


-bini, 
-m-bini, -bill 


-bill 


-bill 


-bill 


•wili 


Three 


Tharco, 
-rareo. 
-talco, 
-lalco (74 b, c) 


•tatu 


-tatu 


-tsatfu. 
tat'u 


-tatu 


-tatu 


Four 


Nne. -ne. 
-nem 74 c) 


•ne, 
-nne 


-ne 


-ne 


-ne 


■nne 


Five 


Tl'anco, 
-tanco (74 b). 
Keta-li-zcohco 
(74 b)^ 
Li-kitalizto 
(74 c) 


-hlanu, 
-tlanu 


-hlanu 


-hlanu 


-hlanu 


-planu or 
-sanco 


Six 


Thatarco. 
-ratarco. 
Tp'elela. 
Keta li-zcohco 
ka-iigwe (74 b) 


-tandatu 


Isi-tupa ' 


Si-tfupa, 
Si-tupa 


-tantatu 


•planu na 
mcozi 


Seven 


gupa 


-penpe. 


Kombisa " or 


Li-sontfco. 


Nconye 


-planu na 






-pabela. 


Kombile or 


I-sondco 




wili 






Ifi-pomba 


I-nkota 








Eight 


Fera [or Roba) 


•bcopco. 


piya-ngalco 


Si-pcohlongco. 


Fida 


-planu na 




ele me-beli, 


-b'cozco. 


lom-bile * 


Gcobe-n-galco- 


nem-bile 


tatu 




or Fera 


-m-bcopco. 




m-bili 








'm-eli 


Isi-pcohlongco. 

Tcoba 

'mnwem-bini 










Nine 


Fera 


I -tcoba. 


piyagalco 


piyagalco- 


Fida 


-planu na nne 




mo-nw-ana 


Tcoba 


lu-nye ■* 


lu-nye. 


ncomu-nye 






(uli mo-ncoe 


'mnwenl-nye 




Gcobe-galco- 
lu-nye 






Ten 


pcome, 
Le-pcome. 

Li-^umi(74b). 
■sumwe (74 c) 


I-pumi 


I-pumi 


Li-pumi 


Cumi 


I -cumi 


Eleven 


^come-cwa- 


I-pumi 


I-pumi 


Li-pumi-lwi- 


Cumi 


I-cumi na 




ka-nwe 


elina-nye 


na-nye 


nga-nye 


na nye 


mcozi 


Twenty ... 


Ma-pcome 


Ama-pumi 


Ama-pumi 


Ema-pumi la 


Ama-cumi 


Ma-cumi 




ale-ma-beli. 


ama-bini 


ama-bili 


ma-bili 


ama-bili 


ma-wili 




Ma-pumi 














ama-beli(74b; 












Thirty 


Ma-pcome ale 


Ama-pumi 


Ama-pumi 


Ema-pumi la 


Ama-cumi 


Ma-cumi 




ma-tharco 


ama-tatu 


ama-tatu 


ma-tsatfu 


ama-tatu 


ma-tatu 


Forty 


Ma-pcome ale 


Ama-pumi 


Ama-pumi 


Ema-pumi la 


Ama-cumi 


Ma-cumi 




ma-nne 


ama-ne 


ama-ne 


ma-ne 


ama-ne 


ma-nne 


Fifty 


Ma-pcome ale 
ma-thanco 


Ama-pumi 


Ama-pumi 


Ema-pumi la 


Ama-cumi 


Ma-cumi 




ama-tlanu 


ama-hlanu 


ma-hlanu 


ama-hlanu 


ma-planco 


Hundred ... 


Le-kxcolo. 

Li-kcolco(74b). 
Mi.anda(74b) 


I-kulu, 
Ili-kulu 


I-kulu 


Li-kulu 


Li-kulu 




Thousand... 


Sikiti 


I-wika 


I-kulungwa-ne 


Ifi-kulungw-ane 


Isi-giti 





' ' Finishes the hand'. ^ ' The thumb '. 

* piya izin-galco ezim-bili = ' leaves two members ' (z. e. fingers) before ten. 

^ Siya n-galco colu-nye = ' leaves one member '. 



'Point' {with index finger). 



GROUPS S, T: THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 311 





Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


posa 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-mangwatco 


(A'a/fr dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-iigconi) 




74 b. Si-kcolwlco 














74 c. Njenji 












I, me, my ... 


N-na, 


M-na, Mi-na. 


Mi-na. 


Mi-na. 


Mi-na. 


Mi-nne. 




Nk-a.N.,N-(o., 


Ndi-, Di-. 


Ngi-, Wge-. 


»gi-. 


Ni-. 


Ngi- or Ndi-. 




K-ea-, K-e-, 


-di-, -ndi-. 


-ngi-. -mi. 


-mi. -ngi-. 


•ni-. -mi. 


-ngi-, -ndi-. 




K-a-. 


•m, -mi. -a-m 


-a-mi 


-a-mi 


-a-mi 


-mi. -a-mi 




■n-, -m-. -me. 














•ka (my) 












Thou, thee, 


We-na. 


We-na. 


We-na. 


We-nu. 


We-na. 


We-na. 


thy 


00- or OQa-. 


Ku-, U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 


U-. 




-xeo-. -xaxco, 


-ku-. -we, -ku. 


-ku-. -we. 


-ku-. -we. 


-gu-. -kco. 


•ku-. -wu. 




-h-au (74 b) 


•kco. -a-kco 


-a-kco 


-a-kco 


-a-kco 


-kco. -a-kco 


He, him, his 


E-na, E-ne. 


Ye-na. 


Ye-na. 


Ye-na. 


Ye-na. 


Ye-na. 




Ye-na (74 b). 


U, Ka-, A-. 


U-,E-,A-,Ku-. 


U-. 


u.. 


U-, A-, 1: 




E-, A-, O)-, 


■m-. -ye. 


-mu-, -m-. 


-m-. -ye. 


-mu-, -m'-. 


-mu-. -yu or 




OO-a-. 


-a-ke 


-ye,' -ke. 


-a-ke 


-ke 


•ngu, -ke 




-mco-. -xaxwe. 




-a-ke 










-ha-i (74 b) 












We, us, our 


Rto-na, Coi-na. 


Ti-na. 


Ti-na. 


Tsi-na. 


Ti-na. 


Ti-ni. 




Lu-na (74 b). 


Siti-, Si-. 


Si-, Sco-. 


Si-. 


Si-. 


Ti-. 




Re-, Rco-, 


-ti. -ti- 


■ti, -iti. -si-. 


-si-. 


-si-. 


-ti-. 




Re-a-. 


-etu 


-etu 


-tfu, -tu 


■itu 


-itu 




■re-, -rco-na. 














-Ceo-na 












Ye, you, your 


Lto-na,Nye-na. 


Ni-na. 


Ni-na. 


Ni-na. 


Ni-na. 


Ni-na. 




Mi-na (74 b). 


Ni-. 


Ni-, Nco- 


Ni-. 


Ni- or Li-. 


Mu-. 




Lto-, Lwa-. 


-ni-. -nini, 


■ni-. -ini. 


-ni-. 


-li-. 


-wani-. 




-Ico-. -Ico-na, 


-ni. 


-enu 


-nu 


•inyu 


-inu 




■nye-na 


-enu 










They, them, 


Beo-ne. 


Bco-na. 


Bco-na. 


Bco-na. 


Bco-na. 


Wco-na. 


their 


Bci3-na (74 b). 


Ba-. 


Ba-, Be-, Bco-. 


Bco-, Ba-. 


Ba-. 


Wa-. 




Bco-, Ba-. 


•ba-. -a-bco, 


-ba-. -bco. 


-ba-. 


-ba-. 


-wa-. -co or 




-ba-. -bcij-ne 


-babco, -bco 


-a-bco 


-bco 


-bco 


-wco 


All 


-tlhe (co-tlhe, 
&-£■.). Kau-fela 
(74 b) 


-onke 


-onk-ana, 
-onke. 
Ku-pela 


-onke 


onke 


-onge 


This, these 


E-co, e-nco ; 


Leo, aba ; Ico, 


Leo, Icona ; 


Leo, aba ; Ico, 


Leo, la-ba; Ico, 


Leo-yu, la-wa ; 




ba, ba-nco ; 


le ; eli, la ; 


la-ba ; Ico, 


le ; eli ; A'c. 


le; le-li, 


Ico-u, le-i ; 




CO, co-nco ; e, 


esi, ezi ; le, 


Icona ; le, 




la-wa ; le-si. 


le-li, la-ga ; 




e-nco; ye, 


ezi ; colu ; 


lena ; le-li ; 




le-zi; le. 


le-ki, le-vi ; 




ye-nco ; a, 


cobu ; coku ; 


la, lana ; 




le-zi ; Ico-lu ; 


le-i, le-zi ; 




a-nco ; se,- 


apa 


le-si ; le-zi ; 




Ico-bu ; Ico-gu 


Ico-lu ; lu-tu ; 




se-nco ; tse. 




le, lena ; 






la-ka ; leo-wu ; 




tse-nco ; ye. 




le-zi ; Ico-Iu ; 






Ico-ku ; la-pa ; 




ye-nco; tse, 




Ico-bu ; Ico-ku 






Ico-mu 




tse-nco; Ico, 














Ico-nco ; bco, 














bco-nco ; xco. 














xco-nco ; fa, 














fco, ha, he-nco. 














Ya or yco ; ba. 














baco ; u or 














wu, e, yco ; 














le or leco, &-'c. 














(74 b) ; -ani 














(74 b) 













Jfgiiye = emphatic ' it is he ', 



312 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 


74- 

Se-cuana 

74 a. 

Se-mangwatco 


75- 
Dosa 


75 a. 
Zulu 


75 b. 
Swazi 


75 c. 
Tebele 


76. 
Gaza 




{Kafir dialects) 






(Sin.debele) 


(A.figcani) 




74 b. Si-kcolcolco 














74 c. Njenji 












That, those 


E-co, ba-eo ; 


Lco.wco, Lco-wa; 


Lco-wa, Ico-wco ; 


Lco-wa ; e-lto ; 


L^cowco, l^abco; 


Lcoyani or 




oj.co, ey-co ; 


ab-co, aba.ya ; 


la-bco ; Ico-wm; 


6^c. 


l-cowco, le.yco ; 


Lcoya ; 




ye-co, a-co ; 


lco.wco, lco-wa ; 


le-yco ; le-lm ; 




le-lco, 1-awco ; 


La^wa.yani, 




6-=;:. 


le-yu), le-ya ; 


la-wco ; la-wa; 




le-sco, le-zco ; 


La-wa.ya; dr'c. 




co-le, ba-le ; 


el-co, eli-ya ; 


le-sco ; fy'c. 




le-yco, le-zco ; 






co-le, e-le ; 


la-wco, 


Lcoya or 




Ico -Ico ; Ico -bco ; 






ye-le, a.le ; 


la-waya ; es-co, 


Ico-wa-ya ; 




Ico -kco 






(S^f. 


esi.ya; ez-co. 


la-ba-ya ; (s^c. 




Lco-wa-ya ; 






.ali (74 b) 


ezi-ya ; le-yco, 
le-ya ; ez-co, 
ezi-ya ; col-co, 
colu-ya ; cob-co, 
a)bu-ya; cok-co, 
aiku-ya ; ap-co 
With N direc- 
tive : — »ku, 
•nkco; -ba,-bco. 
Ngu, -ngco ; 
-ntsi, -ntsco ; 
-li or -Ico, -nga 
or -ngco ; -si 
or -SCO, -zi or 
-zco ; -lu or 
-Ico ; -bu or 
-bco ; -ku or 
-kco 


With N direc- 
tive : — Ng^, 
-ngco ; -mpa, 
6^c. ; -nku ; 
-ntsi ; -nti ; 
-nka; -si; -zi ; 
-ntsi ; -zi ; -lu 
■ntu ; -mpu ; 
-ku 




la-ba-ya ; 

&-C. 

With N direc- 
tive : — nu, 
•mpa ; -nku, 
■nsi ; -nti, 
•nka ; -nsi, 
-nzi ; -nsi, 
-nzi ; -ntu ; 
-mpu ; -riku 




Bad 


-ike-po). 
(Xco-ike.pa = 
to be bad). 
Ma.swe (74 b) 


-bi 


-bi 


-bi 


-bi 


■wi 


Black 


-ncco. 

■nsu (74 b) 


■mnyama 


-mnyama 


-mnyama. 
-ntima 


-mnyama 


■mnyama 


Female 


•cadi. 


•kaza^na. 


-si-faza-na. 


-n-sikati 


-sifaza-na. 


■ifazi. 




-nama.xadi. 


•kazi. 


-si-kazi. 




.sikazi 


■isikazi 




-hali (74 b) 


-m^azi. 
•fazi 


-kazi 








Fierce, sharp 


-xale. 


Gdala. 


Nco-laka. 


Nco-lunya 


Lco.laka. 


■kali 




Bcjj.xale. 


-kaU. 


-kali 




Lu-hlanya 






•hali (74 b) 


(Uku-lcola = 
to sharpen). 
•bazi 










Good 


-lemeo. 


-hie. 


-hie. 


-nhle. 


•luna, 


■pie 




.nde(74b) 


-m nandi. 
(Uku-lunga = 
to be good). 
Cf. Luganda 


Fanele. 
.lunga, 
-lungi-le 


-lungi-le 


•lun^ile. 
-m.nandi 




Great 


•gcolco, 
•xcolco. 
•hulu (74 b). 
.tuna (74 b) 


■nene, " 
-kulu 


-kulu 


•kulu 
-nt!a-ne. 


•kulu 


■kuru 


Little 


-nye. 


-ncinci. 


-ndi^i 


■niiii 


•nyani 




-nyenyani, 


•n(iiny^ane. 




■ncja-ne 








-nyani (74 b) 


•en<ie 










Long,high,tall 


■telele 


-da; 
-de; 
-de-pa 


-de 


-de 


•de 


■de 



GROUPS S, T: THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 313 





74. 
Se-cuana 


75- 


75 a. 


75 b. 


75 c. 


76. 


English 


pSsa 


Zulu 


Swazi 


Tebele 


Gaza 




74 a. 
Se-maiigwatco 


{Kafir dialects) 






(Sin-debele) 


(A-ngconi) 




74 b. Si-keolcolco 














74 c. Njenji 












Male 


■nuna. 


-doda. 


-n-duna. 


■dfuna. 


-lisa. 


-dcoda. 




■tuna (74 b) 


■duna 


-dcoda. 
-lisa, 
-silisa. 
-ma-lume 

(relation) 


•duna 


■duna 


-duna 


Old 


C(o-hala. 


-dala 


-dala. 


-dsala 


-dala 


•dala. 




Su-pezi (74 b) 




-guga 






-dara 


Red 


Kwibidu. 
Hubidu. 
■fubelu (74 b) 


-bomvu 


■bomvu 


-bojvu 


-bomvu 


■bomvu 


Rotten 


■bodu. 
-bcola, 
•buli-ii 


-bcoli-Ie 


■bcoli^le 


-bcoli-le 


■bcoli-le 


-vira. 
■bcola 


Short 


Khutsh.ane. 
Kusw-ani 

(74 b) 


■fupi. 
-fus-ane 


■fupi 


■fipa, 
■fica. 
•duze 


•fity^ane 


-fic-ane 


Sick 


■Iwala. 
Bco-bcola. 
-kula (74 b) 


-Iwelwe 


■gula-yco, 
-gula 


-gula 


■gula 


-gura 


White 


Ceu, peu. 


-mhlcope. 


-mhlcope. 


-mhlcope. 


■mhlcope 


-mplcjpe 




(Chw-ana, in 


•caqaula 


-ndwe 


-kanya 








afe7ninine 


[very like 












sense). 


qaqaula) 












-sweu (74 b) 












Above, up, on 


Xoj-dimco. 


P'e-zulu, 


Pe-zulu, 


E^tulu. 


Pe^zulu, 


Pe-zuru 


top 


Goi-dimto 
(74 a). 
Hu-limco 
(74 b) 
Pele. 


Pe-zu 


Pe-zu 


Nge^tulu 


Pe-zu 




Before 


Pa-mbi, 


Pa-mbi, 


Nge-mbile. 


Pa-mbile 


Pa-mbele-pa- 




Pidi(74b) 


Pa-mbili, 
Pa-mbile 


Pa-mbile. 
Ku-(]ala 


E-mbile 




(or -kwa-) 


Behind ... 


Mco-raxo. 
Mu-lahco 

(74 b) 


E-mva 


Ka-muva. 
Ngase-muva 


Nge-miiva 


E^mva. 
Esi^pundu 


Muva 


Below, down 


Kwa-tlhats'e. 

Kwa-tasi 

(74 b) 
Kxakala. 


Pa-ntsi. 
Eza-ntsi 


Pa^ntsi 


Ngenda-nsi, 
-ntha-si 


Pa-nsi gu 


Pa-si 


Far 


Ku-de 


Ku-de 


E-kudze-ni. 


Ka-cana 


Ku-de-ni 




Hull (74 b) 






Ku-dze. Le. 
Ka.cane 






Here 


Ha-no), 


Apa 


Lapa. 


Lapa 


Kco-na. 


Apa. 




Fa-nco. 




Kco-na-lapa 




Pa. 


Kco-na. 




Xeo-na. 








Lapa 


Pcone-rapa 




Kwa-nco. 














Kwa-nu (74 b) 












In, inside ... 


Mco. 


Pa-kati. 


Pa-kati. 


Nge-katsi. 


Pa-gati. 


Mu-kati. 




■n (siiffix). 


E ni. (-mco 


E ni 


E ni 


E ni 


Mu- ; -ni. 




Ten. 


as a noun-root, 


(suffix) 






E- 




Mwahali 


meaning 












(74 b) 


' dwelling ') 










Middle 


Xare. 
Ka^hali, 
Fa^hali (74 b) 


Pa-kati 


Pa-kati 


Em-katsi-ni 


Pa-gati 


Pa-kati 



314 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 



English 



74- 

Se-cuana 

74 a. 

Se-mangwatco 

74b. Si-kcolcolcd 

74 c. Njenji 



75- 
posa 

{Kafir dialects) 



75 a. 
Ztdu 



75 b. 
Swazi 



75 c. 

Tebele 

(Sin-debele) 



76. 
Gaza 

(A-ngconi) 



Near 



Outside 



Plenty, many 
There 



Where? 



No! 



Xa-uhe, 

Xa-iihi. 

Ha-ufi, 

Ka-ufi (74 b) 
Ntle. 

Kwa-ntle. 

Kwa-ndi (74 b) 
Ntsi. 

Ha-hulu 
Hon, 

Xuna. 

Hale, 

Fale. 

Ten, 

Teni ' (74 b). 

Fw. 

Mani (74 b) 
Ka-e? 

Ka-i? 

Nya! 



Ku-fupi 


Futy-ane. 
E-duze 


E-dfute. 
E-tuze 


Futy-ane 


Pa-fic-ane 


I-ndle, 
Pa-ndle, 
E-ndle 

Ninzi 


Ipa-ndhle 
Ningi 


Ngapa-ndhle 
Nyenti 


Ipa-ndhle 
Nini 


Pa-nje or 
Pa-nple 

-ninzi 


Apo}. 
Paya 


Lapcd. 
Kojna. 
La- 


Lapco. 
Kcona 


Kconapco 


Lapco. 

Na-paya 



Pi-na ? 



Hai! 



Not [with verb. 


Xa-, Ha-; 


A-, Ana-, Ka-; 


as prefix, in- 


Se-, Si- ; 


-nga-, -nge- ; 


fix or suffix) 


Sa- ; -ba, 


-nga, -anga. 




-o-pe, -pe 


Musa- 




{suffixes) 


(Musa-ni-) 
■with impera- 
tives. Also 
by changing 
terminal -a of 
verb-root to -i 



To 

„ beat 

„ buy, sell 
,, come 

„ cut 

„ dance 
„ die... 
„ eat 

» give 



X(o- 
•betsa. 

-nata. 

-Ota (74 b) 
-reka, -leka 
-tla, 

■ta{74b) 
-sexa, 

•seha. 

-puma (74 b) 
-bina 

•pwa 

-ya, 

•ja. 

-ku-ra (74 b) 
■aba. 

■naea. 

•nts'a. 

■fa (74 b) 



Uku-, Uk' 
•beta 



■tenga 
■iza, 

■za 
■sika. 

■tena 

■sina, 

•pina 
■fa. 

-bcopa 
•dla, 

•tya, 

-ja 
•nika. 

-pa 



Pi? 

U-pi-na ? 
N-pyipi? 
Ca ! 
Hai! 

Qabco! 
A-; -nga-, 
-nge-, -ka- 
{not yet) ; 
-nga-. Also 
by changing 
terminal -a 
of verb-root or 
auxiliary verb 
into -i 



Uku- 
■tyaya 



Pi? 

da! 

da-bco I {very 
like Ka-bco !) 
A-^; -nga-; 
-nge, &'c. 
{terminal a 
of verb-root 
changes to i) 



•tenga 
-za, 
-eza 
-sika 



-sina 

-fa 

-dhla 

■nika. 
-pa 



Ku- 
-caya 



-tsenga 
-ta. 
-fika 
•juba 



■gidza. 
-gida 
-fa 

-dhla. 
-nkiba 



-pa. 
•nika 



Pi? 
Na-pi ? 

Aci! 



A-, Ka- ; -na-, 
•ge-j -na, -ne, 
-zana {neg. 
verb). Yaka- 
(Yeka-ni-) 
ivith impera- 
tives. Also 
terminal a 
into -i, (s'c. 



Uku- 
-caya 

-tena 
-za 

•siga 



-gida. 
■sina 
-fa 

•dhla 



-niga. 
-pa 



Pi?; 
-pi? 

Nco ! 
da! 

A-, Ka- ; -nga-, 
-nco-, ■ngeo- ; 
-nga. -si {in 

verb ' to be ') 



Ku- 
■caya 



■tenga 
■za 

■sika 



■fa 
■^la 



■pa, 
-pasa 



Rather retnarkable form, related to North- West Bantu. 



GROUPS S, T: THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 315 



English 



74- 

Se-cuana 

74 a. 

Se-mangwato3 

74 b. Si-kulcoico 

74 c. Njenji 



75- 
posa 

(Kafir dialects) 



75 a. 
Zulu 



75 b. 
Swazi 



75 c. 
Tebele 

(Sin-debele) 



76. 
Giaza 

(A-ngconi) 



To 
,, go... 



Xco- 
-ea, 



Uku-, Uk' 
•hamba. 



Uku- 
hamba. 



Ku- 
■hamba. 



Uku- 
-hamba. 



Ku- 
-hdmba. 





■eta. 


■ya. 


■ya. 


■ya. 


■ya 


■ya 




-ya (74 b). 


•enda (to go 


(■endco = a 


■muka 








■zamaya 


away to be 


going) 










(74 b) 


married). 
(■endu,^endco 
= road, 
swift). 
•muka = to 
go away 










„ kiU ... 


-beolaea, 
-bcolaya 


■bulala 


■bulala 


■bulala 


■bulala 


... 


„ know ... 


•itse. 


•azi. 


■azi. 


-ati 


-azi 


•yaze, 




•ziba (74 b) 


■az' 


(■manya = 
to join to- 
gether) 






■yeza 


„ laugh ... 


-cexa, 
tse'xa. 
-seha (74 b) 


■hleka, 
•tleka 


-hleka 


■hleka 


-hlega 


■peka 


„ leave off, 


-lesa 


■yeka 


■yeka 


■yeka. 


■yega. 


■leka. 


cease 








-suka 


■yege-la 


•sia 


„ love, want 


■rata. 


■tanda. 


■tanda. 


■tsandza. 


■tanda 


■tanda 




-lata (74 b) 


■enda 

(marry). 
■funa (want) 


■funa 


■funa. 
■kanuka 






„ see 


buna. 


■bona 


■bona 


•bona. 


■bcona. 


■bcona. 




•leba 






■buka 


■kanela 


■buka 


„ sit, remain, 


-dula. 


■hlala. 


•hlala 


■hlala. 


■hlala 


■pala, 


abide 


■hara. 
-ina (74 b) 


-co^tama 




■sala 




■plaza 


„ sleep ... 


■rcobala, 
Icobala. 

(Bco^laeo = 

sleeping-place) 


■lala. 
•k'ona, 
-xcona = 

snore 


■lala 


•lala 


■lala 


■lala 


„ stand, stop, 


■ema 


■ma. 


■ma. 


■ma, 


■ma. 


■yima 


be erect 




■simama. 

•yima. 

•qumama 


■simama 


-ema. 
■kaula 


■ema 




„ steal ... 


•ucwa, 
■uzwa 


■ba, 
■iba, 
■eba 


■ba, 
■eba 


■ba 


■eba 


■yiba 



PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN SE^CUANA AND SI-KOiLOOLOa (74 b) 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Meo^, M^, Nw-, Mu. (74 b) (w-, to-, mo), eco) ; 2. Ba-, Be- (ba) ; 3. Mcd-, Jfw-, Mu- (74 b) 
(w-, CO, mco-) ; 4. Me-, Mi^ (74 b) (me-, e, ea-) ; 5. Le-, Li- (74 b) (ye-, le) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a) ; 7. Se-, 
Si- (74 b) (se, S-) ; 8. Li-, Di- (tse-, ts-, li, c'-), Bi- (in 74 b) ; 9. — , N- (e, c-) ; 10. Li-, Di- (tse-, ts-, 
li, c'-, C(o-) ; 1 1. Leo-, Lu- (74 b) (l(o) ; 1 2. missing in Secuana but Tu- in 74 b ; 13. Xa- (extinct so far 



!i6 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

as concord goes), Ka- (with ka- concord) in 74 b ; 14. Bco-, Bu- (74 b) (b(o, yco-) ; 15. Xco-, Ku-, Hu- 
(74 b) (xo), x'-); 16. Ha-, Fa- (rarely used in Secuana, present in 74 b) (ha, fa-, xo), h'-) ; 17. Moj-, Mwa- 
(-n, -ni, 74 b). 

The Na- prefix is present, though not noticeably. Its plural is usually Bco + . The suffix diminutive 
■ana is much used and generally in a feminine sense. There is a real ' feminine ' gender in Secuana and 
Sikcolcolco, conveyed by the -ana termination. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN pOSA AND ZULU 

Preprefixes present and much used. 

Class I. Umu-, Um-, U- (u-, co-, um-, om-, m, mu, -ye, vi'u-, nku-, -ngu) ; 2. Aba-, Ba-, Abe-, (0- 
(ba, b'-, -mpa) ; 3. Umu-, Um-, U- (u-, wu, um-, mu-, m-, -ngu, -liku) ; 4. Imi-, I- (i, yi, mi-, -ntsi) ; 
5. Hi-, I- (li, 1'-, -nti) ; 6. Ama- (ma-, a, wa (-wa-), w'-, ang'-, ay'-, -nka or -nga) ; 7. Isi-, Is'- (si, s'-) ; 
8. Izi- (zi, Z-, -nzi) ; 9. In- (Im-), I- (in-, i, yi, -ntsi) ; 10 Izi-, Izin- (zi, zin-, -nzi) ; 11. Ulu-, U- (lu, 
-ntu) ; 12. missing ; 13. Ka- (only surviving as an adverbial prefix to numerals and roots referring to 
time and space or honorific titles) ; 14. Ubu- (bu, -mpu) ; 15. Uku- (ku) ; 16. Apa-, Pa-, Pe-, E- (only 
surviving as a prefix to prepositions or adverbs) ; 17. absent (concord, -mco, a rare suffix, and -ini or 
-ni locative suffix). The place of Pa- and Mu- (16 and 17) and to some extent ofKu- is taken by the 
locative particles (jO- and E-, possibly both derived from the fusion of a with u or with z respectively. 
E- may be an abbreviated Pe-, as in Svirazi it is We-. 

The diminutive suffix -ana (also -ane) is present, and as in Nos. "j^i ''nd 74 conveys a feminine 
signification. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN TEBELE (SIN-DEBELE) AND SWAZI 
Preprefixes present. 

The prefixes are much the same in Tebele as in posa-Zulu, except No. 15, which is Gu-, Ugu-, in 
place of Ku-, Uku-. 

In Swazi the 5th prefix is more usually heard as Li- and not I- or Hi- ; the full form of the 6th 
prefix is usually Ema- instead of Ama- ; Iti- takes the place of Izi- (No. 10) ; Nge- is a locative prefix 
which takes the place of No. 16. The shortened locative prefix E- in Zulu (which may be derived from 
Pai-) becomes We- in Swazi in some adverbs. 

In Gaza-Wgconi preprefixes are not so much in use as in the more western and southern dialects. The 
concord of Class I is sometimes -yu. In Class 2, Wa- or Awa- (concord wa, -mba) takes the place of 
Aba- ; the concord of Class 5 is ga ; the 7th prefix is ^i-, Ci-, and even Ki- (ci, -ke) ; the 8th prefix is 
Vi- (vi), but perhaps Zi- in the south ; Classes 12 and 13 (Tu-, Ka-) are present and much in use, probably 
borrowed from the indigenes. Class 16 is Pa- and Class 17 Mu- (-mu, -ni). 

In Zulu, Swazi, and Tebele there are traces in the demonstratives and adverbs of a locative La- 
(Lco-, Le-) prefix. 

In addition to the well-known Cuana-Suthco languages and dialects, I have recorded the possible 
existence of one which, from scarcity of materials and geographical definition of locality, it is difficult to 
rank as an independent speech. This is known as Njenji or Zinzi, and is mentioned by Capello and 
Ivens. It is said to be spoken near the northern borderland of Northern Rhodesia in Eastern Barotseland. 
One or two travellers have suggested that it is a vestige of the Hurutse (Cuana) dialect which preceded 
Sikoslcolco. The following is all that there is to illustrate it so far : 

' Elephant '= Li-toju ; ' fat ' = Ma-fura ; ' gun ' = Tosborw ; ' tree ' = Kcota. Numerals : i=-mwe, 
-mumwe ; 2 = -bele ; 3 = -lalco ; 4 = -nam ; 5 = Li-kitalizw ; 6, 7, 8, and 9=5 (Li-kitalizco) plus i, 
2, 3, 4; io = Li-sumwe; 20 = Ma-sume-ama-bele ; 30 = Ma-sume ama-rarco ; 40 = Ma-sume 
ama-nem. 



GROUPS S, T: THE BECUANA-TRANSVAAL AND ZULU-KAFIR LANGUAGES 317 

As regards the pronouns, ' I ' (before a verb) is Na ; ' thou ', W-ena ; ' he ', Y-ena ; ' we ' Ru-na ; 
' you ', Kimi-na ; ' they ', Kibw-na. 

' Rotten ' = -bcorire ; ' go ' = -zamaya ; ' sit ' = -kuna ; ' stand '= -lukema ; ' sleep ' = -lubala : 
' eat ' = -cia. 

It is probable that Capello and Ivens simply wrote down a few words of the most corrupt form of 
Sikcolulco which had penetrated into northern Barotseland. At the same time, the form Li-kitaljzcd for 
' five ' is remarkable for its close correspondence with the Keta-lizuhu (' finishes the hand ') of Sikulcolco 
(74 b). For the present Njenji or Zinzi may be catalogued as 74 c. 



74. Secuana dialects are spoken in Bechuanaland, north of the 28th degree of South latitude ; west 
of the Transvaal and of the pa^i river and south of the 20th degree of South latitude. Bounded on the 
west approximately by the Kalahari desert and Lake Ngami. 74 b. Sikulcolco is the trade language and 
lingua franca of the Upper Zambezi basin and Barotseland west of the Victoria Falls, north of Khama's 
country, south of the Zambezi-Kabompco confluence, and east of the 20th degree of East longitude, 

75. posa is spoken in eastern Cape Colony (including Pondcoland) south of the Drakensberg. 

75 a. Zulu is spoken in Natal and Zululand up as far north as Lake Santa Lucia and the Upper 
Pongcola river (Usutu). 

75 b. Swazi is spoken in Swaziland. 

75 c. Tebele is spoken in Southern Rhodesia by the Amandebele Zulus. 

76. Gaza-Anguni is spoken in Gazaland (south-west part of Portuguese Trans-Zambezian East Africa) 
and sporadically up to Lower Zambezi. Again in West and in East Nyasaland. 



GROUP U 

THE WEST CENTRAL ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 



77. Lenje (Upper Kafue) 

78. Ila or Yila (Ci-ila, ^ukulumbwe, ^ala). 

78 a. Ci-lumbu 



79. Tonga (' Batcoka \ Tcotela, N-dawe, 

Lima, Leya). 79 a. Ci-we 

80. Subia (^ubia, ^ubea) 



GROUP V 

THE WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 
81. Yeye (Ma-kcoba; Bakhcoba) 82. Nyengco (South Luyi/ Bampukusu ') ^ 





77- 


78. 


79. 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (^uku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


('Batuka', 




(Ma-kcjba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela, 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukusu ') 








N-dawe, Lima, 












Leya) 














79 a. Ci-we 








Adze 


M-bezco 


I-bezco 


Im-bez« 


M-bezu 


M-beco 


Mco-engi 


Animal, wild 


Ny-ama, 


Muny-ama 


Muny-ama; ba- 


I-nyulcjzi ; zi- 


Mu-nyasia ; ba- 


Iz-ama 


beast 


Muny-ama 












Ant 




Mu-puka. 
Bagi-mu-nyeu. 
Burabu-swa. 
Bu-sulubi. 
Mara-jenji 


Li-neco ; ma-. 
In-silibi. 
Ka-nyenyene 


Ka-huka ; bu- 






Ant, white 


Mu-swa ; mi-. 


Lu-mcoma. 


C-ulu ; //. 


Lu-mcoma. 






(termite) 


N-swa 


Mu-lan^i 


z-ulu. 

Mu-cenje. 
In-swa 


Mu-nanzi ; 
//. mi- 






Ape (chim- 


Sokwe 




^cogwe, 


N-zojkco; ba + 






panzi or 

gorilla) 
Arm 






Sokwe ; ba + 








Li-ansa ; 


I-tapi. 


Ku-beokco or. 


Ku-btokco ; 


Eii-gorco. 


Kcokco 




m-ansa. 


Mu-kwnu. 


Ku-bcogco; ma-. 


//. ma-. 


Le-cokco 






Mu-keonco; mi- 


Ku-bcokco 


Mu-kconco 

(fore-arm) 


Ka-; tu- 






Arrow 


Mum-fwi or 
Mu-fwi 


Mu-vhwi 


Ka-lembi ; tu-. 
Mu-vwi ; mi- 


Mu-zwi ; mi- 


K(o-co. RH. 
Mco-vi. 
M(o-cu; me- 


Mco-kiri ; me- 


Axe 


K-embe; 


K-embe ; 


Ci-ankuni. 


M-bezco. 


En-kakara. 


Kamu 




tw-embe. 


tw-embe. 


K-embe ; 


In-salume 


Ka-embe 






C-embe ; pi. 


Bu-kana. 


tw-embe. 










g-embe 


I-banga 


Bu-kanw 








Baboon ... 


Scokwe 


Pombco ; ba + 


Scogwe or 
Sokwe ; ba + 


I-pombwe 






Back 


Mu-sana. 
1-sule 


I-numa. 
Bu-kcome 


Ku-suli; ma-. 
I-sule, 

Mu-sana 


Mu-sana ; mi- 


Mco-pana 


M-ongto 


Banana 


Li-konde ; ma- 






I-konde ; ma- 






Beard 


Ci-lesu, 

Mu-lesu 


Mu-levu 


Ci-lezu; zi-. 
Mu-lezu, 
In-dezu 


Ka-lezu. 
N-dezu, 
N-dethu 


In-dezco 


Mco-levco 



^ Livingstone' s Banyenka. 



GROUPS U, V : THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 319 





n- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


lia (guku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, pala) 


(' Battoka ', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Teotela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukupu ' 


Bee 


Suki, 
N-suci 


In-zuki. 


In-zuki 


Im-puka 








Kan-sama 










Belly 


Li-fumto 


I-bumbu. 
I-fu, 
Ci-fu 


I-da or 
Ndi-da. 
Bumba. 
I-kulu 


I-vumco ; ma- 


CO-ra 


Li-veomco 


Bird 


Ka-yuni ; 


Mu-zune, 


Mu-yuni 


Ka-zuni ; ba + 


M-yene or 


E-yiinye or 




t-uni {pi.). 


I-zune, 






N-yini ; zi-l- 


N-yunze 




Ci-yuni ; 


Ka-zune {dim^ 












pi-yuni 












Blood 


Wu- (or 
Bu-)lcowa 


Bu-lcoa 


Bu-lcoa 


Ma-laha 


Ma-rcopa 


Ony-enka 


Body 


Mu-wili 


Lu-seba. 
In-seba 


Mu-bili 


Mu-biri 


Mu-biri 


Mco-iri 


Bone 


Ci-fuwa ; pi-, 
Li-fuwa 


Ci-fua. 
Indi. 

Mw-indi 


Ci-fiia 


Ci-fuha ; pi. 

ma- or zi- 




Se-fcopa 


Borassus palm 




Ka-lala 


? Kafi-kunka 








Bow 


Wu-ta {or 
Bu-ta ; //. 
ma-ta 


Bu-ta 


Bu-ta 


Bu-ta ; 
ma-ta 


B(o-ta 


00-ta 


Bowels 


Ma-la 


Bu-la ; 
ma-la 


Bu-la 


Mi-la 


Le-kcopu 




Brains 


W-ongco 


B-oiigaj 


B-ongeo 


Bu-lubi 






Breast (man's) 


C-amba ; 
p-amba 


C-amba 


C-amba 


Ci-zuba ; zi- 


Se-dzuva 




Breast 


Li-wele 


Lu-kulu. 


Lu-ktolco or 




Ze-vere ; 




(woman's) 




(I-bele = 

tedder) 


Du-kcolco 




ma-vere 




Brother ... 


Mu-kw-esu. 


Mu-ci2ji. 


Mw-anike ; ba-. 


Mw-anc-angu. 


Mco-panga. 






Mu-kw- {pass. 


Mu-kandco. 


Mu-pati-angu. 


Un-kcosi 


Mco-z-atu 






suffix added) 


Mu-nina. 
(Bu-nina = 

brotherhood) 


Mu-kul-anco 

angu. 

Mw-alco, 

Mu-ce, 

Mu-nyina, 

Mu-kw-esu. 








Buffalo 


Ny-ati 


Muny-ati 


I ny-ati 


Iny-ati 


Onj-ati, 
Ony-ati 


Ny-ati 


BuU 


Mu-cende. 
Mu-sune 


Mu-cende 


Mw-enze ; 
b-enze 








Buttocks . . . 


Li-takco; ma- 


Ma-taku 


I-takco ; ma- 


I-takco ; ma- 






Canoe 


Wu-atw ; 
m-atto 


Bw-atco 


Buw-atco ; ma- 


Buw-atco ; 
m-atco 


W-cotu' 


W-atco 


Cat /t 


J J.- •-■ .....■' - <Jc._ 


Kaze 


Mangoi 


Ci-nconco ; zi- 


,.. 


. . . 


Charcoal ... 


Ma-pimbi ^ 


Ma-pimbi 


Ma-sizi 


... 






Chief, king 


Mw-ame 


Mw-ami 


Mw-ami 


Si-mwine. 
N-kcosi. 

M-fumu 


^i-kate 


Fcomco 


Child 


Mw-anike. 


Mw-ana ; 


Mw-ana, 


Mw-ana ; 


Nana(?). 


Mco-keke 




Mw-ana. 


b-ana. 


K-ana 


b-ana. 


M-cona 






Ka-cece 


Mw-anice. 

Mu-^ale. 

Ka-nsco 




Mu-hwile ; 
ba-hwile 







320 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





77- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (^uku. 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, gala) 


('Bateoka', 




(Ma-kooba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tutela, 

N-dawe, Lima. 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 




Bakhooba) 


'Bampukupu') 



Cloth 



Cold ... 

Country 
Cow ... 



Crocodile ... 
Day, daylight 



Devil (evil 
spirit) 

Doctor (medi- 
cine man) 

Dog 

Donkey . . . 
Door, door- 
way 



Dream 

Drum 

Ear 

Egg 

Elephant .. 
Excrement 

Eye 



N-salu, 

N-gw^oj, 

Li-sani. 

pule. 

Lu-kwa {bark) 
M-peyco 

Ci-si 

M-pwipi. 
N-ombe 



N-tali. 

Ci-tale. 

N-gwena 
piku. 

Li-sua. 

C-ilco, 

K-ilto 



Mu-nganga. 

Mu-sendepi 
Mu-bwa, 

Ka-bwa 

Mu-liangco. 
Ci-sasa 



Ci-lcotca 
N-coma 

Ku-twi 
Li-i; ma-i 
N-scofu 
Ma-pi. 

Tu-pi 
L-isco ; 

me-so) 



Face, forehead Wu-pu 
Fat Ma-futa 



Father 



Tata. 
Isu. 

I-pi 



In-gubeo. 
I-sani. 
Bu-luba 



Im-peyoo 

In-pi 
Im-pwi^i. 

Ifi-ombe. 

(Bu-tanga = 

cattle) 
Ci-wena ; ba-, 



Bu-piku. 
Bu-zuba, 
I-zuba. 

Mun-za 



Muii-ganga. 

Mu-pidipi 
Mu-bwa. 

M-biza 
Im-bongcolco 
Ci-tendele. 

Mu-diangco 



Ci-luto] 

In-gtoma 

Ku-twi 

I-i ; pi. ma-yi 

Mun-zcovu 

Ma-;^i 

D-insco; 
m-ensoj. 
(Im-bojne = 

•pupil) 

Bu-pu 
Ma-futa 



Tata. 
U-sco. 

U-se, U-pa. 
(Mu-kwa = 

father-in-law 
and many 
vague relation- 
ships) 



I-sani. 
I-sila. 
In-gubto 



M-pey<o 

In-si 

Im-pwizi 
in-gombe 



In-tali or 
In-tale 

Bu-zuba. 
I-zuba 



Mu-zimu 

Mu-silisi 

Mun-kala. 
Mu-bwa 

I-kuma. 
Ci-jasioa. 
Ci-liango3, 
Mu-liangoj 

-luta (verb) 

In-gcoma 

Ku-twi 

l-ji 

In-zoovu 

Ma-ziii. 

Ma-zi 
L-isco, 

L-ipco, 

L-inscd 



Bu-syu 
Ma-futa 



Tata. 
U-soj, 
U-se, 
U-pa. 
W-isi. 
Si- 



I-sila. 
In-gfubco 

(= skin, 
covering) 



In-kanda 
N-ombe 
yana-kazi 



N-gwena 



Le-tsera 



Om-pepoa (?). 
Se-pipco 

Ici-se 

N-gombe 
en-kaze, 
N-kombe 



Le-ina 



Mco-dionga 
N-gombe 



I-zuba ; ma- Mco-se (?) 



Mco-si (?) 



Si-anga 

M-bwa or 
Um-bw^a 

Mu-diangco 



•Icota [verb) 

In-gcoma 

Ku-twi 

I-yi ; ma-yi 

In-zcovu 

Tu-uzi 

D-insco ; 
m-ensco 



Bu-su 
Ma-futa 



Ta-yo). 

I -SCO, 

I-se. 

N-danda. 
Si-, Se-, Sa-, 
Su- 



Mco-zimco ; ba- 
N-anga N-anga 

Om-bwa 



Koj-ti, Ku-ti 
On-jcovco 



L-ipeo ; 
am-epco. {Also 
Le-ikleikion, 

according to 
Livingstone) 

Ama-zi, 

Ama-dze. 

(Ma-puta = 

creajti, milk) 
Tati, 

N-tate 



Ku-tue 
N-dambi 

Li-tiico 



Ma-bimae 



Tate 



GROUPS U, V: THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 321 





77- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


83. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (puku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, pala) 


('Batcoka', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela, 

N'dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukupu ') 


Fear 


Y-towa 


Ku-tia {verb). 
B-cowa. 
Mam-puba 


Kw-itoa 


Ku-tiya [verb) 






Finger 


Mu-nwe 


Mu-nwe 


Mu-nwi 


Mu-nwe 


Mu-nwe; mi- 


M(o-nwe; me- 


Fire 


Mu-lilco. 
(-cota = to 
warm oneself 
by fire) 


Mu-dilto 


Mu-lilto 


Mu-dileo 


Moii-girco, 
Mon-dirco, 
Mon-derco 


Mbu-iji 


Fish 


N-gwi. 
Lun-swi 


In-swi 


Mu-swi. 
In-swi ; nin- 


In-swi 


N-pwe ; 
zin-pwe 


E-bi 


Foot 


Cim-panta. 
Mw-endco 


I-tende. 
Ci-fumba 


Ci-tuta; zi- 


I-tende 


pe-kondco 


Li-kondco; ma- 


Forest 


Lundu, 


Mu-sanza. 


Lu-saka. 


Mu-znka 


Gco-mcoti. 


M(o-thutco ' 




Li-lundu. 


Ka-saka 


I-paka. 




Si-te 






Mu-sansa. 




Londe. 










Lu-saka 




Mu-siteo 








Fowl 


N-kuku 


I n-kuku 


I n-kuku 


lii-kuku. 
N-kcobco 


N-kcoku. 

Si-enjejsi 


Supua 


Frog 


Wombwe 


Bombwe 


C-ula 


..• 


... 


... 


Ghost 


Mu-pimu ; pi. 
mi- 


Mu-zimeo. 


Mu-sangu. 


I-saku 


M(o-zimco 


... 




pi-kazwa. 


I-banda ; 












Kan-cinya 


ma-banda 
(cf. Ru-anda) 








Giraffe 




In-tutwa 


I-tutwa 


... 


Om-bape 


... 


Girl 


Mu-moye. 
Mu-lindu. 
Kam-wali 


Mu-pimbi. 
Kamw-ale 


Mu-simbi ; ba- 


... 


Mco-kana 


Mon-donda 


Goat 


M-pongco ; pi. 


Im-pongto 


I m-pongco 


Im-pene 


OO-puli. 
M-pene 


M -bongo 


„ (he) ... 




M-ongco 


Si-jembwe 






M-bongco 


„ (she) ... 




... 


M-ongw 
Mu-donta 






... 


God 


Lesa 


Leza 


Leza. 

Ku-julu 


Leza 


00-reja 


Ny-ampi 


Grandfather, 


Kapa. 


Kaka. 


Si-anene, 


... 


... 


... 


grandmother 


Mu-wipikulu 


N-kamb<a 


B-anene 








Grass 


W-isu; pi. 


Bw-izu. 


K-ezu. 


Bu-izu. 


Mo-dzcodzco, 


Mco-nye 




m-esu. 


C-ani. 


Bw-izyu. 


Ma-ne 


Mco-podzco 






M-ani. 


Mu-seme 


K-ani, 










Ci-scokwe 




M-ani 








Ground 


N-pi 


In-pi. 


Iny-ika. 


I-vu 


Le-vu ; 


Mo-mvco 




In-kanda. 


I-sukco. 
N-devu 




mco-vu 








I-vhu 








Ground-nut 


N-yemu 


In-yema> 


In-dongco 


N-dongco or 
In-dongco 


CO-yengora 




Guinea-fowl 


N-kanga 


In-kanga 


lii-kanga 


In-kanga 






Gun MFuti 


In-tcobulu 


In-futi. 


In-tcobcolco 


Tu-boreo 










In-tcobcolco. 














Ci-fwefwe 








Hair (of head) 


Li-susu, 
Mu-susu 


I-SUSCd. 

In-suki 


I-pupu 


In-suki 


Zi-n^izi, 

^e-pipi or 
^e-paipi 


Hcoki 



' Dr. Livingstone's spelling is followed. This is sometimes 9 and sometimes ' th ', without its being certain whether 
the writer intends b or an aspirated t (th) to be understood. 



322 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





n- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (^uku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


('Batcoka', 




(Ma-keoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tutela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79a. Ci-we 




Bakhcoba) 


'Bampukupu') 


Hand 


Li-ansa. 
Lu-paka 


I-tapi 


I-janza 


I-anza 


Ri-anja 


Se-kaha 


Head 


Mu-twi. 
Ci-twi 


Mu-twi 


Mu-twi 


Mu-twi 


Mco-porci> 


Mco-twe 


Heart 


M-oyoj 


M-tozco ; 
mi-cozco 


M-oyco 


In-kuloj 


00 m-oyco 


Mco-tima 


Heel 


Ci-pindi. 
Ka-pipilco 


Ci-pindi 


Ka-singi. 
Ci-cindinde ; 


Ci-sizina 


... 




Hide 


Ci-kanda. 
M-paya 


I-salco. 
Ci-kanda 


I-kanda 


Ki-kabi 


Efi-gcoco. 
Si-kabi 


M(o-komba 


HiU 


Ci-lundu. 
Lu-pili 


Lu-pidi 


Ci-lundu 


E-bwe 


Ccoe 


KcD-bina 


Hippopotamus 


Fuwu or 
M-fuwu 


Ci-vhubwe 


Ira-vuvu 


Um-vuvu 


On-vcoveo, 
On-vuvu 


N-vu 


Hoe 


Li-se 


I-amba 


... 




Si-pamba 


Li-temco 


Honey 


W-uci 


Bw-ici, 
B-uci. 
Kan-sama 


B-uci 


B-uci 






Horn 


Lu-ica ; 


Lu-iya ; 


L\v-ija. 


Lu-zia ; 


Le-siiiga 


L-ia 




m-eca. 


m-eya. 


Mw-embco 


ma-zia. 








N-pansa 


C-anza. 

Lu-seng<o 




Lo-iya 






House 


N-anda, 
N-anda ; 

pi. same, or 
si-, ma-. 
Mu-sumba 


lii-anda ; pi. 
m-anda. 
(-anda = 

roof). 


Ing-anda ; pi. 
m-anda 


N-zubco ; ma- 


N-ju 


N-duco 




L-ongw ; pi. 














iiig-ongco 










Hunger 


N-pala 
Mu-lume. 


In-zala 


In-zala 


In-zala 


En-jara 




Husband . . . 


Mu-lumi 




Mu-kwa-me 


A-rora 






Ibe; 














b-ebe 












Hyena 


Suntwe 


Ka-bwenga 


Suntwe ; ba- + 


Un-t5iJ ; pi. 
n-tuu 


Om-porco, 
Um-puru 


Sene 


Iron 


C-ela. 


C-ela. 


Ci-bulco 


In-simbi ; zi- 


0-tari. 


Lco-ondco. 




Wu-tale 


Bu-tale. 
(In-pimbi = 

iron imple- 
ments). 
I-buloj 






Ka-ira 


OO-tale. 

Lco-elco 


Island 


N-sumbco 


Ci-lwa 


Ka-sua. 
In-sumbco 


Ci-da ; 
zi-da 


... 




Ivory 


Lu-ica 




Ny-anga 


Iny-anga. 

Ma-ziya (pi.) 






Knee 




I-vhwi 


I-zwi. 
Kongoajco 


I-zwi 


Li-dzi, 
Li-dza ; 
ma-dza 


Ma-nue {pi.) 


Knife 


Lu-wepi ; 
m-bepi 


Im-pcokco 


Ka-pangi 


In-tipa. 


Ka-furu. 


M-cokco 








Ka-fcolu> 


E-feroo 




Lake 


I-2iiba 
K-ulu. 


I-dambwa 


... 


... 




Leg 


Mw-endco 


K-ulu ; 


Mu-hindi. 


M-ondco or 


Mco-fupa 






JVEw-endco, 


ma-ulu. 


K-ulu ; pi. 


M-onzco 








I-tende 


Mw-endco, 
Mw-endi 


ma-ulco 







GROUPS U, V; THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 323 





77- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (^uku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


(' Batcoka ', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukupu '\ 


Leopard ... 


^i-luwe ; wa + 


^i-luwe 


.Si-lwe 


N-gwe 


N-kue 


N-tjco 


Lion 


N-kalamu 


Sumbwa, 
U-pumbwa. 


Mu-lavu. 


N-davu 


On-tavco 


N-de 






Mu-kalamu. 












In-davu 


N-emba 








Lips 


Mu-l<omco ; mi- 


Mu-lcomco 


Mu-lcomco ; mi- 


Mi-lcomco 


Si-porco {sing.) 




Magic 


Wu-lco^i 


Bu-lcosji 


Bu-lcozi 


Ma-bibco 




... 


Maize 


Man-cewele 


Ma-pcopwe 


Ci-pcoga. 
Ma-pcopwe 


Mun-dale 






Man 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; ba-. 


Mu-ntu ; 


Mu-ntu ; 


(jOmco-tco; //. 


Mco-nco ; 




wa-ntu. 


Mu-lombw-ana 


ba-ntu. 


ba-ntu. 


ava-tco. 


ba-nco 




Mu-lume, 




Mwa-lumi 




Mco-rume 






Mw-analume 












Man, vir. ... 


... 


N-dumb-ana 


... 


Mu-kwa-me;ba- 




... 


Meat 


Ny-ama 


Bu-zane. 
Ny-ama 


I ny-ama 


Ny-ama 


Ony-ama, 
Ny-ama 


I ny-ama 


Medicine . . . 


Mu-samto. 
Mi-yanda(//.). 

Wu-ganga, 

M-anga 


Mu-samco 

(' tree ') 


Mu-samu 


Mu-samco 


OO-anga 


OO-anga 


Milk 


Ma-kupa. 
Ma-ndili. 
(-kama = 

verb) 


Mu-kupa. 
Ma-bipi, 
Bw-anda. 
(-kama = verb) 


Ma-kupa 
(-kama) 




Ma-puta 




Monkey . . . 


Scokwe. 
C-anga. 
M-puya 


Scokwe 


Ceta 


I-pombwe or 
Um-pombwe 






Moon 


Mvv-epi 


Mw-ezi 


Mw-eze 


Mw-ezi 


OOkw-ere or 


Ku-ebi 










Ku-izi 




Mother ... 


Mama. -ma. 


Ba-ma ; ma-. 


Ba-. Ba-ma. 


Ma-yco. 


Ma. 


Nana 




Nco-kco. 


Nco-kco, 


Ku-liswi. 


Mama. 


Nyena 






Nina 


Ba-ina 


Ba-nyco-kco. 
Ny-ina 


Nyco-kco. 
Nyina. Na- 






Mountain ... 


Mu-lundu. 
Lu-pili 


I-lundu 


C i-lundu 


I-lundu 


... 


... 


Mouth 


Mu-lcomco. 
Ka-nwa 


Mu-lcomco. 
Ka-nwa 


Ka-nwa 


Ka-hcolco or 
Ka-gcolco 


Cisi-porco 


Ka-nwa 


Nail (of finger 


Lu-ala 


Lw-ala 


I -gala. 


I-zala 


En-gara ; 


Thala 


or toe) 






Li-ala, 
Ili-ala 




zefi-gara 




Name 


L-ina ; 

m-ena 


I^-ina 


Iz-ina 


Iz-ina 




... 


Navel 


Li-kombco 


Lu-kombco 


Lu-kombco 


... 






Neck 


Singco. 
'Kco^i 


In-singco. 

Miu-keopi 


In-singco. 


N-singeo 


E-zongco. 


Dingco 




Kun-kcosi 




Mco-lcoco 




Night 


Wu-piku 


Ma-siku 


Bu-siku. 


Ma-siku. 


Ma-sukco. 


OO-thikco. 




(Mu-dima = 


(Mo-rima = 


(Mco-rema = 


(Mi-lema = 








darkness) 


darkness) 


darkness) 


darkness) 


Nose 


^conco 


I-nangco. 


Im-pemco. 


I-thcolco 


Le-rco, 


Li-colco 




(Ma-nangco = 


Ti-pconco (?) 




Le-irco 








nostrils. 














Mu-ombombco 














= bridge) 










Ox 


N-ombe 


Mu-sune 


M-ongco ; 
bo-ngco. 
Mu-sune ; ba- 


N-gombe 


CO-porco. 
N-gombe ; 

zifi- 


N-gombe 



324 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





77- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (puku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, pala) 


(Battoka', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukupu ') 


Paddle ... 




In-kasi 


In-seoge. 
Ki-jazco 


Ki-rahco 


Se-rapco 


Se-labco 


Palm wine, 


W-alwa 




Bu-kandi. 


N-zaru. 


OO-ara. 


Ma-lcovco 


beer 






Bu-kcoku. 
Im-beote 


Ma-lcovu 


U-kube 




Parrot 






... 


N-kwenga 






Penis 




In-to»ni. 
Im-pala. 
(I-b«lco = 

testicle) 


In-tconi 


In-tconi 






Pig 


N-g^uwe 


N-gulube, 
Culube. 
Ku-ntula. 
(pa-nkeole = 

wart-hog) 


M-uma. 
Sici-pongco. 

Mwin-giri. 
lii-kulube 


In-jili 


On-gire 

{wart-hog) 




Pigeon 


N-kulimba 


In-kwidimba. 
In-^iba 


In-kwilimba 


lii-kuba 




... 


Place 


Wu-lu ; 


Bu-sena. 


C-ilco. 


Ci-baka. 








ma-lco 


Cikadi-lco. 
Ku-ntu 


A-lia 


Ha-ntu 






Rain 


Fula. 
Mi-lojci 


Im-vula. 
Leza 


Im-vula 


Im-vula 


Ya)-vora, 
OO-vora. 
En-fera 


M-vula 


Rat 


K<oswe. 
M-bewa. 
Fukio 


pi-kuswe 


I-kcosu, 
I-ku^co. 
In-kuswi 


Im-peba 






Rhinoceros 


Ci-pembele 


pem-pela 


Ci-pembele 


Im-pembele 


On-pcogcojco, 
00-pongcodzco 
Mo-ronka. 


Le-pembele 


River 


Mu-longa 


Mu-longa 


Mu-longa 


Lw-izi. 


Mco-lonka. 










Mu-longa; mi- 


Ka-dom'. 
E-klco 


Li-coka 


Road 


N-pila. 
Mu-kwakwa 


Mu-kwakwa. 
In-^ila 


In-zila. 
Mu-kwakwa 


In-zila 


N-jera 


N-dera 


Salt 


Mu-nyu, 
Mw-inyu 


Mw-inco. 
Tw-in<a (rfm.' 






Ru-tscoai 




Shame 


N-suni 


In-sconi 


In-sconi. 
Bw-eme 


Ku-swaba 

{yerb) 






Sheep 


M-belele 


I-mbelele 


I m-belele 


Im-belele 


Un-ku 


M-berere 


Shield 




In-tcobu 


In-tcobco 


Komba 


Le-filebe 


Tomba 


Shoulder ... 


Ci-fu^i" 


Ci-fun^i. 
I-kuku 


Lu-ezco. 
Egw-ezico;ma-. 
Ikukco 


... 


Ze-kwaba (//.) 


... 


Sister 


... 


Mu-cizi. 
Mu-kw', 
Mu-kwa 


Mu-cizi 


N-cizi angu. 
N-cizi or 
Un-cizi 


Mco-ganya 




Skin 


M-paya. 
Ci-kanda, 
Li-kanda 


Lu-kanda 


Lu-kanda 


Ci-kabi 


En-gtoco 




Sky 


I-jtilu. 
Ku-julu 


I-zeulu 


I-julu. 
Ma-jcoba 


Lulu 


L-erco,i 
L-iru 


Ll-colco 


Slave 


Mu-pa 


Mu-^ike 


Mu-zike 


Mco-hik-ana 


Mco-via 


M-peka 


Sleep 


Tu-lco 


Tu-lw 


In-onzi(-gonzi 

(■'W(£iasL=verb) 









Cf. Lerco, Lelco = ' to-day ' in most Bantu tongues. 



GROUPS U, V: THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 325 





n- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (puku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Wyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


('Batcoka', 




(Ma-ktoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Teotela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukupu ') 



Smoke 
Snake 
Son, boy .. 

Song 

Spear 

Spirit, soul 
Star 

Stick 

Stone 



Stool ... 
Sun . . . 



Wu-pi 

N-seoka, 

Ci-scoka 
Mw-ana. 

Mu-sankwa. 

Mu-lombe 
Lu-imbco ; 

ny-imbco 
Li-sumoj 

Li-tempcd 
Mu-pimu 

Ny-enyepi 



Lu-sakco 



Li-bwe 



Ci-una 
Li-sua 



Bu-pi. 

I-pi 
In-zcoka 

Mw-ana. 

Ka-mbe^i. 

Ka-lombw-ana 
Lu-imbco 

I-sumu. 
I-yonga 
Mco-za 

In-tongwe2ji. 
(In-tanda = 
meteor, even- 
ing star) 

Ka-samco. 
Lu-suti. 
Mu-sakco 

I-bTve. 

Mw-ala 

Ci-una 
I-zuba 



Bu-si 

In-zoka 

Mw-ana 
mu-lombi 

Lu-imbco ; 
iny-imbeo 
I-sumco ; ma- 

M-oya. 

Mu-pimu 
Kany-inyezi. 

Iny-enyezi 



Ka-pondco. 

In-kcoli. 

Ka-kcoli. 

Ci-samu 
I-bwe 



Ci-bula 
I-zuba 



Bu-si 

In-zcoka 

Mu-swizu 

Lu-zimbco 

Mu-dinga, 
Mco-ringa 
Mu)-hcot>a 

Ifi-kani 



Ih-kcoli. 
In-cupa 



Mu-si 



Mu-si 



Mo-romb-ana. Mco-ebese. 
M-cona .' M-tona 



I-bwe 



I-zuba. 
(Ka-mwi = 
burst of sun- 
shine. 

Ka-nyange ■■ 
heat of sun) 



Ru-anga or 

Ltti-anga 
OOm-coa 

Sienj-ata ; 
ziny-ata 



Ka-ti. 
Ka-kcone ; 
pi. zin-kcone 

Le-weri. 
Cue; 
ma-we 

Le-ba or 
Li-va. 
(Li-e = light) 



Tail (of an 


Mu-cila 


Mu-cila 


Mu-cila 


Mu-cila 




animal) 












Tear 


Mu-scopi 


Mu-sco^i. 


I-scozi. 


Mu-nscozi. 




Testicles ... 


... 


Ma-beolco. 
(-cende = u 
bull's scrotum) 


In-cendi 


I-bcolco ; ma- 




Thief 


Mw-ifi or 
Mw-ipi 


Mu-teu 


Mu-teco 


Mu-sa 




Thigh 


Li-wekco 


Ci-belco 


Ci-belco. 
Mu-kascolco 






Thing 


Ci-ntu, 


Ci-ntu; 


Ci-ntu ; 


Ci-ntu 






Ka-ntu 


bi-ntu, 
pi-ntu. 
Ka-ntu 


zi-ntu 






Thorn 


Mum-fwa 


Bw-iya ; 


Mu-mvwa. 


Mu-iya ; 








m-eya 


Kam-vwa 


mi-iya 




Tobacco . . . 


Fwaka 


Tombwe 


Tombwe. 
Pcolia 


Tomljwe or 
U-tombwe 

{honorific) 


Mto-tombe 


To-day ... 


Sunco. 
N-piku i-nco 


U-sunu 


U-siinii 


Sunco 




Toe 


Ka-kumco, 


Ka-lulcome ; ci- 


Mu-nwi. 


Ci-zala. 


Z-ena ? (//.) 




Ci-kumco. 




Ka-nwe. 


Ci-kandco 






C-ondco 




Ci-kumco 







Li-oiiga ; ma- 

Mco-kco 



Thi-kcone 



Li-we 



Li-cowa 



326 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





n- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (^uku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyeiagco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


('Batwka', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Twtela, 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukusu ') 








N-dawe, Lima, 












Leya) 














79 a. Ci-we 








Tomorrow 


Cilo. 
I-scona 


(jO-zcona 


I-junza. 
I-jhuna 


I-zcona 


Le-ca 


Pe-onda 


Tongue 


Lu-jimi. 
Mu-laka 


Mu-laka. 
Lu-dimi. 
Lu-laka 


Lu-dimi 


Lu-limi 


Ru-rime 


LcD-lime 


Tooth 


L-inco ; 
m-enco 


D-inco 


D-inco ; 
m-enco 


D-inco ; 
me-inco. 
Di-ziya ; ma- 


Am-enco (//.) 


Li-yegco ; ma- 


Town 


Mu-pi 


Mu-n^i 


Mu-nzi 


McD-zi 


Mco-zi 


Li-mbco. 
M-onde 


Tree 


Ci-samo3 ; fi-, 
mu- 


I-samco. 
Ka-san^i 

[dim.) 


Ci-samco 


Ci-samco 


Si-te 


E-pakco 


Twins 


Ma-pasa. 
Ma-pundu 


Ma-nga 


Ma-inga. 
Ma-m-bili 


Mam-biri 






Urine 


Mi-kcosco 


Mu-npu 


Ma-npu, 
Ma-nsico 


Mu-sihu 






Vein 


Lu-pinga 


Ka-pinga 


Lu-singa ; 
in-singa 




... 




War 


N-kondco 


In-kondco 


In-kondco 


lii-kondco 


(Kco-rua-na = 
tofight) 


... 


Water 


Ma-npi. 
Lu-inpi 


Me-n^i 


Ma-nzi. 
Me-nda 


Me-nzi 


Am-I 


Me-yco 


WeU 


Mu-kalco 


Mu-kaloj 


Ci-kala 






... 


White man 


Mu-lungu or 
Mu-rungii 


Mu-kua; {pi.) 
ma-kua 


Mu-kua ; pi. 
ma-kua 


Mu-kuwa 






Wife 


Mu-kapi. 

Mu-ka 


Mu-ka^i. 
(Mw-ina-iigu 
= my wife). 
Mw-ina- 


Mw-anakazi. 
Ma-lelco 


Mw-anakazi 






Wind 


M-peyco, 


Mu-wco. 


I-giiwco, 


Lu-huhco 


Pipco. 






Lu-wa>. 


I-kunku 


I-guco 




Mco-pcopco 






Mu-wco 












Witch 


N-fwiti. 

Mu-lcopi 


Mu-lto^i 


Mu-lcozi. 
Mu-lcoco ? 


Mu-lcozi. 
(Ku-lcowa = 

to bewitch) 






Witchcraft 


Wu-fwiti, 
Wu-lcopi, 
Wun-ganga 


Bu-l<o2ji 


Bu-lcozi 








Woman ... 


Mw-anakapi 


Mu-kai-ntu. 
Mu-ka^i. 
(I-kai-ntu, 

Bu-kai-ntu 

= woman- 
hood). 


Mw-anakazi 


Mw-anakazi 


Mco-kazi 


Mco-kathi 


Womb 


M' ..0 


I-zadilu 


C-aba-ce-mbele 








Wood (fire- 


N-kuni 


Lu-kuni 


lii-kuni. 


Lu-kuni ; in- 






wood) 






Ci-samco 








Yam 






Cim-bondongco 


Bu-idi 




... 


Year 


Mw-aka ; mi- 


Mw-aka; mi- 


Mw-aka, 
Mw-aga ; imi- 


Mu-aka 


M(jL>-aka 


MoD-aka 


Yesterday. . . 


C-iloj 


OO-zoana 


I-jilu 


I-zcona 


Oreo 


Li-kcolcoa 


Zebra 


U-bipi 


Ci-bizi 


Im-bizi 


M-bizi 


M-bi 


M-bi 



GROUPS U, V: THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 327 





n- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (puku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


(Battoka ', 




(Ma-kojba, 


(South Luyi, 






78a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukupu ') 








N-dawe, Lima, 












Leya) 














79 a. Ci-we 








One 


-o-mwe, 
■nwe 


-o-mwi 


-mwi 


Yo-nke. 
-mwe. 
■ngi 


(Ma)-)keke 


-moya 


Two 


-co-wil-co, 


-co-bili, 


-bili 


-co-bele, 


-viri (va-viri) 


-bibi, -ibi 




-i-wili, 


-bidi, 




•bele 




{perhaf)s also 




■wili 


-bili 








-ibe) 


Three 


-co-tatwe, 


-co-tatwe, 


■tatwe or 


-co-tatwe. 


•tatco 


-atcij or 




-i-tatwe, 


-tatwe, 


-tatu 


-tatwe or 




■hatco 




■tatu 


-tatu 




-tatu 






Four 


-o-nne, 
-i-nne 


-co-ne, 
-ne 


•ni or -ne 


-co-ne, 
-ne 


-ne 


-i-nne 


Five 


-o-sanwe 


-co-sanwe. 
-sanu 


-sanu or 
-sanwe 


-co-sanwe or 
-sanwe, 
or Zimane 
anza 


Mawari-anja' 


-tanu 


Six 


Mvv-aya 


Ci-sa mbomwi. 


-sanu a 


Zimane anza 


Mawa ri-anja 


-moya {begin- 




mu-nw^e 


Ka-kcole (78 a) 


ka-mwi 


ni yi-mwina 

(and other 
circumlocu- 
tions) 


va-raqa 


ning on left 
hand) 


Seven 


Mw-aya 


Ci-ltoba. 


-sanu a 


Zimane anza 


Mawa ri-anja 


-ibi {continuing 




-(o-wil-co 


Tu-ktole 
tu-bili (78 a) 


tco-bili 


ni zco-bele 


va-rasupi 


on left hand) 


Eight 


Mw-aya 


Lu-sele. 


-sanu a 


Zimane anza 


Mawa ri-anja 


-hatco {continu- 




-co-tatwe 


Tu-ktole 
tco-tatwe 
(78 a) 


tco-tatu 


zco-tatwe 


va-njenisa 


ing on left 
hand) 


Nine 


Mw-aya 


I-fuka. 


-sanu a 


Zimane anza 


Mawa ri-anja 


-i-nne {continu- 




-o-nne 


Tu-kcole 

too-ne (78 a) 


tu-ne 


ni 2co-ne 


va-rane 


ing on left 
hand) 


Ten 


Li-kumi 


I -kumi 


-kumi 


I-kumi or 
I-kume 


-kcomiki 


-tanu, also 
Li-kume 


Eleven 


Kumi 


I-kumi 


I-kumi a 


I-kumi ni 


Va-kcomiki 


N i-kume na 




n'o-mwe ? 


dio-mwi 


ka-mwi 


yo-nke 


va-raqa 


ka-moya " 


Twenty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kum' 


Ma-kumi 


Mawa ri-anja 


Na ka mco-tanu 




co-wil-co 


oi-bili 


a-bili 


co-bele 


ava-tco va-viri 




Thirty 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kume 


Mawa ri-anja 






co-tatwe 


co-tatwe 


a-tatu 


co-tatwe 


va-raqa 
ava-to va-tatw 




Forty 


Ma-kumi 
o-nne 


Ma-kumi co-ne 


Ma-kumi 
figa-nne ' 


Ma-kumi co-ne 


... 




Fifty ... 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 


Ma-kumi 








co-sanwe. 


co-sanwe. 


a-sanu 


a-mane anza 








(Ma-kumi 


(Ma-kumi adi 




or Ma-kumi 








mw-a-y-a 


ci-sambomwi 




co-sanwe 








mu-nwe = 


= sixty) 












sixty) 












Hundred ... 


Mw-anda 


Mw-anda 


Mw-anda 


Mw-anda 






Thousand... 


... 




Mi-anda 
ili-kumi 






... 



Ri-anja = hand in this strange compound. Twenty is ' hands of two men '- Thirty seems to be 'five x six ' 
12 = Ni-kume na tu-ibi. 13 = Ni-kume na tu-atu. 16 = Na ka moya. 17 = Na ka tu-ibi. 
According to Torrend. 



328 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





77- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (puku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 
78 a. Ci-lumbu 


{'Batcoka', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






Ttotela, 




Bakhcoba) 


'Bampukupu') 








N-dawe, Lima, 














Leya) 














79 a. Ci-we 








I, tne, my ... 


Ne-woj. Me, Ne. 


(jO-me. 


I-me, Me-bco. 


I-me. 


Ge-me. Ndi. 


Ma-, N-, Na- 




N-, Ndi- 


Ndi-me-na. 


I -me. 


Ni-. 


Me. 






-n-. 


Ndi-, Nda-. 


N-. 


-ni-, -n-. 


Na-, Nd'- 






■me, -a-ngu 


-n-, -m-. 
-me, -a-ngu 


-ndi-. 
-a-ngu 


-me, -ngu 






Thou, thee, 


We-wco. "We. 


U-we. 


U-wi, I -we. 


I -we. 


Gwe 




thy 


00! 


Nd-iwe-na. 


Ue-bco, 


U-. 








U-. 


U-, Wa-. 


Ye-bco. 


-ku-. 








-ku-. 


-ku-. 


U-. 


-we, -kco 








-we, -u-kto 


-we, -ze, -kca 


•ku-, -a-kco 








He, him, his 


We-wco. We. 


Wa-la3. 


U-we, N-gwe. 


I -ye. A-di. 


Mu (?). 


Mu (?). 




U-, A-. 


Ngu-we-na. 


U-, A-. 


U-, Mu-, orA-. 


U-, 00-. 


U-, Mco- 




-mu-. -we. 


U-, Wa-, A-. 


-mu-. -ii-giie 


-mu-. 


-mco-. 






-woj, -iigwe. 


-mu-. -we, -ze 


-a-kwe 


-ye, -kwe 








-a-kwe 


-kwe 










We, us, our 


Swe-wco. 


U-swe. 


I-swe, Swe-bco 


I-swe. 


... 


... 




Tu-. 


Ndi-swe-na. 


Tu-. 


Tu-. 








-tu-. 


Tu-, Twa-. 


-tu-. 


-tu-. 








■swe, -esu 


-tu-. 
•swe, -isu 


-esu 


-swe, -etu 






Ye, you, your 


Mwe-wco. Noj 


U-mwe. 


I-nwi, I-mwe. 


I-nywe. 


... 






Mu-. 


Ndi-mwe-na. 


I-nyne-b(o. 


Mu-. 








-mu-. 


Mu-, Mwa-. 


Mu-. 


-niu-. 








-nwe, -mwe. 


-mu-, -ma-. 


-mu-. 


-ny we, -enu 








-a-nu 


-mwe, -inu 


-enu 








They, them. 


Wa-wm. 


Ba-lco. 


Abco. M-babeo 


. Bco. Ba-di. 






their 


Wa-. 


M-bcobco-na. 


Ba-. 


Ba-. 








-wa-. -awe or Ba-. 


-ba- 


-ba-. 








•awe-wo), -wcc 


, -ba-. 


-abco 


-bco 








-aw- CO 


-bco 











All 



This, these 



-onse 



Uyu, iiguyu, 
awa, m-bawa; 
uu, nguu ; ii, 
njii ; ili, 
n-dili ; aya, 
n-gaya; ici, 
njici ; ipi, 
njipi; ii, 
njii; ipi, 
njipi; ulu, 
ndulu; utu, 
ntutu ; aka, 
ngaka ; uwu, 
mbuwu ; uku, 
nku ; apa, 
mpco ; umu 



•onse. -onse 

(-o-nge-ana = 

a few, some) 

We-zu, we-nco ; Oyu, tou-nto ; 

baba, ba-nco ; aba, aba-nco ; 

we-zu, e-zi, oyu, ei, 

enco ; ledi, ei-nco ; eli, 

aza, a-nco ; eli-nco, aa-nco, 

ceci, pepi, aya ; eci, ezi ; 

se-nco orbiebi, ei ; ezi ; colu ; 

iDie-neo ; e2ii, cotu ; aka ; 

e-nco, pepi, cobu; coku; 

pe-nco ; Icolu, awa (pa-nco) ; 

Ico-nco ; tcotu; comu, comu-nco 

(3^c. ; kaka ; 

bobu ; kcoku ; 

awa(ora-noj) 



-onse ; 
-cona 



onke; 



Uzu or zu-nco, 
aba or ba-nco ; 
uii or u-nco, 
ii, Q^c. ; edi, 
aa ; ici, izi ; 
ii, izi ; ulu; 
utu; aka; 
ubu ; uku ; 
aba ; umu 



-nu (co-nu, b'c) 



•onke and -cona (-ena) are also used as a suffix, in the sense of some ', ' alone ', ' together'. 



GROUP U, V : THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 329 





n- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (puku- 


Tonga 


Subia 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, pala) 
78 a. Ci-lumbu 


('Batcoka', 

Tcotela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 
79 a. Ci-we 




That, those 


Oy-oa, nyco-yto, 


Wez-co, bab-co ; 


Oy-eo, a-bco ; 


U-zco, a-bco ; 




aw-to,mbaw-<a; 


wez-05, e^-w ; 


i^c. 


u-zeo, iy-co ; 




u-co, mbu-eo, 


^'C. 


(jOu-lia, aba-lia; 


edi-co ; b^c. 




i-eo, nji-oo ; 


We-dia, 


&'C. 


Zu-na, ba-na ; 




il-eo, ndi-lw ; 


ba-dia; we-dia, 




u-na, ji-na or 




a-c. 


ye-dia ; is^c. 




i-na; di-na, 




U-neo, ngu-nco, 






a-na ; 6^1;. 




wa-nto, 






Ngu, njije, 




mba-nco ; d^c. 






mba ; ngu, 




U.lya, 






ngcowco, 




ngu-lya, 






nji;c>^(r. ; ndi, 




wa-lya, 






nga; nci. 




mba-lya; ^'c. 






nzi; nji, 
nzi ; ndu ; 
ntu ; nka ; 
mbu ; nku ; 
mpa, mpahco ; 
mcomco 



81. 

Yeye 

(Ma-keoba, 
Bakhcoba) 



82. 

Nyengco 

(South Luyi, 

' Bampukusu ') 



-ya(a)-ya, <5^'(^.) 



Bad 


-Wl, 


•biabe 


-bi 


-bi 








-wiwi 












Black 


-kasi, 


-pia 


-sia (verbal) 


-seha 


-sipa 


•eleo 


Female 


-2ia2ii. 


-kazi. 


-kazi. 


-kazi. 


■kathi. 




-anakapi. 


-tumbe. 


-ziazi. 


-ina-kazi 


■kaze 


-kabi 




-pwizi. 


■pwizi 


-m-pwizi 










-a lu-tundu 












Fierce, sharp 


■kali 


■kadi 


-kalala 


■kadi 


... 


... 


Good 


-wotu. 
•ine 


•bcotu 


-botu 


-Icotu, 
■dcotu 


... 




Great 


-nene. 


-kandco. 


-pati 


■kandco. 


■hure, 


■nine 




■kulu. 


■kcomena 




■kulu 


•kure, 






-kandco 








■tl'uri 




Little 


■nini. 
-ce, 
-ke 


■^ontco 


•nini 


■nini 


■pece(?), 
■ce (?) 


■nyconyeo 


Long, high, 


-lamfu. 


■lamfu 


-lamfu 


■nde or 






tall 


-lale, 
■kale {time) 






-i-ndende. 

■le, 

-lele 






Male 


■lume, 
■analume, 
-n-dume 


■lomb^wana ? 
■lombi. 
-lume 


-enzi. 
-a-lumi 


-iii-kwame ? 






Old 


■kulu. 
■cembele. 
-a cindi 


•cembala 


... 


-kulukulu 


-korco-mco-kcome 


■Icobathi. 
■kare 


Red 


-fwete. 
-kasika 


■subila 


... 


-subila 




... 


Rotten ... 


■wcola. 
■funda 


•beajji 


-yuma 


-bcolete 






Short 


-fwifwi 


■fwafwi 




-fcohifcohi 


... 


• •. 


Sick 


■ciswa. 
■Iwa^i 


■Iwapi 


-ciswa 




... 




White 


■tuwa. 
■twite 


■tuba 


•tuba 


-tuba 


Bco-tcoa, 
■tcoa 


-kehco 



33° 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





77. 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (puku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


Nyengco 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


(' Batcoka ', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela, 

N-dawe,Lima, 
Leya) 




Bakhcoba) 


' Bampukupu ') 








79 a. Ci-we 








Above, up, on 


Ku-julu ; 


-i-zeulu 


I-julu 


-e-yulu, 


Kco-rira 




top 


pa- {or a-) 
julu 






-i-yulu 






Before 


Ku-nembto 


Ku-mbele 


A-mbele 


Ha-busco 




... 


Behind 


P-esule, 
Kw-isule 


Mu-numa 


-isule (Ku-) 


Mu-isule, 
-isule. 
Ku-icco 






Below, down 


Ku-npi, 


Ku-npi, 


Mu-nse. 


Ha-nsi, 


Ep-epe 


Ku-ezi 




Pa-npi 


A-npi 


A-nsi 


Ku-nsi, Qfc. 






Far 


Ku-lamfu, 
Ku-lale 


Sakene 


Ku-le-ku-le 


Ku-le, -le 


-re. (OOkhu-re, 
gi-re) 


Kcona-le-pa 


Here 


Awa. 


Mto-nu, 


0-ku-nco. 


Ha-nco. 


Ku-ni. 


Kco-nco 




M-pa. 


Kco-nu), 


Awa 


Aha. 


Ku-tiri 






M-pece. 


A-nco 




The(?) 








Pa-nco, 














Ku-nco, &^c. 












In, inside ... 


Mu-. 

Mu-kati 


Mu- 


Mu-. 

Mu-kati 


Mu-. 
U-moo. 
Mcomco 






Middle 


Kati 


Mu-kati 


Kati 


Kati 


Kate 




Near 


-fwifwi 


A-fwafwi, 
Ku-fwafwi 


A-fwi, 
A-fwifwi 


Ha-fcohi. Ha- 


Pa-pupe, 
Se-pupe 


Pepi 


Outside ... 


Pa-nse, 
Ku-nse. 
Pa-nsengwe, 


A-nsengwe, 
-nsengwe 


A-nze 


Ha-nze, 
Ku-nze 






Plenty 


■ngi, ^ 
Wu-ngi 


Bw-ala. 
-nji, 
-njinji 


-ingi 


■ingi 


... 




There 


Ku-ncj, 


Mcomco. 


O-kco. 


Ahco. 


Kco-na 


Kco-na. 




Kulyoj, 6^f. 


Kcokco. 

Awco 


A-n<o. 
Pa-munya 


Ha-na, <S-'c. 




Kco-nyikco 


Where? .. 


Ku-li ?, &-<r. 


Kwi? 
Ukwi? 


Ku-li ? 
A-li? 


Ku-hi ? 
Ha-hi ? 
■hi? 


Ko-ri ? 


Ku-pi-ne ? 


No! 


Ta-^S"! 
Kaka! 


Pe! 


Pe! 


Nanta ! 


Patlco ! 




Not {with verb 


pi {ist pers. 


pi-, Ta- {also 
use ofiKa-ina.= 


Si-, Tea-, Ta- 


Ki-, Si-, Ka-. 


Ka-. -se-, -si-. 


Ka-, Se- 


as prefix, in- 


sing.) ; Ta- 




Keti-. -sa-. 


Pa-(.') 




fix, or stiffix) 


{Tvith other 
pronouns) \ 
Ku-, Ta- {in 

infinitive) 


to be without, 
not to, not to 
have, a nega- 
tive verb) 




(Ki is a nega- 
tive verb. 
Ki mbabantu 
= not the men) 






To 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Kco-, Ku- 


Ku- 


„ beat ... 


-uma. 
-panda 


-uma 


-uma 




... 


... 


„ buy, sell 


•ula ; pita 


-ula 


-ula (K'ula = 

buy) 




-cor a, 
wora 


-ola 


„ come ... 


-isa, -sa 


-eza 


-eza. -bcola 


-iza. -bcola 


-iya 


... 


„ cut 


-tema 


-kcjsula 


-tema. 
tenda 


-temena, 
-tema 






„ dance ... 


-pana 


-^ana 


•ziana 


-zana or 
-bana 


-imba 


-kina 



GROUPS U, V: THE WEST CENTRAL AND WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 331 





n- 


78. 


79- 


80. 


81. 


82. 


English 


Lenje 


Ila (puku- 


Tonga 


Subia 


Yeye 


N yen goo 




(Upper Kafue) 


lumbwe, ^ala) 


('Batcoka', 




(Ma-kcoba, 


(South Luyi, 






78 a. Ci-lumbu 


Tcotela, 

N-dawe, Lima, 

Leya) 

79 a. Ci-we 




Bakhcoba) 


'Bampukupu') 



[-0 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ku- 


Ko)-, Ku- 


Ku- 


„ die ... 


•fwa 


■fwa 


■fwa 


-fwa 


-fa, -fu 


-fa 


„ eat 


-lia 


-dya 


■lia 


-dia 


-lia 




„ give ... 


-pa 


■pa 


-pa 


-ha 


-kunda 


-naba 


„ go 


•ya. 


■ya. 


■ya. 


-enda. 


-enda 


-enda. 




-enda. 


■enda, 


■nda, 


■ya 




-ea 




■yinda 


-endenda. 
■ila 


■ndenda. 
■nika 








„ kill ... 


•jaya 


■yaya 


■jaya 


■ihaya 


-ra(?) 


-ipa 


„ know ... 


-ipi 


■iZji 


■ziba. 
■izi 


■izi 


-daivco.^ 
-tzire 


-iva (.') 


„ laugh ... 


-seka 


■seka 


■seka 


■seka 


-peka 


-aye 


., leave off, 


■leka 


•leka 


-leka 


■leka 


-lipe or 


-teneka 


cease 










-lijsa 




„ love,want 


■yanda. 
■suma 


■funa 


■yanda. 
(■kunda = 

copulate) 


■saka 


-sene (?) 


•binge 


., see 


•wcona. 
■eiS^a 


■btona 


■bcona 


■buna 


-muna. 
-liaia (?) 


•mcona. 
-lepa 


., sit, remain, 


-ikala 


■kala 


-kala 


■kala or 


-sikama 


-ikala 


abide 








■kada 






., sleep ... 


-cona (-gcona) 


•cona 


-cona 


-lala 


-rangara 


•kindama 


„ stand, stop, 


•ima, 


■:^ima 


-ima 


-zima (?) 


-gema (?). 


•imana 


be erect 


-imika 








•ima 




„ steal ... 


■ba, -iba 


■iba 


-ba (Ku-ba) 


-iba 


-iva, -iba 





PREFIXES AND CONCORDS IN LENJE 

No preprefixes. 

Class I. Mu- (mu, u-, uyu, ngu, figuyu) ; 2. Ba- or Viz.- (ba or wa, mba, mbawa) ; 3. Mu^ (mu-, 
U-, uu, mbu, ngu, nguyu) ; 4. Mi^ (mi-, i-, nji) ; 5. Li^ (li-, ndi, ndili) ; 6. Ma^ (ma-, a-, ya, iiga, ngaya) ; 
7. Z\- (ci-, nci, njici) ; 8. ^i^ (pi-, npi, njigi) ; 9. N- (M-), W-, Ny-, — (i-, ii, nji) ; 10. N- (M-), »•, Ny, — 
(fi-, npi, njifi) ; 11. Lu^ (lu-, ndu, ndulu) ; 12. Tu. (tu-, ntu) ; 13. Ka^ (ka-, fika, figaka) ; 14. Wu., Bu- 
(wu-, bu-, mbu, mbuwu) ; 15. Ku^ (ku-, nku); i6. Pa-, A- (pa-, a-, mpa) ; 17. Mu- (mu). Masc. and 
fem. prefixes (Si- and Na-) exist but are little used. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN ILA AND CI-LUMBU 

No preprefixes, except in Classes 9 and 10. 

Class I. Mu-, U- (honorific) (mu, u- (co), we, ngu, -zu) ; 2. Ba- (ba-, mba) ; 3. Mu- (mu-, u, figu, 
-zu) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i, nji, -^i) ; 5. I-, Di- (di-, 1', led!, ndi-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a-, nga (figu), -aza) ; 7. Ci- (ci, 
nci-) ; 8. ^i-, Bi- (pi-, bi, npi, mbi-) ; 9. In- (Im-), In^, Ing^, Iny^ (i, in-, ni-, -/ji) ; 10. In^ (Im), In-, 
liiig-, Iny- (pi, in-, npi-) ; 11. Lu- (lu-, ndu) ; 12. Tu- (tu-, ntu); 13. Ka- (ka-, fika (nku) ; 14. Bu- (bu-, 
mbu) ; 15. Ku- (ku-, fiku) ; 16. A- (a-, awa, figa) ; 17. Mu- (mu-, mco). Also the masc. prefix Si-, Se-, 
or Sa-, and the fem. prefix Na- ; and the extended form of the diminutive (No. 13), Kanga-. 

' Dotcbtfitl. 



332 ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 

PREFIXES, &c, IN TONGA AND Ci-WE 

No preprefixes, except in Nos. 4, 9, and 10. 

Class I. Mu-, U- (mu, u-, yu-, figu-) ; 2. Ba- (ba, mba-) ; 3. Mu- (mu-, u, -yu, ngu) ; 4. Mi-, Imi- (mi-, 
i-, ei, nji-) ; 5. L, Li- (li, ndi-, -ndeli) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a-, aya, figa) ; 7. Ci- (ci, nci-) ; 8. Zi- (zi, nzi-) ; 
9. In- (Im-), In-, Iny'- (n-, i, nji-); 10. same as 9, or Zi- (zi, nzi-) ; 11. Lu-, Du- (lu, ndu-) ; 12. Tu- 
(tu, ntu-) ; 13. Ka- (ka-, fika) ; 14. Bu- (bu, mbu-) ; 15. Ku- (ku, fiku-) ; 16. Pa-, A- (pa-, a-, mpa ; 
17. Mu- (mu-). There is a Si- or ' father ' prefix, and a (rarer) Na- or ' mother' prefix. U- seems to be 
an honorific prefix. 



PREFIXES, &c., IN SUBIA 
No preprefixes, except in Classes i, 9, and 10. 

Class I. Mu-, U-, Um- (mu, u-, ye, zu, njumu-) ; 2. Ba- (ba, mba-) ; 3. Mu- (mu-, u (co), uu, 
ngumu-) ; 4. Mi- (mi-, i-, ii, njimi) ; 5. Di-, I- (di, 1'-, ndi-) ; 6. Ma- (ma-, a, figa-, iigama-) ; 7. Ci- 
(ci, nci-) ; 8. Zi- (zi, nzi-); 9. In- (Im-), In-, Iny'- (in-, i, nji-); 10. same as 9 (zi-, nzi); 11. Lu- 
(lu, ndu-, ndulu); 12. Tu- (tu, ntu-); 13. Ka- (ka-, nka) ; 14. Bu- (bu-, mbu); 15. Ku- (ku-, nku) ; 
16. Ha- (ha, mpa-) ; 17. Mu- (mu-, -mco). 

The honorific male and female prefixes Si-, Se-, S'-, and Na- are present. U- is an honorific 
prefix. The diminutive suffix -zana or -ana is much used. 



PREFIXES, &C., IN YEYE OR MA-KWBA AND NYENGO)' 

Preprefixes present sometimes, especially in Classes i, 2, 6, and 9. 

Class I. (Omeo-, Mco-, (mco, u-, ?) ; 2. Ava-, Va-, Ba- (ba, va-) ; 3. Om'-, Mco- (mco-, u, ?) ; 4. Me-, 
Mi- (?) (?) ; 5. Le-, Li-, Ri-, Ni- (82), Ze (?) (li, ri-) ; 6. Ama-, Ma- (?) ; 7. ^i-, Se- (?) ; 8. Zi-? ; 9. On-, 
Om-, 0-, In-, En-, Ny'- (?) ; 10. Zi-, Zin- (zi-) ; 11. Ru-, Lu-, Leo- (lu) ; 12. Tu-, Tco- (tu, too-) ; 13. Ka- 
(ka); 14. Bco-, Wco-, O)- (?) ; 15. OOkw'-, tOkhu-, Kco-, Ku- (ku-) ; 16. Pa-, Ep- (?); 17. ? 



77. Lenje is spoken in Northern Rhodesia between the Lukinga mountains and Upper Kafue in the 
north, and the Mulunguije-Lunsefwa river in the south ; bounded eastwards by the Balala, north-west 
by the Kaonde or Southern Luba, westwards by the Bayila and Basala and south by the Batonga and 
Baseiiga. 

78. Ila (Yila, pala) and 78 a. Cilumbu are spoken in the basin of the Lower Kafue as far north as 
about 14° of South latitude and as far south as 16° South latitude. 

79. Tonga and 79 a. Ciive are spoken in the basin of the Central and Upper Zambezi river, mainly 
on the north of that river, as far east as the Lower Luangwa, and as far west as Sepke and the Tcotela 
or Tutala country and the western bend of the Kafue (say 15° 30' South latitude). 

80. Subia (Pubia) is spoken in the region west of Sefeke, between the Linyante, Ccobe, and Zam- 
bezi rivers, mainly to the south and west of the Zambezi and as far south as Pandamatenka. 

81. Yeye (Makeoba, Bakhcoba) is spoken in the region between the Upper tOkavaiigoo river and the 
shores of Lake Ngami, west of the Moremi stream, east of Ongcuva. 

82. Nyengco is spoken in western Northern Rhodesia, west of the Coobe or Kwando river, north 
and east of the OOkavaiigco-Kwitco and south of about 16° South latitude. 

■^ There is little trace of preprefixes in Wyengto. The material for the study of both these tongues 
is exceedingly scanty and derived from Livingstone and Andersson. Their interpreters have severally 
imported S&cua.na. and HeTeTa corruptions into the form of the words. 



GROUP V 

THE WESTERN ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES {continued) 

83. Si-luyi ' or ' Barotse ' 83 a. Si-kwangwa 

GROUP W 

THE NORTH-WEST ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 



84. Luena (Lu-ina) or Lubale 


87. Nkoya ' (Si-nkoya) 




85. Mbunda 85 a? Ka-luiana' 




87 a. Mbwela 




86. Lujazi (Lu-imbi)' 


86 a. Ngangela 88. Kicokeo (Kicokwe, Jok, Ci- 


bokwe) 


86 b. Western Mbwela (' Ambwela ') 








83. 


84. 


85. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-luyi or 


Luena or 


Mbunda 


Lujazi' 


Wkoya 


Kicokeo or 




' Barotse ' ' 


Lubale 


85 a. 


86 a. Ngangela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




83 a. Si- 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western 








kwangwa 






Mbwela 






Adze 


M-beco, 
M -bay to 




Ka-fcembe ; tu- 


M-baieo. Ka-bembe, 
N-gyimbu Ka-dembe 

(87 a) 




Animal, wild 


I-ama-na (pL), 


Kany-ama ; 


Ka-hitu ; tii-. 


Ka-set<o, gi-ama-na ; bi-. 


Ny-ama 


beast 


Si-ama-na 


vatuny-ama 


pi-ama-na ; bi- 


Ka-sit&j. Ny-ama(87a) 

N-citco. 

Ny-ama 




Ant 




Li-kenyi ; ma- 


Tu-mwemwe 

(//.) (85 ^) 


Ka-Iume ; tu- 
(86 a). 
N-tsintsi 




Ant, white 


U-twa 


Ka-swa ; 


Mu-pwa; mi- 


Im-bundyi ; Di-pendi ; ma- 




(termite) 




tu-swa or 
vatu-swa 




zim-t- . 
Ma-kezi (;*/.) 




Ape 


N-jeokoj ; 
an-j<okoj 






Ka-mumi ; Ka-mumi 

ba-, tu- (86 b) 




Arm 


Ili-kaa. 


Li-wcokco ; ma- 


Li-bcokco ; ma- 


Ku-vtokco or Di-bcokco. 


U-wcokto ; //. 




Kco-bcokco or 






Li-bcokco; ma-. Dzi-boskco 


m-cokco. 




K-cokco ; 






Li-veokco ' 


Mco-se 




m-coku 






(86 a). 
Dzi-bcokco 

(86 b) 




Arrow 


Umu-pco ; 


Mw-ivwi ; 


Mia-kili ; mi-. 


Mu-kuri, ' ' Mu-vi ; mi- 


Mu-ivi ; mi- 




imi-pca. 


mi-ivwi 


Lu-kupa. 


Mu-kiri; mi-. 






U-lembe 




Mu-vi ; mi- 


Mu-tyili (86 a) 




Axe 


Si-repe. 


N-gimbu; ^in- 


N-gimbu ; tii + . 


Gimbeo, Ci-banga; bi-. 


Ka-sawco 




Samcd. 




Ci-banga; bi- 


N-gyimbu, gi-banga ; bi- 






Umu-binge 






N-gembco. 
N-dyinibu 








' 




(86 a) ■ - 


" - '>■ 





1 Also known as Luiana and Lue ; as'sA- kubu ; atid in different dialects, as Si-kwangwa (83 a), Si-kcoma (83 b), 
a«rfSi-kwandi (?) (83 c). 

' The Ka-luiana of Capello and Ivens may be a dialect of Mbunda. So also may be the ' Maponda. ' of various 
early explorers, though the ' Maponda, ' of Livingstone seems more related to Lujazi. 

' The Balojazi of Livingstone {apparently also called'LwArsitii) and perhaps also the Maponda of the same writer. 
Ifgangela appears to be nearly the same language in its western form ; so also Western Mbwela {the speech of the 
Ambwela or Bambwela of S. E. Angola). 

* Nkoya and Mbwela {which may be allied to the ' Ambwela ' of Angola— &6 b) only seem to differ dialectally. 
Other dialects of the same stock are known as M?i-^&fa. and S\-gs.\Vi. 



334 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





. 83- 


84. 


85. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-luyi or 


Luena or 


Mbunda 


Lujazi 


Wkoya 


Kibiku or 




' Barotse ' 


Lubale 


85 a. 


86 a. Ngangela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




833^. Si- 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western 








kwangwa 






Mbwela 






Baboon 


? N-jojkoj 


Suku. 
Puya; va + 


Buya? 


Puya; bam- 


Puya; bam- 


.... 


Back 


M-ongo> ; 


Ny-ima- 


Mw-ongu; mi- 


Ny-ima. 


Ma-fube. 


... 




mi-ongco 


Jim-bunda 

(loins) ' 




M-ongu. 
Lum-pati ; 
zi-(86a). 
Mwa-laiiga 


Kuny-ima 

(87 a) 




Banana ... 


Li-konde ; ma- 


Li-konde; ma- 


Li-konde ; ma- 


Li-hondyu. 
Hongia 


... 


Dikondi ; ma- 


Beard 


Mu-lepco J mi- 


W-evu 


Mu-jebi ; min- 


Mu-ezi or 
Mun-jezi. 
Mu-levu(86b) 


Mu-levu ; mi- 


U-evu 


Bee 


M-«ka; ti + 


Puka; va.+ '' 


M-uka; fei+. 
Lu-puka ; 
puka 


Puka or 
M-puka; va-F 


Fuka, 
Lu-puka 
(pi. im-puka, 
87 a) 


Puka ; ma -) 


BeUy 


Li-pumu. 


Mu-jimu-(?r 


L-imu; 


Imu, 


Di-vumu. 


Jimu; ma-t- 




Li-pumbu 


Li-^imu. 


m-emu. 


Limu, or 


Ji-fu ; ma- 








Lu-fu ; 


Di-vumu 


Zimu 


(87 a) 








jilu-fu 










Bird 


Ny-unyi ; iti-. 


Ka-jila;''//. 


Ka-bila; tu- 


Ka-zira ; tu-. 


Ka-yune ; ba-, 


Ka-jila; tu- 




Aka-unyi; utu 


tu- or vatu- 




Ka-bela ; tu-. 
Tlisi. 

Ka-zila (86 a) 


tu- 




Blood 


lX«nyinga. 
Ma-nyenga 


Ma-nyinga. 


Li-ninga 


Ma-ninga. 
Ma-nyenga. 
Sonde (86 a) 


Mu-ket>a 


Ma-yinga, 
Ma-nyeiiga 


Body 


Mw-ili. 
L-utu or 
L-utu 


Mu-jimba ; mi 


Mu-bila; mi- 


Mu-bila, 
McD-bela, 
Mu-vila 


L-utu; 
tiiny-utu. 
(pi. Ma-rutu, 
87a) 




Bone 


Si-fuba.; 1-=. 
Si-fuba 


Li-fuhwa ; ma- 


Ci-t)iya ; bi- 


Ki-tea, 
gi-tea. 
Li-tsiha 


gi-fupa; bi- 


... 


Borassuspalm 


... 


... 


... 


Kume 


... 


... 


Bow 


U-ta; ma-ta. 


U-ta 


Bu-ta ; ma-ta. 


Li-khupu. 
U-ta, 
BcD-ta, 
Vu-ta 


pi-pandu ; bi- 


U-ta 


Bowels 


Mu-la.; mi-la 


M'a-jifigwa or 
Ma-^ngwa 


Mu-la ; mi-la 


Mi-ra, 
Mi-la. 
Li-sandya 


Mu-la ; mi-la 


. . . 


Brains 


U-lui 


W-ongta 


Ki-pujiMSSa). 
W-ongu 


Vu-ongu. 

Ma-vu (86 a) 


U-lui. 
U-ruyi (87 a) 


... 


Breast.(man!s 


) 


... 


.... 


N-suka. 
In-tulu (86 a) 




... 


Breast 


Li-ele ; nr-efe 


Li-vele; ma- 


Li-bele ; raa- 


Vere ; ma-. 


Di-bele, 


Pambu 


(w^oman's) 








Li-vele (86 a) 


Ji-bere 




Brother ... 


M-ina 


SoBgor. 


M-ana 


N-kulu-ntu. 


Mu-kondu. 


Pwetu ? 




(younger). 


N-dumba or 


wa-yala. 


Mvv-ana-etoj. 


Yayi 






Mu-kulu 


N-dumbwa 


Mu-na nana ; 


Ka-lenge. 








(elder). 




ba-(- 


Yaya 








Mw-abange; 














abafige. 













' Where one- authority spells ' j', another substitutes ' ^ ' 



Noteworthy. 



GROUPS V, W : THE WESTERN AND NORTH-WEST ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 335 





83- 


84. 


8s. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-liiyi or 


Luena or 


Mbunda 


Lujazi 


Nkoya 


Kiukco or 




' Barotse ' 


Lubale 


85 a. 


86 a. Ngangela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




83 a. Si- 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western 








kwangwa 






Mbwela 






Buffalo 


N-oto>. 
Iny-ati, 
Iny-aci 


N-gombe wa 
pasa 


Ny-ati; fei-f 


Ng-ati 
(? Ny-ati). 
Pakasa. 

In-yati (86 a) 


N-gombe 


M-buaii 


Bull 


... 




... 


M-onti 






Buttocks ... 


Ma-takci) 


Ma-takco 


Ny-onga ; bi- 


Li-takci) ; ma- 


Ma-tako3 


• •• 


Canoe 


W-atoj 


W-atto ; 


W-atu; 


W-atu, 


W-atco ; 


W-atu 






m-atu or 


m-atco 


Vu-atco, 


m-ato3 








ma-w-atoj 




Bw-atco. 
M-birika 






Cat 


Si-nunu 


Ka-mesi 




M-bisi 




... 


Charcoal ... 


Ma-kala 


... 


Li-nungu. 


••• 


. . . 










Ma-kala 






Chief, king 


M-bumu. 


M w-ana-n-gana; 


Mw-ene ; 


Mw-ene ; 


Mw-ene ; 


Ka-lamba. 




McD-lia. 


pi. vami-ana- 


ba-be-mi-ene 


vami-ene ' 


bami-ene 


Mw-ana-ii-gana. 




Mu-ywandi ; 


n-gana. 








Ki-lulu. 




pi. a-ywandi 


Mw-ata. 
Mu-kulwa-ne 








Jaka? 


Child 


Mw-ana ; a-na 


Mw-ana ; pi. 


Mw-anike ; 


K-anike. 


Mw-ana. 


M-eona. 




K-ana ; 


mi-ana and 


ba-anike. 


M-o>na 


Wamu-kata ; 


Ka-lenge 




tw-ana. 


v-ana. 


Ka-keke ; 




baba-kata. 






Mw-anuke. 


Kemba ; 


batu- 




Ka-nunke ; 






M-pututu 


va-kemba. 
Ka-nyike ; 
va-nyike 






ba-tw'-anunke 




Cloth 


Ulu-ambi. 
I-kcobela 


Li-hina 


L-ina 


I-nanga 




... 


Cold 


Om-pcolco, 


Ci-pika 


Ci-sika (85 a). 


Le-tjika. 


... 


Cika 




Kum-bcola. 


Li-tiika 


Ma-sika. 








Mu-bebto 






N-tuema? 






Country ... 


Li-tunga. 

Mu-ronga 


Li-fuci 


l,i-futi ; ma- 


Nonda. 
Ci-fute, 
Tyi-huti 


Di-tunga. 
Ji-tunga (87a) 


Ki-fuci 


Cow 


N-gombe ; tin 


N-gombe 
ci-huev&3 ; 
vaii-gombe 
va-ci-huevco 


N-gombe; tiiii- 


N-gombe 

na-tcola. 

N-gyindi, 

N-dyindi 

(86 a) 


lii-gombe ; 
tiiii-gombe 


N-gombe 


Crocodile ... 


N-gandu, 
lii-gandu, 
Ufi-gandu 

(honorific) 


N-gandu 


N-gandu ; t>in- 


N-gandco 


N-gandu 


N-ganzu 


Day, daylight 


Li-ywa, 


Li-neki ; ' ma-. 


Li-tangwa 


M-ene. 


Mu-tena. 


... 




Ili-ywa ; 


Li-kumbi;ma-. 




Li-tangwa 


Mw-ana (87 a) 






ma-ywa. 


Mu-sana ; mi- 












I-nji, 














Mw-inji 












Devil, evil 


Ka-munu. 


Li-hamba ; ma- 


Ka-ilabingu 


Hamba 




... 


spirit 


U-lumba 












Doctor (medi- 


Nanga 


Cim-buki ; vi- 


Cim-banda ; 


Cim-banda 




M-buki 


cine man) 






bim- 








Dog 


M-bwa ; 


Ka-wa ; 


Ka-tali; tu- 


Ka-tari, 


Ka-wa ; 


Ka-wa ; 




am-bwa 


vatu-wa 




Ka-tali 


ba-tu-wa 


tu-wa 


Donkey ... 




Cim-bulu 


' Noteworthy. 









336 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





83. 


84. 


85. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-luyi or 


Luena or 


Mbunda 


Lujazi 


ifkoya 


Kicokw or 




' Barotse ' 


Lubale 


85 a. 


86 a. ifgangela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




83 a. Si- 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western 








kwangwa 






Mbwela 







Door, door- 
way 

Dream 



Drum 

Ear 

Egg 

Elephant ... 

Excrement 



Si-atitu. 

Mw-elu 



N-gcoma or 

N-guma, 

In-gcoma ; //. 

tin-gcoma. 

Li-uma ; ma- 
Ku-twi ; 

ma-twi 



Ili-ki ; 
ama-ki 



Ci-jcoloj. 

Ci-kcolu. 

Ci-^ilci) 
■Icota {verb) 



N-dcopu, 
N-dupu 



U-tuti. 

U-tcokoj 
Eye L-it&j or 

Li-tiw ; pi. 

m-iyco 
Face, forehead Lu-bala ; 

ti-mala 



Fat ... 

Father 

Fear ... 

Finger 
Fire .. 

Fish .. 



Ci-nalamba ; 
bi- 



Pitoi or 
Li-pitoj 



gi-pana ; bi-, 
^i-hala 



Ci-kuvu ; vi- N-gcoma ; tin- 



Li-twitwi ; ma- Li-itwi ; ma- 



N-dzcozi. 
Zonzi. 

N-dyi<asi 
(86 a) 
N-gtoma; zi+ lii-gtoma ; tin- 



Li-landa ; ma- 
N-jamba 



M-bileo. 

Tu-2|i 
L-isco ; 

ma-Scij 

Lu-hcolco 



Ma-ze, 
Ma-ati. 
Ma-iye. 
Li-suz<M 

Tate. 
pa-ngwe = 
my — ; I-tu-e 
= ihy (Si-tco, 
83 a) ; I-ta-e 
= his, their 

M-<oa(?). 
(Ku-cila, verb) 



Ma-ji, 
Ma-zji 



I-se, I-sco, 1-si. 
Tata! 
Se-tu, 
Se-nu 



W-ojma 



Umco-nue: mi- Mu-nwe; mi- 



Mu-leloj or 
Mu-lil<a 



Ka-hya ; tu-. 
Li-yena 



Li-twitwi and 
Ku-twe ; also 
T5eba and 
Zebe, mean- 
ing ' ear ' or 
' hearing ' 

Li-vunda 



Jamba. 

In-yamba 
(86 a). 
Ng-yamba 
Tu-zi 



Li-bvmda ; ma- 



N-jamba 



Tu-tji. 

Bu-lcoku 
L-ipto ; 

m-esoo 

Lu-ala ; ma + 



Ma-fci 



Tate; ba-f 



Bu-coma W-coma ? 

{verb, -coba, 

-coa). 

Li-tova (86 a) 
Mu-nye ; mi- Mu-nye 



Di-tu, 
Ji-tu 



Di-ngi, 

Dji-ngi ; 

ma-iigi 
N-bcovu, 

N-dcovu 



L-ipu ; 


Di-hco, 


ra-epcj. 
L-isco (86 a) 
Tyi-hanga. 
Tyi-pala. 
Lu-jilco? 
Lu-colco 


Dji-hco 
Lu-pala 


Ma-zi, 


Ma-futa. 


Ma-b?. 


Ma-de, 


Ma-bi, 


Ma-de (87 a) 


Ma-ye 
Tate, 


Tate 


N-tate. 




Tata. 




I-sco, 




I-se 





N-di; ti-ndi I-pi; va.+ 



K-ese. 
Tu-iya 



I-bi ; ti-bi 



Tu-ca, 

Tu-ya, 

To-ya. 

Tu-ima. 

Tu-hia (86 a) 
I-si ; di-si. 

In-tsi (86 a) 



Ku-tina ( verb) 



Mu-nwe 

Mu-dilco. 
Mun-jilco(87a) 



N-gcoma 



Ku-twe 



Unda ; 
ma-unda 

N -Jamba 



Di-esco ; 
m-esco 



Ma-ji 



Tata 



Mu-nwe ; 

nyi-nwe (//.) 
Ka-hia or 

Ka-gia 



In-si ; bin-si Yi-si 



GROUPS V, W: THE WESTERN AND NORTH-WEST ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 337 





83. 


84. 


85. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-luyi or 


Luena or 


Mbunda 


Lujazi 


Kkoya 


Kicokco or 




' Barotse ' 


Lubale 


85 a. 


86 a. Jfgangela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




83 a. Si- 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western 








kwangwa 






Mbwela 






Foot 


Ili-kondu ; 


Li-hinji; ma- 


Ci-kant>i ; bi- 


Ki-liatco ; hi-. 


Di-ulu ; ma-. 


K-ulu; 




ama- 






L-inde. 

Li-henje. 

Tyi-liatco 


Ka-uru; ma- 


m-(olu. 
(Ka-ulu ?) 


Forest 


Ili-yungu. 


Ci-tapa; vi- 


Mu-kula (8s a). 


Diku-tija. 


Di-saka, 


Mu-ditco ; mi- 




Mu-situ 




Nunda ; bi- 


Li-kongcola. 

Mu-senge 


Ji-saka ; ma- 




Fowl 


N-uku 


Ka-sumbi. 


N-zcolco (85 a). 


Ki-ari. 


Di-hungwa ; 


Ka-sumbi. 






N-demba 


Li-koro-m-bcolco 
Fumbi ; 
t>i-t>umbi* 


Demba. 
Ha-bombi. 
Ka-pumbi ' 


ba- 


Demba 


Frog 


Sim-bcotwe ; 
im-bcotwe. 
In-undu 


Cim-bcotwe; vi- 


Lin-junda 


Lin-dyunda. 
Nonga 


... 


... 


Ghost 


^i-lumba ; //. 


Mu-jimco ; va- 


N-dumba ; fein- 


Mu-zimco; ba-. 


Mu-ki|si 


Mu-jimco ; a-. 




u-lumba ' 






Mu-ku(86a). 


Wa-fa 










Mu-kulu 






Giraffe 


M-bwapi 




... 


Dondo. N-duli 






Girl 


Mu-kata-na ; a-. 


Mw-ana-pwevco; 


Mum-banda ; 


M-puebco 


. .. 


Ku-emba 




Umu-pimpe; a- 


//. v-ana, 
vama-pwevto 


bam- 


N-tsimbe ; 
tin- 






Goat 


Um-bongoo ; 


Pembe; va + 


M-bongco ; 


M -pembe 


Pongco ; bim H- . 


Pembe or 




am- 




tiim- 




M-pongco, 
Im-pondco 

(87 a) 


M -pembe 


„ (he) ... 


... 


Ci-zamba 


... 


Ei-yamba 
(86 a). 
Zamba 




... 


„ (she) 




Pembe wa * 
ci-hwevco 






... 




God 


Ny-ambe 


Ka-lunga 

(va-tu -1- mpl.) 


^a-bcozi 


Ban-toiaga. 
ga-bozi. 
Suku. 
Ka-lunga 


Ny-ambe 


Suku ne 
ma-wezi 


Grandparent 


Nyakto } 


Kaka ; va + . 
N-umba; va + 




Kukco. 

Sukulu (86 a) 


... 


Kaka. 
Kukco 


Grass 


Um-copco or 


Ci-kcokco. 


Mw-ila 


Mu-ila. 


Mw-ila, 


Mu-angu. 




L-cijpu 


Mvv-ila 




Bu-ambco. 

Vu-angu(86a) 


Mw-ira 


Mu-handco 


Ground ... 


Mu-mbu. 
Umu-pu 


Ma-vti 


Li-bu 


Li-bu ; 
ma-vco. 
Li-seke (86 a) 


Dim-vu 


Ma-vu. 
Ma-tcoteo. 
Ki-fuci 


Ground-nut 


N-dongco 


Ci-elu; vi- 


Bi-elu {pi.) 


Vi-elu (//.) 


Ny-emu 


Katabi ; tu- 


Guinea-fowl 


Ili-nanga: ma- 


Kanga ; va -f 


Mu-kaiiga ; mi- 


• t> 


Di-kanga 


Kanga; ji- 


Gun 


Tubolco; ti + 


U-ta 


Bu-Q-ta ; ma- 


U-ta, 
Vu-ta 


pi-pandco. 
Tcoborco ? 


U-ta 


Hair 


Li-pusu. 
I-nuki. 
U-ambco 


Lu-kambu ; 
ji-kambu' 


Tjin-gambu 


Zin-kambu 
(86 a). 
Mi-singa. 
N-kambco, 
Tsiii-gamb&j, 
Liii-gambco 


Lu-huki 


N-kambco 


Hand 


Kcokco or 
U-kcokco ; p/. 
am-cdkco. 
Ili-kaa. 


Li-wcokco 


Ci-kandeku 


Li-vcokco. 
Mum-panda 


Si-kamba sa 

di-bcokco.'' 

Ka-bcokco(87a) 


Ki-lama 




Ili-janza 


' Noteuiorthy. 


' Ku-kamba= 


back of hand. 







338 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





83- 


84. 


85. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-luyi or 


Luena or 


Mbunda 


Lujazi 


Itkoya 


Kiuku or 




' Barotse ' 


Lubale 


853. 


86 a. Ngangela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




83 a. Si. 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western 








kwangwa 






Mbwela 







Head 


Mu-twi. 
Umco-tu 


Mu-twe ; mi- 


Muu-twe ; 
mi-twe 


Mu-twe 


Mu-twe 


Heart 


Mco-cima. 
Um.oyca 


Mu.cima ; mi- 


M-bonge ; feim- 


Mu-tima ?. 
M-bonge, 
M-bunge 


Mu-tima 


Heel 


Li-sitoj; ma- 


Kaku-kunya 


Li-lumba 


Sinsinco. 
Intsintsinyco 

(86 a) 


Sipindi; t,i + . 
pindinco; tii- 


Hide 


Isi-toj; i-toj. 


Swama 


Ci.konde ; bi- 


Ci-kanda. 


Di-saroi 




Lu-kundu. 






Cipa 




Si-tumba 










HiU 


Im-bcola (?). 


Pili; 


Lin-gulu 


M-biribiri. 


Pidi, 




Li-lonta {.?). 


ji-pili 




Ka-punda 


M-piji 




Li-lundu 










Hippopotamus 


M-bu, 
Um-buu ; 
ti-mbu 


N-guvu 


N-gubu; feifi- 


N-geovu. 

N-gueve(86a). 
N-gebe 


Vubu; ban-f 


Hoe 


Ili-kaco ; ama-. 
Ili-jamba 


Li-temco 


Li-temo3 


Li-temco 


Di-kahco 


Honey 


W.ike 


W-uci 


Uci (85 a). 


Uki, 


U-pi, 








B-iiki 


V-utkyi. 

V-uci(86a) 


U-ipi 


Horn 


Lu-ia or 
Lu-iya ; 
tilu-ia and 
tin-ya 


Sengu; ji-f 


Li-biba 


Li-beba. 
M-binga 


Lu-pengco ; ma- 


House 


N-dco; 
itin-dco 


Zuvoj; ma-f 


N-jcoboj ; tiin- 


N-jubco or 
N-dzuvco or 
N-jeobco, 
^covco. 

In-dyivco(86a) 


U-ra; ma-ra 


Hunger 


Li.peboj 


Zala 


N-dala (85 a). 


N-jala, 


N-bala, 








N-jala 


Nd.yala 


N-dara 


Husband ... 


M-bumu. 


Lunga. 


Mu-nalume 


Li-ala, 


Baya-. 




M-bumoi 


U-sanda 




Muy-ala 


Fumu 


Hyena 


I-siwi. 


Mu.figuli. 


N-ganga. 


Li-sumbco ? 


Mu-tambwe 




N-diwi(83a). 


Cim-bungu ; 


Ki-mbu. 


Mo-ngari. 






Zondcd 


vi- 


Mun-guli 


Ci-mbwe. 
Ka-nguli- 
nguli 




Iron 


Ma-kankco 


Ci-kungu 


Ci-kubco; bi- 


Bu-tare, 


^-ondco; 




(//.). 






Vu-tale. 


bi-ondco 




Si-ondcd ; 






Ci-kcobco 






i-ondco 










Island 


Si-kuli; i- 


Li-tungu or 


Li-seke. 


Ki-kcolco. 


pi-kuji 






Ci-tunu 


Li-nci>pe ; 
ma-ncDpe 


Tyi-liii 




Ivory 


Ulu-ya or 
Lu-iya 


Jim-binga 


Ciny-anga ; bi- 


M-binga 


... 


Knee 


Li-nue or 


Lim-buli ; ma- 


Libuli 


Li-bure, 


Di-nongco. 




Li-nwi ; nia- 






Vuli, or 
Li-bwii ; ma- 
Ny-colco (86 a) 


Ji-nungco{87a) 


Knife 


Mu-ele ; mi- 


Pcokco; 
ji-pukcd 


Mojkco; fii-f 


M-pcoka, 
Pcokco, or 
M-cokco. 

Mu-khebi 


Pcokco ; tsim -f 



Mu-twe 

Pimbi. 
Bungwe 



N-guvu 



Lu-kasu 



N-zuco 



N-zala 



U-tali 



Pcokco; ji- 



GROUPS V, W: THE WESTERN AND NORTH-WEST ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 339 





83. 


84. 


85. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-luyi or 


Luena or 


Mbunda 


Lujazi 


Nkoya 


Kiuku or 




' Barotse ' 


Lubale 


85 a. 


86 a. Jfgaiigela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




83 a. Si- 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western 








kwangwa 






Mbwela 






Lake 


Si-tia or 
Li-isa 


N-genge. 
Ci-^iva 
Mu-ko)no>;ini-.'' 


Li-sali ; ' ma- 


Li-tali. 
E-civa 


... 


Jiba; ma + 


Leg 


Ili-kondco. 


Mw-endto(8sa). 


Li-hindi; ma-. 


Di-ulu. 


Ulu ; ma-ulu 




Kcolulco 


Li-hinji; ma- 


Li-indi 


Mu-kela. 

Mu-pcopeo. 

Ci-tea 


Ji-uru (87 a) 




Leopard ... 


Ndco ; ti-ndco 


Ci-supa 


N-gwe 


Ifi-gwe. 
Ki-^umba 


Tuwu. 
Kam-pulu 




Lion 


N-de ; an-de. 
In-di ; tin-di 


... 


Mu-nyime 


N-dumba or 
Domba 


Kalamu 


Tambwe 


Lips 


Ili-lcomco; ama-. 
Mu-leomco; mi- 


Ma-vunibu(^/.) 


Ka-nu 
(? Ka-mo>). 
Ka-nwa ; 
tu-nwa 


Mi-lumoj (86 a) 


Mu-vumbu ; 
mi- 


Ni-vumbu {pi.) 


Magic 


Mu-lioti 


... 


N-ganga 


Vu-aiiga 


..* 


U-anga 


Maize 


Ama-pu. 
Ulu-honga. 


Ci-vwali 


Mun-dele 


Li-pung«. 
Ma-sa 


Din-gombe 


Ki-vuale 




Mun-dali 










Man 


Mu-nu ; a-nu 


Mvv-ihulenu. 

Mu-tu ; 
va-tu. 
Mu-ka ; 
va-ka. 


Mu-nu ; 
ba-nu 


Mu-ntu(86a); 
va-ntu. 
Mu-nu ; 
ba-nu 


Mu-ntu ; ba- 


Mu-tu; a-tu 


Man (vir.)... 


Mu-lume. 


Lunga; 


N-jara. 


I-ala, 


Mu-luma, 


Lu-nga ; ma -f 




Ulu-lume 


ma-lunga 


Mu-nalume 


Y-ala 


Mu-rume 




Meat 


Iny-ama. 
(I-ama-na = 

animals) 


Ny-ama 


Tlitu 


M-bunda(86a). 
N-citu, 
-Gitu 


Ny-ama 


I-fii 


Medicine ... 


Mu-tondcd 

{tree). 
Mu-sambu 


Vi-tumbu [pi.) 


Bi-emba {pi.) 


Bi-emba or 
Bi-hemba. 
Vum-banda 




Yi-tumbu {pi) 


Milk 


Ulu-tako>. 

Ma-we 


Ma-vele 


Ma-yere (85 a). 
Ma-pwe 


Ma-vere .' 
Ma-hini. 

Ma-na, 
Ma-pia. 
Ma-visi (86 a) 






Monkey . . . 


N-j«okco 


Puya ; va-f. 
Scoku 


Buya (?). 
N-ima ; 
feiii-ima 


Pundu 


... 


... 


Moon 


Umw-ezi. 
Mw-eti 


Kakw-eji ; tu- 


N-gonde; fein- 


Gonde or 
N-gonde. 
G-ezi 


N-gonda ; bi + 


U-ji, 
Mw-eji. 
Ka-kuje 


Mother ... 


Mawe. 


Mama. 


Mamai. 


Nana. 


Mama 


Mama 




Nyeo-kco. 


Nco-kco. 


Ba-ina 


Ina (86 a). 








Nyina 


Na-ye 




Nyu-kco. 

Ba-naa. 

Ba-ena 






Mountain ... 


Li-lundu 


Pili 


Pide (?) 
Lin-gulu 


Kim-bongu. 
M-biribiri. 
Tyi-punda 

(86 a) 


Pidi 


Mu-lundu 


Mouth 


Ka-wa, 


Ka-nwa 


Ka-nu. 


Ka-mia, 


Mu-kanwa 


Ka-nuu, 




Ka-nwa. 




Ka-nwa 


Ka-nwa 




Ka-nua 




Mu-lcomcd 













' Interesting penetration southwards of the Central Sudan root-word C&A, Sari_/br 'great river\ 
^ Noteworthy. 



' lake '. 



34° 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





83. 


84. 


85. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-luyi or 


Luena<7>- 


Mbunda 


Lujazi 


Nkoya 


Kicokco or 




'Barotse' ■ 


Lubate 


8s a. 


86 a. Wgangela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




83 a. Si- 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western 








kwaSgwa 






Mbwela 






Nail (of finger 


Ndu-ala or 


Zala ; ma+ ; 


C-ala; 


Ki-ala or 


Diny-ala 


Lum-bondi;//. 


or toe) 


Lu-ala ; 
tiny-ala 


1 


bi-ala 


J-ala or 
Tyi-ala ; 
bi-ala 




m-bondi 


Name 


Li-tina, 
Ili-tina 


Li-jina ; ma- 


Li-bina 


Li-zina 


T5i-bina ; ma-. 
Ji-dina ; ma- 


... 


Navel 


Mu-kcoloj 


Mu-cinji 


Li-kulu 


Li-timbi 


... 




Neck 


Dingco or 


pingco. 


TjingM ; bi + 


In-tsingco. 


pingco, 


Kcota 




N-dingoj 


Ka-panga 




Mo-ribto 


N-pingco 




Night 


U-siku ; //. 
itin-diku 


U-fuku ; ma-. 
Mu-tonga. 
(Mi-lima = 

darkness) 


Bu-biki 


Bu-teki, 
Vu-tsiki, 
Bu-tuki {86 a) 
(Bu-sise = 
darkness) 


U-piku 


U-fuku 


Nose 


Ili-colca or 
Li-yulu 


Mu-zulu 


Li-^ulu 


Zurco. 

Li-ycolco, 
Li-yulu 


Mu-bulu. 

Mu-duru(87a) 


Zulu ; ma -1- 


Oil palm . . . 








N-dende 


... 


N-gapi 


Ox 


Ifi-gombe; 
tin-gombe. 
Na-tula ; a + 


N-gombe; va + 


Pulu ; bi + 


N-gombe. 


I n-gombe 


N-gombe 


Paddle 


Si-rabto or 
Si-labo) 


Ci-lapu 


Ci-lapto 


N-ganda. 
N-gasi ; 
zin-gasi. 
Ci-kasi. 
^i-lapco 




Mu-sangco ; mi 


Palm wine. 


Ma-l«p&j 


W-ala 


Bu-ala 


W-alwa. 




Mia-luvu 


beer 








Bu-ala, 
Vu-ala . 






Parrot 


Si-cikwele 


Ka-longa 


Mu-kewe 


Tyi-kenge 






Penis 


Ku-usco 

(polite word= 
' in front') 


Lumu 


Ku-mala 

(polite word^ 
' in front') 


Li-kutu 






Pig 


Kulube; ti + 


C-OTabu> ; 


C-ombco ; 


N-gurco, 


Singwe ; 


N-gulu 






bi-ombco. 


bi-ombco 


N-gulu. 


bam + 








N-gulu ; va + 




N-gala. 
gonge 


N-g^urube 

(87 a) 




Pigeon 


N-kwilimba. 
Li-kwici. 


Ka-tela. 
Li-yembe 


Nuti; bi4- 


Vomha.C> Port.) 
Ka-tere 


. Di-bembe 


Ka-telya 


Place 


Li-kwinge 
Si-lalco ; 


Helu 


^i-lala-nda 


Mu-hela 




Mu-hela; mi- 


Rain ... ... 


i-laleo 
M-bula. 
Ni-hcola(?), 
Hcola (?) 

M-uku 


Vula 


Nyonbi 


Ny-ondi, 
Ny-ondzi 


M-vura 


M-vula 


Rat 


Tumbi ; va + 


M-uku ; bi + 


N -tumbi 


Puku 


... 


Rhinoceros 


Se-embele 






pi-kcovco. 
Em-pembele 


^in-kombwe. 
gi-langwa 

(87 a) 




River 


Ili-ambai. 


Kalu-iji ; tu- 


N -donga ; bin 


- N -donga. 


Mu-pinbe, 


Lu-iji ; 




Umu-ronga 






Lu-ngebongco Mu-pindi. 


malu-iji 












i^u-enge ; 














bing-enge 




Road 


N-dila, 


E-jila ; //. 


N-gila 


N-gela, 


TSila; bin-bila. 


... 




N-dela. 


ji-jila. 




N-zira, 


N-dira (87 a) 






M-gond&j(?) 


Mu-kombwela 


N-gyila. 














Li-konkco 







GROUPS V, W: THE WESTERN AND NORTH-WEST ZAMBEZIA LANGUAGES 341 





83. 


84. 


85. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-liiyi or 


Luena or 


Mbunda 


Lujazi 


Nkoya 


Kicokco or 




' Barotse ' 


Lubale 


85 a. 


86 a. Ngangela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




83 a. Si- 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western 








kwangwa 




1 


Mbwela 






Salt 


Mu-ngwa 


Mu-kele 


Mu-kele 


Mo-iigwa 




Mu-ngwa 


Shame 


Ma-ene 


Seonyi 




Sconi, 

U-tsconi. 
N-kyuAmua 

(86 a) 


N-peoni 




Sheep 


Im-belele. 


Mu-ktokoj; mi- 


»gu; 


M-panga. 


M-belele; bi + . 


M-panga 




Ngu; 




bi-ngu 


M-belele 


M-berere; ba + 






li-ngu ' 












Shield 


Si-tomba. 
Tebe 


Lu-kepwi 


M-banda 


M-banda; zim- 






Shoulder ... 


Li-futi 


Ci-fwiji ; ma- 


Ci-bili. 
Ci-petoka 


Kin-sinze. 
Tyi-tyitsi. 
Ci-tsindzi 


... 




Sister 


Manda 


N-dumbu or 
N-dumba wa 
pwevu 


M-ana-kuetu). 
N-dtokabi 


N-dumbu 


M-panda 


Dumbeo 


Skin 


Si-t<o; i-t«. 
L-utu ; 
tiny-utu 


Ci-kcova 


Ci-konde 


Kcova. 
Ki-lambco. 
Li-aka? (86 a) 


Mw-ai. 
Di-parco 




Sky 


I-vulu. 
Li-wilu, 
Ku-wilu 


Ki-vilu. 
Li-lu ; ma- 


Li-lu 


Li-lco. 
Mvv-elco 




Kcolco 


Slave 


Nete. 


N-dung<u; va+ . 


N-dungco 


N-dungco, 


Dungco ; ba + . 






Mu-bika ; a- 


Mu-kuli ; mi- 




Dongco 

Mu-pika 


Mu-bike; ba- 




Sleep 


Tu-lco 


Tu-1m 


Tu-lco 


Tu-lco. 
Ku-kcosa 


Tu-rco, 
Tu-lco 


Tu-lco 


Smoke 


In-ku. 


W-ipi 


Bi-bi or 


U-si or 


U-ipe. 


. .. 




Mw-ise 


Wi-bi. 


Mu-isi, 


C-upi 










C-ise (85 a) 


Mu-ezi, 
Bu-ezi 






Snake 


N-ytoka, 
Li-yeoka 


Li-ncoka 


Lin-ycjka 


Lu-ncoka. 
Ci-ncoka 


Di-ycoka ; ma-. 
Ji-ycoka ; 
bama-ycoka 


Lu-lcoka 


Son, boy . . . 


Lu-keke ; //. 
itin-geke. 
Mvv-ana. 
Mu-lombe. 
Mw-anuk-ana. 
Mw-anuke 


Mw-ana 
luinga. 

Mu-kweze 


Mvv-ana ; bana 


Mw-ana. 
Mu-kwendye. 
Mu-keze. 
M u-neke, 
Mu-aneke 




Ka-mike 


Song 


Ulu-simto ; 


Ku-imba. 


Li-bina 


Tyi-vala. 


Lu-imbco ? 






tin-dimco 


Mw-asco 




Mu-asa 


-imba iyerb) 




Spear 


Im-binji; itim- 


Li-kunga ; ma- 


Li-kunga 


Li-kunga. 
Li-lesu. 
Li-onga 


Mu-dinga, 
Mu-jinga 


Mu-lumbu 


Spirit, soul 


Si-ywa. 
Um-oya 


Mu-jimu. 
Mvv-wncij. 
Mwim-bimbi. 

Mu-cima 




Mco-nyco. 
Ponbe. 
Mu-kulu 






Star 


Iny-ata. 
Nufi-gweti ; 

ti-f 


Tanganyika 

Ka-hconuse ; 

tu-, va + 


Ng-ongconcobi 


Li-gongcone. 
N-tongoncosi, 
Li-gongeoncodzi 


Nyenye ; tii + 


Tongoncoci 



A Ma-kcolcolco word. 



342 



ILLUSTRATIVE VOCABULARIES OF BANTU LANGUAGES 





. 83- 


84. 


85. 


86. 


87. 


88. 


English 


Si-luyi or 


Luena or 


Mbunda 


Lujazi 


Nkoya 


, Kicokco or 




' Barotse ' 


Lubale 


85 a. 


86 a. Ngangela 


87 a. Mbwela 


Ci-bokwe 




83 a. Si- 




? Ka-luiana 


86 b. Western 








kwangwa 






Mbwela 






Stick 


Ncoli. 


Lu-tete. 


Li-pcokco 


Ci-kojne; bi-. 


Mu-wana 


Mu-tondo9 




Lu-kconye. 


Ci-tondco ; vi- 


Ci-ti, 








Isi-tondco or 






Ki-ti. 








Lu-tondco ; 






Li-tale 








ti-nondu 












Stone 


Li-we ; 
ma-biwe (?) 


Li-lolwa ; ma- 


Li-manya ' 


Li-vwe. 
Li-manya 

(86 a) 


Di -manga, 
Ji-manya 


Di-we 


Stool 


Si-unoj ; 
i-unu 


Ci-twamto 


... 


... 


... 


N-gwanza. 
Ka-baka? 


Sun 


Ili-ywa, 


Li-kumbi ; ma- 


Li-tangwa 


Mu-tanya.